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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2082-8799
First Published
16 May 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 26 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2082-8799
First Published
16 May 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

6 Articles
Open Access

Asymmetry Indices in Female Runners as Predictors of Running Velocity

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 3 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. This paper aimed to establish relationships between the level of functional and dynamic asymmetry in advanced and intermediate-level runners and running velocity. Furthermore, evaluation of dynamic symmetry (running and vertical jump) was made using indices, taking into account the continuous character of the signals of the ground reaction force and angular positions in individual joints of the lower limb.

Material and methods. Symmetry was assessed in a group of 12 Polish elite female middle-distance runners for the following parameters: 1) strength of lower limb muscles, 2) impulse of the vertical component of the ground reaction force during a CMJ jump, and 3) kinematics of a 50-m run in a straight line.

Results. More advanced athletes (group A) were significantly taller and stronger than the athletes with less training experience (B). They were also characterized by a significantly longer step, a more extended swing phase, and a shorter support phase. There were no statistically significant differences between groups A and B in the level of asymmetry. Running velocity was significantly influenced by muscle strength symmetry (b = −5.77; p < 0.01) and support phase time symmetry (b = −6.64; p < 0.03). A reduction in each of these indices leads to an increase in running velocity.

Conclusion. No morphological or functional asymmetry was found in female middle-distance runners with different training experience.

Keywords

  • running symmetry
  • running velocity
  • muscle force
  • CMJ jump
Open Access

Influence of Warm-Up Prior to Incremental Exercise Test on Aerobic Performance in Physically Active Men

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 9 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was to verify the influence of warm-up before a ramp incremental exercise test with linearly increasing loads on the maximal values of physiological variables which determine performance.

Material and methods. Thirteen healthy and physically active male students (age = 23.3 ± 1.5 years, body height = 179.1 ± 8.6 cm and body mass = 79.5 ± 9.1 kg) completed a cross-over comparison of two incremental exercise test interventions – an incremental exercise test with a 15-minute warm-up at an intensity of 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake obtained in the first incremental exercise test and the same test without warm-up.

Results. The peak values of physiological variables were statistically significantly higher for the incremental exercise test with warm-up, the differences between tests being 2.66% for peak power output (p = 0.039, t = 2.312, ES = 0.24), 7.75% for peak oxygen uptake (p = 0.000, t = 5.225, ES = 0.56), 7.72% for peak minute ventilation (p = 0.005, t = 3.346, ES = 0.53) and 1.62% for peak heart rate (p = 0.019, t = 2.690, ES = 0.60).

Conclusions. Warm-up before a ramp incremental exercise test resulted in higher values of maximal oxygen uptake, maximal minute ventilation, maximal heart rate and peak power output.

Keywords

  • warm-up
  • incremental test
  • physical performance
  • maximal oxygen uptake
Open Access

Effectiveness of an Indoor Cycling Program in Improving the Physical Condition of Young Women

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 14 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Indoor cycling training programs at fitness clubs offer the possibility of optimizing the structure and amount of physical activity, which reduces the risk of disrupting the adaptive abilities of women’s bodies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the effect of an indoor cycling program on the body composition and physical fitness of young women.

Material and methods. Twenty-nine women (age = 29.31 ± 3.40 years, body weight = 70.71 ± 6.15 kg, and height = 169.83 ± 3.17 cm) took part in the study, participating in three classes per week for 16 weeks. Each class included three periods: the preparatory, main, and supporting periods. Body composition (waist circumference and body mass index), cardiorespiratory fitness (VО2max), motor fitness (balance), and musculoskeletal fitness (upper and lower body muscle strength and muscular endurance) were compared before the beginning of the study and after 10 and 16 weeks of training. Changes recorded in each variable over time were analyzed statistically using repeated measures methods.

Results. Significant improvements in physical fitness were identified in the values of the body mass index (7.81%; ES: 0.95, p = 0.0001) and VО2max (12.51%; ES: 1.02, p = 0.0001). Moderate improvements were found in lower body muscle strength (11.13%; ES: 0.66, p = 0.0001) and waist circumference (6.05%, ES: 0.65, p = 0.0001). There was an increase in the strength of the muscles of the upper body (5.27%; ES: 0.41, p = 0.0001), muscular endurance (8.20%; ES: 0.32, p = 0.0001), and balance (10.68%; ES: 0.29, p = 0.003).

Conclusion. Indoor cycling in a fitness club is an effective form of exercise for young women; it has targeted training effects on the body’s functional systems, adaptive abilities, and physical fitness.

Keywords

  • cycling
  • body composition
  • female
  • fitness
Open Access

Investigation on Soccer Referees: A Narrative Review

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 20 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The heightened physical exertion stemming from greater physical loads in football matches has elicited greater development of physical conditioning in both players and referees.

Material and methods. The current study consisted of a meta-analysis geared towards identifying the scientific data currently available on the training of referees.

Results. With respect to the characterization of the training of football referees, the results of this study showed that there is a diversity of both its methods and contents. As a result of this and based on the support offered by the meta-analysis, a proposal for categorizing the contents of this training is presented. Testing-wise, the results also showed that the FIFA test fails to identify the varying intensities that occur within a match setting and to characterize the distribution of referees’ varying exertions throughout match settings. Lastly, the results of this study also indicated that the training of referees ought to include periodization guidelines over the course of a season, since doing so allows for the optimization and monitoring of referees’ performance.

Keywords

  • refereeing
  • tests
  • performance
  • physical conditioning
Open Access

Obesity Factors (Physical Activity and Usual Dietary Pattern) and Breast Cancer in Korea

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 29 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. This study sought to evaluate the association between obesity factors (food consumption and physical activity) and breast cancer incidence in Korean women.

Material and methods. The study included breast cancer patients (250 women) and normal participants undergoing medical checkups (250 women) who visited a specialized cancer research hospital between August 1, 2016 and February 15, 2017. Nutrient intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering 112 dishes and foods that Koreans often eat. Physical activity was assessed according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) guidelines and was quantified as metabolic equivalent (MET) scores.

Results. The results for nutrient intake obtained using the FFQ showed that the control group had a higher consumption of dietary fiber (p < 0.004) and a lower intake of animal fat (p < 0.02) than the breast cancer group. Among breast cancer patients, pre-menopausal women consumed more animal fat (18.6 g ± 11.9 vs. 14.7 g ± 8.5, p < 0.03) than post-menopausal ones. An analysis of the MET scores with logistic regression revealed that lower physical activity among cancer patients was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and this association was greater among post-menopausal (OR = 2.11, p < 0.001) than pre-menopausal women (OR = 0.85, p < 0.02).

Conclusion. Having a high-fat diet and doing less exercise increases the risk of breast cancer, so it is important to prevent the accumulation of fat and maintain proper weight through regular physical activity to lower the incidence of breast cancer.

Keywords

  • breast cancer
  • diet
  • FFQ
  • MET
  • obesity
Open Access

Evaluation of Hotel Companies Owning Five-Star Hotels in Primorsko-Goranska County (Croatia) Using the Multi-Criteria Approach

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 35 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. High-category hotels are considered to be one of the most important elements of every tourist destination’s supply. Recently, the lack of highly rated hotels in the Republic of Croatia has often been criticized by the public because they are believed to be a prerequisite in the creation of a competitive tourist offer.

Material and methods. The authors have performed a multi-criteria decision analysis of eight companies owning five-star hotels in Primorsko-Goranska County using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Their business performance was evaluated based on both financial and market criteria. The financial criteria encompassed indicators of liquidity, indebtedness, activity and profitability. Data regarding the market indicators were collected using a questionnaire.

Results. The importance of market criteria in the tourism industry is visible in tourist demand, which is founded on the perception of potential hotel guests, their recognition of the brand and thus the market potential of the hotels themselves. Therefore, both the financial and market aspect have been included in the Analytic Hierarchy Process analysis and synthesized to estimate the overall priority based on which the hotels were ranked. According to all criteria and sub-criteria, the best ranked hotel company is Eles Turizam j.d.o.o with its five-star hotel Mozart (0.2540), followed by Milenij hotels d.o.o. with its Milenij and Milenij Sveti Jakov. The third place has been assigned to Liburnija Rivijera Hoteli d.o.o. and its Ambasador.

Conclusions. All but one of the analyzed five-star hotels are under the ownership of the biggest hotel companies in PGŽ with a long presence in the tourism industry. Therefore, it was expected that, due to their market recognizability and, consequently, their good financial performance, they would rank first. However, the research has shown that market potential does not necessarily imply best practices. Eles Turizam and its hotel Mozart were ranked the highest according to financial and overall priority scores. It may thus be concluded that even a small family hotel company with reduced marketing costs, especially one with an elite tourist offer, can compete with big hotel companies if it continuously assures the quality of its services.

Keywords

  • hotel industry
  • Analytic Hierarchy Process
  • criteria
  • performance
  • benchmark
6 Articles
Open Access

Asymmetry Indices in Female Runners as Predictors of Running Velocity

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 3 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. This paper aimed to establish relationships between the level of functional and dynamic asymmetry in advanced and intermediate-level runners and running velocity. Furthermore, evaluation of dynamic symmetry (running and vertical jump) was made using indices, taking into account the continuous character of the signals of the ground reaction force and angular positions in individual joints of the lower limb.

Material and methods. Symmetry was assessed in a group of 12 Polish elite female middle-distance runners for the following parameters: 1) strength of lower limb muscles, 2) impulse of the vertical component of the ground reaction force during a CMJ jump, and 3) kinematics of a 50-m run in a straight line.

Results. More advanced athletes (group A) were significantly taller and stronger than the athletes with less training experience (B). They were also characterized by a significantly longer step, a more extended swing phase, and a shorter support phase. There were no statistically significant differences between groups A and B in the level of asymmetry. Running velocity was significantly influenced by muscle strength symmetry (b = −5.77; p < 0.01) and support phase time symmetry (b = −6.64; p < 0.03). A reduction in each of these indices leads to an increase in running velocity.

Conclusion. No morphological or functional asymmetry was found in female middle-distance runners with different training experience.

Keywords

  • running symmetry
  • running velocity
  • muscle force
  • CMJ jump
Open Access

Influence of Warm-Up Prior to Incremental Exercise Test on Aerobic Performance in Physically Active Men

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 9 - 13

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The aim of the study was to verify the influence of warm-up before a ramp incremental exercise test with linearly increasing loads on the maximal values of physiological variables which determine performance.

Material and methods. Thirteen healthy and physically active male students (age = 23.3 ± 1.5 years, body height = 179.1 ± 8.6 cm and body mass = 79.5 ± 9.1 kg) completed a cross-over comparison of two incremental exercise test interventions – an incremental exercise test with a 15-minute warm-up at an intensity of 60% of the maximal oxygen uptake obtained in the first incremental exercise test and the same test without warm-up.

Results. The peak values of physiological variables were statistically significantly higher for the incremental exercise test with warm-up, the differences between tests being 2.66% for peak power output (p = 0.039, t = 2.312, ES = 0.24), 7.75% for peak oxygen uptake (p = 0.000, t = 5.225, ES = 0.56), 7.72% for peak minute ventilation (p = 0.005, t = 3.346, ES = 0.53) and 1.62% for peak heart rate (p = 0.019, t = 2.690, ES = 0.60).

Conclusions. Warm-up before a ramp incremental exercise test resulted in higher values of maximal oxygen uptake, maximal minute ventilation, maximal heart rate and peak power output.

Keywords

  • warm-up
  • incremental test
  • physical performance
  • maximal oxygen uptake
Open Access

Effectiveness of an Indoor Cycling Program in Improving the Physical Condition of Young Women

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 14 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. Indoor cycling training programs at fitness clubs offer the possibility of optimizing the structure and amount of physical activity, which reduces the risk of disrupting the adaptive abilities of women’s bodies. The main purpose of this study was to identify the effect of an indoor cycling program on the body composition and physical fitness of young women.

Material and methods. Twenty-nine women (age = 29.31 ± 3.40 years, body weight = 70.71 ± 6.15 kg, and height = 169.83 ± 3.17 cm) took part in the study, participating in three classes per week for 16 weeks. Each class included three periods: the preparatory, main, and supporting periods. Body composition (waist circumference and body mass index), cardiorespiratory fitness (VО2max), motor fitness (balance), and musculoskeletal fitness (upper and lower body muscle strength and muscular endurance) were compared before the beginning of the study and after 10 and 16 weeks of training. Changes recorded in each variable over time were analyzed statistically using repeated measures methods.

Results. Significant improvements in physical fitness were identified in the values of the body mass index (7.81%; ES: 0.95, p = 0.0001) and VО2max (12.51%; ES: 1.02, p = 0.0001). Moderate improvements were found in lower body muscle strength (11.13%; ES: 0.66, p = 0.0001) and waist circumference (6.05%, ES: 0.65, p = 0.0001). There was an increase in the strength of the muscles of the upper body (5.27%; ES: 0.41, p = 0.0001), muscular endurance (8.20%; ES: 0.32, p = 0.0001), and balance (10.68%; ES: 0.29, p = 0.003).

Conclusion. Indoor cycling in a fitness club is an effective form of exercise for young women; it has targeted training effects on the body’s functional systems, adaptive abilities, and physical fitness.

Keywords

  • cycling
  • body composition
  • female
  • fitness
Open Access

Investigation on Soccer Referees: A Narrative Review

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 20 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. The heightened physical exertion stemming from greater physical loads in football matches has elicited greater development of physical conditioning in both players and referees.

Material and methods. The current study consisted of a meta-analysis geared towards identifying the scientific data currently available on the training of referees.

Results. With respect to the characterization of the training of football referees, the results of this study showed that there is a diversity of both its methods and contents. As a result of this and based on the support offered by the meta-analysis, a proposal for categorizing the contents of this training is presented. Testing-wise, the results also showed that the FIFA test fails to identify the varying intensities that occur within a match setting and to characterize the distribution of referees’ varying exertions throughout match settings. Lastly, the results of this study also indicated that the training of referees ought to include periodization guidelines over the course of a season, since doing so allows for the optimization and monitoring of referees’ performance.

Keywords

  • refereeing
  • tests
  • performance
  • physical conditioning
Open Access

Obesity Factors (Physical Activity and Usual Dietary Pattern) and Breast Cancer in Korea

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 29 - 34

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. This study sought to evaluate the association between obesity factors (food consumption and physical activity) and breast cancer incidence in Korean women.

Material and methods. The study included breast cancer patients (250 women) and normal participants undergoing medical checkups (250 women) who visited a specialized cancer research hospital between August 1, 2016 and February 15, 2017. Nutrient intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) covering 112 dishes and foods that Koreans often eat. Physical activity was assessed according to the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) guidelines and was quantified as metabolic equivalent (MET) scores.

Results. The results for nutrient intake obtained using the FFQ showed that the control group had a higher consumption of dietary fiber (p < 0.004) and a lower intake of animal fat (p < 0.02) than the breast cancer group. Among breast cancer patients, pre-menopausal women consumed more animal fat (18.6 g ± 11.9 vs. 14.7 g ± 8.5, p < 0.03) than post-menopausal ones. An analysis of the MET scores with logistic regression revealed that lower physical activity among cancer patients was associated with an increased risk of breast cancer, and this association was greater among post-menopausal (OR = 2.11, p < 0.001) than pre-menopausal women (OR = 0.85, p < 0.02).

Conclusion. Having a high-fat diet and doing less exercise increases the risk of breast cancer, so it is important to prevent the accumulation of fat and maintain proper weight through regular physical activity to lower the incidence of breast cancer.

Keywords

  • breast cancer
  • diet
  • FFQ
  • MET
  • obesity
Open Access

Evaluation of Hotel Companies Owning Five-Star Hotels in Primorsko-Goranska County (Croatia) Using the Multi-Criteria Approach

Published Online: 03 Mar 2020
Page range: 35 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Introduction. High-category hotels are considered to be one of the most important elements of every tourist destination’s supply. Recently, the lack of highly rated hotels in the Republic of Croatia has often been criticized by the public because they are believed to be a prerequisite in the creation of a competitive tourist offer.

Material and methods. The authors have performed a multi-criteria decision analysis of eight companies owning five-star hotels in Primorsko-Goranska County using the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) method. Their business performance was evaluated based on both financial and market criteria. The financial criteria encompassed indicators of liquidity, indebtedness, activity and profitability. Data regarding the market indicators were collected using a questionnaire.

Results. The importance of market criteria in the tourism industry is visible in tourist demand, which is founded on the perception of potential hotel guests, their recognition of the brand and thus the market potential of the hotels themselves. Therefore, both the financial and market aspect have been included in the Analytic Hierarchy Process analysis and synthesized to estimate the overall priority based on which the hotels were ranked. According to all criteria and sub-criteria, the best ranked hotel company is Eles Turizam j.d.o.o with its five-star hotel Mozart (0.2540), followed by Milenij hotels d.o.o. with its Milenij and Milenij Sveti Jakov. The third place has been assigned to Liburnija Rivijera Hoteli d.o.o. and its Ambasador.

Conclusions. All but one of the analyzed five-star hotels are under the ownership of the biggest hotel companies in PGŽ with a long presence in the tourism industry. Therefore, it was expected that, due to their market recognizability and, consequently, their good financial performance, they would rank first. However, the research has shown that market potential does not necessarily imply best practices. Eles Turizam and its hotel Mozart were ranked the highest according to financial and overall priority scores. It may thus be concluded that even a small family hotel company with reduced marketing costs, especially one with an elite tourist offer, can compete with big hotel companies if it continuously assures the quality of its services.

Keywords

  • hotel industry
  • Analytic Hierarchy Process
  • criteria
  • performance
  • benchmark

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