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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4333
ISSN
0042-790X
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 59 (2011): Issue 1 (March 2011)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4333
ISSN
0042-790X
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

5 Articles
Open Access

THEORY OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: 1. Transpiration and its quantitative description

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 3 - 23

Abstract

THEORY OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: 1. Transpiration and its quantitative description

Basic information about the evapotranspiration and its components is presented. System of equations describing the transport of water and energy in the soil - plant continuum is analyzed. The system of five differential equations with five unknowns is proposed, describing transport of heat and water vapour within the plant canopy, including exchange processes among the leaves and the atmosphere, vertical transport of the heat, water vapour and the energy balance.

Keywords

  • Evapotranspiration
  • Transpiration
  • Evaporation
  • Soil Water
  • Water Balance
Open Access

Periodic structures of Great Lakes levels using wavelet analysis

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 24 - 35

Abstract

Periodic structures of Great Lakes levels using wavelet analysis

The recently advanced approach of wavelet transforms is applied to the analysis of lake levels. The aim of this study is to investigate the variability of lake levels in four lakes in the Great Lakes region where the method of continuous wavelet transform and global spectra are used. The analysis of lake-level variations in the time-scale domain incorporates the method of continuous wavelet transform and the global spectrum. Four lake levels, Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario, and Lake Superior in the Great Lakes region were selected for the analysis. Monthly lake level records at selected locations were analyzed by wavelet transform for the period 1919 to 2004. The periodic structures of the Great Lakes levels revealed a spectrum between the 1-year and 43- year scale level. It is found that major lake levels periodicities are generally the annual cycle. Lake Michigan levels show different periodicities from Lake Erie and Lake Superior and Lake Ontario levels. Lake Michigan showed generally long-term (more than 10 years) periodicities. It was shown that the Michigan Lake shows much stronger influences of inter-annual atmospheric variability than the other three lakes. The other result was that some interesting correlations between global spectrums of the lake levels from the same climatic region were found.

Keywords

  • Wavelet Transform
  • Global Spectrum
  • Periodic Structure
  • Lake Level
  • Great Lakes
Open Access

Trend analysis of rainfall-runoff regimes in selected headwater areas of the Czech Republic

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 36 - 50

Abstract

Trend analysis of rainfall-runoff regimes in selected headwater areas of the Czech Republic

The main aim of this work is to evaluate the development of rainfall-runoff regime in selected river basins of the Šumava Mountains (Bohemian Forest), the Jeseníky Mountains and the Krušné Mountains (Ore Mountains) in the last 50 years. Besides the identification of inhomogeneity in time series of mean discharges, rainfall amounts, temperature and snow cover data, the work deals with an analysis of trends using annual and monthly data. Different methodological tools for identification of changes and trends in hydro-climatic time series have been introduced in this study, especially different methods of statistic testing and an application of Mann-Kendall seasonal test. The results have been compared not only from the point of view of the methods applied here, but as well from the viewpoint of geographical difference of the mentioned areas.

Keywords

  • Statistics
  • Trends
  • Rainfall-Runoff Regime
  • Air Temperature
  • Snow Parameters
  • Headwaters Areas
  • Czech Republic
Open Access

Occurrence of selected organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoirs, Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 51 - 59

Abstract

Occurrence of selected organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoirs, Slovakia

Surface sediment samples from three water reservoirs of Slovakia were analyzed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Concentrations of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (ΣDDTs) in the sediments from Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava ranged from 12 to 24 ng g-1, 5 to 28 ng g-1, and 1 to 20 ng g-1, respectively, with the exception of one sediment sample from Zemplinska Sirava, having anomalously high concentration of ΣDDTs (526 ng g-1). Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the sediments from these water reservoirs were generally lower and ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng g-1. Other organochlorine pesticides such as mirex, lindane and heptachlor were not detected in the surface sediments. Ratios of DDT/(DDE + DDD) were lower than 1.0 in majority of the sediment samples indicating that the degradation of the parent DDT occurred significantly and DDT in the sediments from the studied water reservoirs was derived mainly from the weathered agricultural soils. Moreover, ratios of DDD/DDE indicated that the parent DDT was degraded under aerobic conditions before depositing into the sediments of these water reservoirs.

Keywords

  • Organochlorine Pesticides
  • DDT
  • Surface Sediments
  • Water Reservoir
  • Organic Matter
Open Access

The effect of soil Ph and precipitation variability during the growing season on maize hybrid grain yield in a 17 year long-term experiment

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 60 - 67

Abstract

The effect of soil Ph and precipitation variability during the growing season on maize hybrid grain yield in a 17 year long-term experiment

We established a multifactoral long-term field experiment at the Látókép experimental site of the University of Debrecen (Debrecen, Hungary), on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil in 1984, using experimental data from 17 years (1990-2008). We examined the extent to which soil fertility affects maize yield under natural conditions (without fertilisation). We analysed the effect of precipitation in the winter period (from the harvest of the previous crop (maize) until sowing (i.e. October-March)) and the growing season (i.e. April-September) on yield and we evaluated yield per FAO group. We examined the joint effect of crop year and hybrid maturity groups on maize yield; then we evaluated how hybrid maturity groups per crop year and wet and dry years per ripening group affected maize yield. It was shown that the pH value of soil significantly affected yield and also that there was a strong positive correlation between pH value and yield (r = 0.81) at a 1% significance level. The correlation between the two variables is described by a linear regression line. The slope shows that a 0.1 soil pH increase results in a 510 kg ha-1 maize yield increase on average. The correlation between the amount of precipitation during the growing season and maize yield is average, positive (r = 0.718) and linear. Based on the parameters of the estimated regression line - within non-fertilised conditions - 1 mm increase of precipitation resulted in a 9 kg ha-1 increase in yield. The analysis of the joint effect of hybrid maturity groups and crop year on yield showed that crop year determines standard deviation six times more than hybrid maturity groups, whereas the effect their interaction was not significant.

Keywords

  • Long-term Experiment
  • Maize
  • Grain Yield
  • Hybrid
  • Maturity Groups
  • Growing Season
  • Precipitation
  • Soil pH
5 Articles
Open Access

THEORY OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: 1. Transpiration and its quantitative description

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 3 - 23

Abstract

THEORY OF EVAPOTRANSPIRATION: 1. Transpiration and its quantitative description

Basic information about the evapotranspiration and its components is presented. System of equations describing the transport of water and energy in the soil - plant continuum is analyzed. The system of five differential equations with five unknowns is proposed, describing transport of heat and water vapour within the plant canopy, including exchange processes among the leaves and the atmosphere, vertical transport of the heat, water vapour and the energy balance.

Keywords

  • Evapotranspiration
  • Transpiration
  • Evaporation
  • Soil Water
  • Water Balance
Open Access

Periodic structures of Great Lakes levels using wavelet analysis

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 24 - 35

Abstract

Periodic structures of Great Lakes levels using wavelet analysis

The recently advanced approach of wavelet transforms is applied to the analysis of lake levels. The aim of this study is to investigate the variability of lake levels in four lakes in the Great Lakes region where the method of continuous wavelet transform and global spectra are used. The analysis of lake-level variations in the time-scale domain incorporates the method of continuous wavelet transform and the global spectrum. Four lake levels, Lake Erie, Lake Michigan, Lake Ontario, and Lake Superior in the Great Lakes region were selected for the analysis. Monthly lake level records at selected locations were analyzed by wavelet transform for the period 1919 to 2004. The periodic structures of the Great Lakes levels revealed a spectrum between the 1-year and 43- year scale level. It is found that major lake levels periodicities are generally the annual cycle. Lake Michigan levels show different periodicities from Lake Erie and Lake Superior and Lake Ontario levels. Lake Michigan showed generally long-term (more than 10 years) periodicities. It was shown that the Michigan Lake shows much stronger influences of inter-annual atmospheric variability than the other three lakes. The other result was that some interesting correlations between global spectrums of the lake levels from the same climatic region were found.

Keywords

  • Wavelet Transform
  • Global Spectrum
  • Periodic Structure
  • Lake Level
  • Great Lakes
Open Access

Trend analysis of rainfall-runoff regimes in selected headwater areas of the Czech Republic

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 36 - 50

Abstract

Trend analysis of rainfall-runoff regimes in selected headwater areas of the Czech Republic

The main aim of this work is to evaluate the development of rainfall-runoff regime in selected river basins of the Šumava Mountains (Bohemian Forest), the Jeseníky Mountains and the Krušné Mountains (Ore Mountains) in the last 50 years. Besides the identification of inhomogeneity in time series of mean discharges, rainfall amounts, temperature and snow cover data, the work deals with an analysis of trends using annual and monthly data. Different methodological tools for identification of changes and trends in hydro-climatic time series have been introduced in this study, especially different methods of statistic testing and an application of Mann-Kendall seasonal test. The results have been compared not only from the point of view of the methods applied here, but as well from the viewpoint of geographical difference of the mentioned areas.

Keywords

  • Statistics
  • Trends
  • Rainfall-Runoff Regime
  • Air Temperature
  • Snow Parameters
  • Headwaters Areas
  • Czech Republic
Open Access

Occurrence of selected organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoirs, Slovakia

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 51 - 59

Abstract

Occurrence of selected organochlorine pesticide residues in surface sediments from the Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava water reservoirs, Slovakia

Surface sediment samples from three water reservoirs of Slovakia were analyzed for selected organochlorine pesticides (OCPs). Concentrations of total dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethanes (ΣDDTs) in the sediments from Velke Kozmalovce, Ruzin, and Zemplinska Sirava ranged from 12 to 24 ng g-1, 5 to 28 ng g-1, and 1 to 20 ng g-1, respectively, with the exception of one sediment sample from Zemplinska Sirava, having anomalously high concentration of ΣDDTs (526 ng g-1). Concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) in the sediments from these water reservoirs were generally lower and ranged from 0.3 to 9 ng g-1. Other organochlorine pesticides such as mirex, lindane and heptachlor were not detected in the surface sediments. Ratios of DDT/(DDE + DDD) were lower than 1.0 in majority of the sediment samples indicating that the degradation of the parent DDT occurred significantly and DDT in the sediments from the studied water reservoirs was derived mainly from the weathered agricultural soils. Moreover, ratios of DDD/DDE indicated that the parent DDT was degraded under aerobic conditions before depositing into the sediments of these water reservoirs.

Keywords

  • Organochlorine Pesticides
  • DDT
  • Surface Sediments
  • Water Reservoir
  • Organic Matter
Open Access

The effect of soil Ph and precipitation variability during the growing season on maize hybrid grain yield in a 17 year long-term experiment

Published Online: 04 Mar 2011
Page range: 60 - 67

Abstract

The effect of soil Ph and precipitation variability during the growing season on maize hybrid grain yield in a 17 year long-term experiment

We established a multifactoral long-term field experiment at the Látókép experimental site of the University of Debrecen (Debrecen, Hungary), on mid-heavy calcareous chernozem soil in 1984, using experimental data from 17 years (1990-2008). We examined the extent to which soil fertility affects maize yield under natural conditions (without fertilisation). We analysed the effect of precipitation in the winter period (from the harvest of the previous crop (maize) until sowing (i.e. October-March)) and the growing season (i.e. April-September) on yield and we evaluated yield per FAO group. We examined the joint effect of crop year and hybrid maturity groups on maize yield; then we evaluated how hybrid maturity groups per crop year and wet and dry years per ripening group affected maize yield. It was shown that the pH value of soil significantly affected yield and also that there was a strong positive correlation between pH value and yield (r = 0.81) at a 1% significance level. The correlation between the two variables is described by a linear regression line. The slope shows that a 0.1 soil pH increase results in a 510 kg ha-1 maize yield increase on average. The correlation between the amount of precipitation during the growing season and maize yield is average, positive (r = 0.718) and linear. Based on the parameters of the estimated regression line - within non-fertilised conditions - 1 mm increase of precipitation resulted in a 9 kg ha-1 increase in yield. The analysis of the joint effect of hybrid maturity groups and crop year on yield showed that crop year determines standard deviation six times more than hybrid maturity groups, whereas the effect their interaction was not significant.

Keywords

  • Long-term Experiment
  • Maize
  • Grain Yield
  • Hybrid
  • Maturity Groups
  • Growing Season
  • Precipitation
  • Soil pH

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