- Journal Details
- First Published
- 12 Apr 2013
- Publication timeframe
- 4 times per year
- Open Access
Direct Strut-and-Tie Model for Reinforced Concrete Bridge Pier Cap
Page range: 1 - 8
A simple and direct Strut-and-Tie Model (STM) is proposed here to predict the ultimate shear strength of the reinforced concrete bridge pier cap for shear span to depth ratio of 0.4 to 2.4. The model is based on the Kupfer-Gerstle Biaxial Compression-Tension failure criterion which includes the concrete softening effect produced by the presence of transverse tensile stress. The earlier models consider the stress distribution factor for the varied stress distribution across the section by assuming it as linear function which is derived by satisfying equilibrium conditions. In this study the principal stresses have been evaluated by satisfying the compatibility condition at the time of impending failure which has been accounted for the effective area of concrete resisting tension. Also the softening effect has been included by using the formula for tensile strength of cracked concrete proposed by Belarbi and Hsu. The proposed model has been validated with 43 experimental results by author and from literature which confirm the coherency and conservativeness of the predicted results. The parametric study on ultimate shear strength is done so as to infer the relation between various abstract quantities such as compressive strain, shear capacity, span depth ratio and other material properties and get a deeper insight into the behavior of the Pier cap. Thus this paper tries to extend the practical application of Strut-and-Tie Model for reinforced concrete bridge pier cap in understanding the actual behavior of the structure on various dimensional and material parameters.
- Disturbed regions
- Strut-and-Tie Model
- Pier Cap
- Ultimate Shear Strength
- Open Access
Performing Pumping Test Data Analysis Applying Cooper-Jacob’s Method for Estimating of the Aquifer Parameters
Page range: 9 - 20
Single well test is more common than aquifer test with having observation well, since the advantage of single well test is that the pumping test can be conducted on the production well with the absence of observation well. A kind of single well test, which is step-drawdown test used to determine the efficiency and specific capacity of the well, however in case of single well test it is possible to estimate Transmissivity, but the other parameter which is Storativity is overestimated, so the aim of this study is to analyze four pumping test data located in KAWRGOSK area by using cooper-Jacob’s (1946) time drawdown approximation of Theis method to estimate the aquifer parameters, also in order to determine the reasons which are affecting the reliability of the Storativity value and obtain the important aspect behind that in practice.
- aquifer parameters
- single well test
- Cooper-Jacob’s straight line method
- Open Access
Determination of Zenith Tropospheric Delay and Precipitable Water Vapor using GPS Technology
Page range: 21 - 26
In order to be able to be process GPS data, the GPS signal it has to pass the entire terrestrial atmosphere – both neutral atmosphere and ionosphere – which may cause an alteration of the GPS receiver to perform, resulting in large errors in the final position estimate. The dual frequency GPS receivers are affected by the influence of the atmosphere, especially by the troposphere. To estimate the delay caused by the troposphere and to obtain a high degree of accuracy, mapping function has to be used in the estimation process, which opens the door for remote sensing the atmosphere.
Because the wet component from the hydrostatic and non-hydrostatic part, is only 10% of the total neutral atmospheric part, its influence is considerate significant in the application of high-precision positioning in which GPS receivers are employed. The article presents the determination of the precipitable water vapor using relative using four permanent GPS stations. The estimation were done by using the Global Mapping Function - GMF and the apriori pressure and temperature from the GPT2 model.
- water vapor
- Open Access
The Influence of the Track Axis Curvature at Railway Filler-Beam Deck Bridges
Page range: 27 - 37
The article presents a comparative study between the simplified method calculation proposed by the prescriptions of design codes and the analysis with the FEM program LUSAS , regarding the influence of the curvature of the track axis at railway bridges with steel beams embedded in concrete.
The study was made on three simply supported bridges with the openings chosen so as to cover the openings used for this constructive solution, namely 10m ≤L≤30m. For each analysed opening the curve radius of the track axis was varied, in the domain in which are representative as effects, namely 100
Studying the outcomes revealed by the two calculations presented, it can be concluded that the simplified method proposed by the design codes leads to a overvaluation of the track axis curvature influence at the railway filler-beam deck bridges.
- simplified method
- 3D modelling
- nonlinear analysis
- multi-cracked concrete