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Journal & Issues

Volume 94 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)

Volume 94 (2021): Issue 1 (July 2021)

Volume 93 (2020): Issue 2 (December 2020)

Volume 93 (2020): Issue 1 (July 2020)

Volume 92 (2019): Issue 2 (December 2019)

Volume 92 (2019): Issue 1 (July 2019)

Volume 91 (2018): Issue 2 (December 2018)

Volume 91 (2018): Issue 1 (July 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2537-5059
First Published
30 Jun 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 93 (2020): Issue 1 (July 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2537-5059
First Published
30 Jun 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

Digital applications for nutrition counselling (Lavinia) and cardiovascular risk assessment (WIWE) – intelligent devices of prevention

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Significant state-sponsored efforts have recently successfully elaborated general purpose information systems for the global Hungarian health sector management. However, there is still a significant need for easy-to-use smartphone-based equipment and applications to help citizens directly in achieving healthy nutrition habits and/or monitor people living with elevated health risk. This paper outlines a new generation of intelligent mHealth systems developed in the past few years to improve nutritional habits and quantitatively monitoring risk factors of stroke and the development of the necessary substrate of sudden cardiac arrest. According to the expectations, these solutions may achieve a significant share in the growing world market of smart health instruments.

Keywords

  • smartphones
  • nutrition counselling
  • cardiovascular risk assessment
Open Access

Relevance of Citrobacter species in urinary tract infections: a 10 year surveillance study

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 9 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Urinary tract infections are the third most common infections in human medicine worldwide. Citrobacter species present a challenge to both clinicians and clinical microbiologists, due to various intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms. This study includes microbiological and resistance data on urine samples positive for Citrobacter spp. between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2017 at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged. Citrobacter species represented 0.7% (n=129) of outpatient samples and 0.6% (n=138) of inpatient samples. Their higher prevalence at advanced age (> 60 years) is consistent with that reported in the literature, whereas the clinical origin (inpatient/outpatient) of the urine specimens did not influence their isolation rates. Overall, the highest levels of resistance were observed with ceftriaxone (29.8% and 47.5%), whereas in case of gentamicin (8.3% and 25.4%) and fosfomycin (9.3 and 13.8%), the lowest level of resistance was detected, respectively. As these pathogens may cause nosocomial epidemics (usually in vulnerable patients groups), close and continuous monitoring is required at both institutional and national level.

Keywords

  • urinary tract infection; antibiotic; resistance; epidemiology; Citrobacter
Open Access

Congenital Chlamydia Infection – case presentation

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 16 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

There are several pathogens involved in the etiology of neonatal infections. Based on etiology, these can be classified into materno-fetal and nosocomial infections. Bacteria of the Chlamydia family behave like intracellular parasites. The most well-known member is Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of the most common sexually transmitted disease in developed societies.

In this case, we present a 27-days-old girl who presented at our clinic with conjunctivitis, dyspnea and coughing. Laboratory and imaging findings reported leucocytosis, eosinophilia, and bronchopneumonia. Her condition improved rapidly during antibiotic treatment, but her conjunctivitis recurred. Serological tests confirmed Chlamydia infection of the newborn. She became asymptomatic after the whole family has been cured.

In case of neonatal conjunctivitis, pneumonia and eosinophilia, Chlamydia should be considered and the whole family treated to prevent re-infections.

Keywords

  • neonatal infections
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • congenital pneumonia
Open Access

The perception of pain associated with thyroid fine needle aspiration before and after the procedure

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 20 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The idea of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which is considered the gold standard in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, occasionally elicits fear on the part of patients that often results in delays to the procedure. Our aim was to analyze the difference between the intensity of pain imagined or expected, before and the real pain experienced during the procedure, and also some of the factors influencing it.

Materials and methods. Questionnaires were used, answered by 103 patients. Sampling was performed without local anesthesia using 25G diameter needles. The first page of the questionnaire was completed before and the second page after the intervention. A numerical pain scale was used to indicate the expected (pre-procedure) and perceived (post-procedure) intensity of pain.

Results. The mean age of the patients was 54 years, and 76% had not yet undergone such procedure. In all patients, the intensity of pain experienced during the intervention itself was less than what patients expected (p <0.0001). First-time goers expected greater pain compared to those who had already underwent such a procedure (p = 0.0163). For those who had already underwent such a procedure, there was no difference between the intensity of expected pain and the intensity of experienced pain (p = 0.6307). The pain perception decreased with age, both before (r2 = 0.01925) and during the procedure (r2 = 0.03045). Patients who graduated only primary school were more afraid of the pain (58%) as opposed to graduates of secondary and higher education (23–24%), members of the latter group were rather preoccupied with the outcome of the cytological report.

Discussions, conclusions. We studied the intensity of expected and experienced pain associated with thyroid aspiration cytology, and some of the factors that may influence this. The level of expected pain appears to be influenced by patient awareness, as those who underwent for the first time a thyroid aspiration, expected significantly more pain than they actually experienced. In conclusion, the general characteristics of patients who experienced greater pain after the procedure were those with low levels of awareness or complete absence thereof, younger age and lower levels of education. We believe that proper patient education significantly reduces the procrastination of the procedure of thyroid FNAC and alleviates patients ’anxiety, thereby aiding them to receive prompt and appropriate care.

Keywords

  • thyroid
  • fine needle aspiration
  • pain
Open Access

Formulation and study of nebivolol containing orodispersable tablets

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 27 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

In case of chronic diseases patient compliance to long-term treatment is of utmost importance. Patient compliance is generally higher for pharmaceutical forms dispersing in the oral cavity. One classic example for long-term therapy is hypertension. The aim of this study is to obtain nebivolol hydrochloride containing orally disintegrating tablets. As manufacturing technology, direct compression was chosen and rapid disintegration was aimed to be achieved using superdisintegrants. Various formulae have been developed, containing Kollidon and Polyplasdone in different concentrations, and the obtained dry powder mixtures were studied for their rheological properties. Afterwards these mixtures were compressed to obtain tablets. Active ingredient was embedded in the formulations with the shortest disintegration times (15 and 18 seconds) and the obtained tablets were studied for disintegration time, mechanical resistance, drug content and dissolution. Our results show that the pharmaceutical formulations containing Kollidon CL 5% or Polyplasdone XL 3% fulfill the requirements of orally disintegrating tablets, having a disintegration time under 3 minutes, proper mechanical resistance (greater than 80N) and the dissolution of the active ingredient is greater than 80% in 30 minutes.

Keywords

  • nebivolol
  • orodispersable
  • disintegration
  • mechanical resistance
  • direct compression
Open Access

Determination of flavonoids and polyphenols in veterinary products

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 33 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

According to the 8th Hungarian Pharmacopoeia, propylene glycol can be chosen as solvent over ethyl alcohol for use in food supplements, therefore, the concentration of flavonoids and polyphenols in medicinal plants is measured using propylene glycol extracts. Samples of seven products, used in veterinary medicine, known to be rich in polyphenols and flavonoids were chosen to verify the usefulness of propylene glycol as extraction solvent. The polyphenol measurements were carried out using the Folin-Ciocâlteu method and the total flavonoid content was established using the modified method from the 10th Romanian Pharmacopoeia, Cynarae folium monograph. Propylene glycol/water mixture (70%/30%), used as extraction solvent for medicinal plants rich in flavonoids and polyphenols, proved to be useful for extraction of these valuable active substances and correlates with the known amounts stated previously to be present in these vegetable materials. Results were in correlation with literature data, concentrations ranged between 0.05 and 0.07 mg/ml (immediately after preparation), 0.02 and 0.08 mg/ml (within six months following preparation) in case of flavonoids and 2.44 and 3.80 mg/ml (immediately after preparation), 1.20 and 2.18 mg/ml (within six months following preparation) in case of polyphenols.

Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • flavonoids
  • propylene glycol
Open Access

The effects of the Treaty of Trianon on the pharmaceutical network

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 38 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

The consequences of the border adjustments resulting from the Treaty of Trianon affected the entire Hungarian pharmaceutical network. Transylvania, Maramureș and East Banat became part of Romania and Hungary lost 102.813 km2 of its former territory. A Hungarian population of 1,662,000 (based on the 1910 census), 31.78% of the total population, came under Romanian rule. 477 Hungarian pharmacies were lost in 327 locations. Later, in the areas given to Romania, several pharmacies ceased to function due to the emigration of their owners and their staff. Romanian authorities issued 174 new pharmacy rights in the gained territories, bringing 65.5% of the pharmacies into Romanian hands. The Pocket Calendar of Pharmacists, published in Budapest in 1918 still lists the Transylvanian pharmacists, mentioning the name of their pharmacy and the place where they worked. Pharmacist almanacs (pocket calendars) published in later years no longer provided this information.

Keywords

  • Ferenc József University
  • pharmacist training
  • pharmaceutical network after 1920
Open Access

József Engel de Szepeslőcse – Linguist and Physician

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 44 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

József Engel (1807–1870) originates from an intellectual family from the Northern part of Hungary, he got to Marosvásárhely (Târgu Mureş) due to family relations. There he was assistant in the Golden Deer Pharmacy. Later he graduated the theoretical course of Chemistry at the Pest University. His thesis was printed. Then he studied medicine at the same university between 1830 and 1836. He wrote his thesis about the measles (De Morbilis). Meanwhile studying at Pest he got interested in Hungarian linguistics. He elaborated a study on the stem words of the Hungarian language which won a competition of the Hungarian Academy of Science. Engel was a much appreciated general practitioner at Marosvásárhely. The famous mathematician, János Bolyai was also his patient. He subscribed to German medical journals, collected plants and minerals. But his major interest was linguistics. In the middle of the 1850-s there was a movement at Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) to establish a Museum Society. Then Engel’s linguistic research work was rediscovered. Some articles were published about him and even a fragment of his work in progress got printed. In 1857 Engel moves to Kolozsvár to help the founding of the Transylvanian Museum Society and to finish his treatise. As a general practitioner he could hardly make his living. In 1859 the Hungarian Academy of Science elected him corresponding member. He finished his thesis in linguistics and sent it to the Academy as an inaugural address. It was presented, but not published. His conception was considered obsolete. He died quite forgotten at Kolozsvár. At the Academy Henrik Finály held a memorial speech upon his life and activity. His two sons and two grandsons continued the medical traditions.

Keywords

  • József Engel
  • pharmacy
  • healing
  • linguistics
  • academician
8 Articles
Open Access

Digital applications for nutrition counselling (Lavinia) and cardiovascular risk assessment (WIWE) – intelligent devices of prevention

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 1 - 8

Abstract

Abstract

Significant state-sponsored efforts have recently successfully elaborated general purpose information systems for the global Hungarian health sector management. However, there is still a significant need for easy-to-use smartphone-based equipment and applications to help citizens directly in achieving healthy nutrition habits and/or monitor people living with elevated health risk. This paper outlines a new generation of intelligent mHealth systems developed in the past few years to improve nutritional habits and quantitatively monitoring risk factors of stroke and the development of the necessary substrate of sudden cardiac arrest. According to the expectations, these solutions may achieve a significant share in the growing world market of smart health instruments.

Keywords

  • smartphones
  • nutrition counselling
  • cardiovascular risk assessment
Open Access

Relevance of Citrobacter species in urinary tract infections: a 10 year surveillance study

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 9 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

Urinary tract infections are the third most common infections in human medicine worldwide. Citrobacter species present a challenge to both clinicians and clinical microbiologists, due to various intrinsic and acquired resistance mechanisms. This study includes microbiological and resistance data on urine samples positive for Citrobacter spp. between January 1, 2008 and December 31, 2017 at the Department of Clinical Microbiology, University of Szeged. Citrobacter species represented 0.7% (n=129) of outpatient samples and 0.6% (n=138) of inpatient samples. Their higher prevalence at advanced age (> 60 years) is consistent with that reported in the literature, whereas the clinical origin (inpatient/outpatient) of the urine specimens did not influence their isolation rates. Overall, the highest levels of resistance were observed with ceftriaxone (29.8% and 47.5%), whereas in case of gentamicin (8.3% and 25.4%) and fosfomycin (9.3 and 13.8%), the lowest level of resistance was detected, respectively. As these pathogens may cause nosocomial epidemics (usually in vulnerable patients groups), close and continuous monitoring is required at both institutional and national level.

Keywords

  • urinary tract infection; antibiotic; resistance; epidemiology; Citrobacter
Open Access

Congenital Chlamydia Infection – case presentation

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 16 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

There are several pathogens involved in the etiology of neonatal infections. Based on etiology, these can be classified into materno-fetal and nosocomial infections. Bacteria of the Chlamydia family behave like intracellular parasites. The most well-known member is Chlamydia trachomatis, which is the cause of the most common sexually transmitted disease in developed societies.

In this case, we present a 27-days-old girl who presented at our clinic with conjunctivitis, dyspnea and coughing. Laboratory and imaging findings reported leucocytosis, eosinophilia, and bronchopneumonia. Her condition improved rapidly during antibiotic treatment, but her conjunctivitis recurred. Serological tests confirmed Chlamydia infection of the newborn. She became asymptomatic after the whole family has been cured.

In case of neonatal conjunctivitis, pneumonia and eosinophilia, Chlamydia should be considered and the whole family treated to prevent re-infections.

Keywords

  • neonatal infections
  • Chlamydia trachomatis
  • congenital pneumonia
Open Access

The perception of pain associated with thyroid fine needle aspiration before and after the procedure

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 20 - 26

Abstract

Abstract

The idea of fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC), which is considered the gold standard in the evaluation of thyroid nodules, occasionally elicits fear on the part of patients that often results in delays to the procedure. Our aim was to analyze the difference between the intensity of pain imagined or expected, before and the real pain experienced during the procedure, and also some of the factors influencing it.

Materials and methods. Questionnaires were used, answered by 103 patients. Sampling was performed without local anesthesia using 25G diameter needles. The first page of the questionnaire was completed before and the second page after the intervention. A numerical pain scale was used to indicate the expected (pre-procedure) and perceived (post-procedure) intensity of pain.

Results. The mean age of the patients was 54 years, and 76% had not yet undergone such procedure. In all patients, the intensity of pain experienced during the intervention itself was less than what patients expected (p <0.0001). First-time goers expected greater pain compared to those who had already underwent such a procedure (p = 0.0163). For those who had already underwent such a procedure, there was no difference between the intensity of expected pain and the intensity of experienced pain (p = 0.6307). The pain perception decreased with age, both before (r2 = 0.01925) and during the procedure (r2 = 0.03045). Patients who graduated only primary school were more afraid of the pain (58%) as opposed to graduates of secondary and higher education (23–24%), members of the latter group were rather preoccupied with the outcome of the cytological report.

Discussions, conclusions. We studied the intensity of expected and experienced pain associated with thyroid aspiration cytology, and some of the factors that may influence this. The level of expected pain appears to be influenced by patient awareness, as those who underwent for the first time a thyroid aspiration, expected significantly more pain than they actually experienced. In conclusion, the general characteristics of patients who experienced greater pain after the procedure were those with low levels of awareness or complete absence thereof, younger age and lower levels of education. We believe that proper patient education significantly reduces the procrastination of the procedure of thyroid FNAC and alleviates patients ’anxiety, thereby aiding them to receive prompt and appropriate care.

Keywords

  • thyroid
  • fine needle aspiration
  • pain
Open Access

Formulation and study of nebivolol containing orodispersable tablets

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 27 - 32

Abstract

Abstract

In case of chronic diseases patient compliance to long-term treatment is of utmost importance. Patient compliance is generally higher for pharmaceutical forms dispersing in the oral cavity. One classic example for long-term therapy is hypertension. The aim of this study is to obtain nebivolol hydrochloride containing orally disintegrating tablets. As manufacturing technology, direct compression was chosen and rapid disintegration was aimed to be achieved using superdisintegrants. Various formulae have been developed, containing Kollidon and Polyplasdone in different concentrations, and the obtained dry powder mixtures were studied for their rheological properties. Afterwards these mixtures were compressed to obtain tablets. Active ingredient was embedded in the formulations with the shortest disintegration times (15 and 18 seconds) and the obtained tablets were studied for disintegration time, mechanical resistance, drug content and dissolution. Our results show that the pharmaceutical formulations containing Kollidon CL 5% or Polyplasdone XL 3% fulfill the requirements of orally disintegrating tablets, having a disintegration time under 3 minutes, proper mechanical resistance (greater than 80N) and the dissolution of the active ingredient is greater than 80% in 30 minutes.

Keywords

  • nebivolol
  • orodispersable
  • disintegration
  • mechanical resistance
  • direct compression
Open Access

Determination of flavonoids and polyphenols in veterinary products

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 33 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

According to the 8th Hungarian Pharmacopoeia, propylene glycol can be chosen as solvent over ethyl alcohol for use in food supplements, therefore, the concentration of flavonoids and polyphenols in medicinal plants is measured using propylene glycol extracts. Samples of seven products, used in veterinary medicine, known to be rich in polyphenols and flavonoids were chosen to verify the usefulness of propylene glycol as extraction solvent. The polyphenol measurements were carried out using the Folin-Ciocâlteu method and the total flavonoid content was established using the modified method from the 10th Romanian Pharmacopoeia, Cynarae folium monograph. Propylene glycol/water mixture (70%/30%), used as extraction solvent for medicinal plants rich in flavonoids and polyphenols, proved to be useful for extraction of these valuable active substances and correlates with the known amounts stated previously to be present in these vegetable materials. Results were in correlation with literature data, concentrations ranged between 0.05 and 0.07 mg/ml (immediately after preparation), 0.02 and 0.08 mg/ml (within six months following preparation) in case of flavonoids and 2.44 and 3.80 mg/ml (immediately after preparation), 1.20 and 2.18 mg/ml (within six months following preparation) in case of polyphenols.

Keywords

  • polyphenols
  • flavonoids
  • propylene glycol
Open Access

The effects of the Treaty of Trianon on the pharmaceutical network

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 38 - 43

Abstract

Abstract

The consequences of the border adjustments resulting from the Treaty of Trianon affected the entire Hungarian pharmaceutical network. Transylvania, Maramureș and East Banat became part of Romania and Hungary lost 102.813 km2 of its former territory. A Hungarian population of 1,662,000 (based on the 1910 census), 31.78% of the total population, came under Romanian rule. 477 Hungarian pharmacies were lost in 327 locations. Later, in the areas given to Romania, several pharmacies ceased to function due to the emigration of their owners and their staff. Romanian authorities issued 174 new pharmacy rights in the gained territories, bringing 65.5% of the pharmacies into Romanian hands. The Pocket Calendar of Pharmacists, published in Budapest in 1918 still lists the Transylvanian pharmacists, mentioning the name of their pharmacy and the place where they worked. Pharmacist almanacs (pocket calendars) published in later years no longer provided this information.

Keywords

  • Ferenc József University
  • pharmacist training
  • pharmaceutical network after 1920
Open Access

József Engel de Szepeslőcse – Linguist and Physician

Published Online: 03 Dec 2020
Page range: 44 - 51

Abstract

Abstract

József Engel (1807–1870) originates from an intellectual family from the Northern part of Hungary, he got to Marosvásárhely (Târgu Mureş) due to family relations. There he was assistant in the Golden Deer Pharmacy. Later he graduated the theoretical course of Chemistry at the Pest University. His thesis was printed. Then he studied medicine at the same university between 1830 and 1836. He wrote his thesis about the measles (De Morbilis). Meanwhile studying at Pest he got interested in Hungarian linguistics. He elaborated a study on the stem words of the Hungarian language which won a competition of the Hungarian Academy of Science. Engel was a much appreciated general practitioner at Marosvásárhely. The famous mathematician, János Bolyai was also his patient. He subscribed to German medical journals, collected plants and minerals. But his major interest was linguistics. In the middle of the 1850-s there was a movement at Kolozsvár (Cluj-Napoca) to establish a Museum Society. Then Engel’s linguistic research work was rediscovered. Some articles were published about him and even a fragment of his work in progress got printed. In 1857 Engel moves to Kolozsvár to help the founding of the Transylvanian Museum Society and to finish his treatise. As a general practitioner he could hardly make his living. In 1859 the Hungarian Academy of Science elected him corresponding member. He finished his thesis in linguistics and sent it to the Academy as an inaugural address. It was presented, but not published. His conception was considered obsolete. He died quite forgotten at Kolozsvár. At the Academy Henrik Finály held a memorial speech upon his life and activity. His two sons and two grandsons continued the medical traditions.

Keywords

  • József Engel
  • pharmacy
  • healing
  • linguistics
  • academician

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