Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 70 (2022): Issue 4 (December 2022)

Volume 70 (2022): Issue 3 (September 2022)

Volume 70 (2022): Issue 2 (June 2022)

Volume 70 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)

Volume 69 (2021): Issue 4 (December 2021)

Volume 69 (2021): Issue 3 (September 2021)

Volume 69 (2021): Issue 2 (June 2021)

Volume 69 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)

Volume 68 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 68 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 68 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 68 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 67 (2019): Issue 4 (December 2019)

Volume 67 (2019): Issue 3 (September 2019)

Volume 67 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 67 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 66 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 66 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 66 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 66 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 65 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 65 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 65 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 65 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 64 (2016): Issue 4 (December 2016)

Volume 64 (2016): Issue 3 (September 2016)

Volume 64 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)

Volume 64 (2016): Issue 1 (March 2016)

Volume 63 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)

Volume 63 (2015): Issue 3 (September 2015)

Volume 63 (2015): Issue 2 (June 2015)

Volume 63 (2015): Issue 1 (March 2015)

Volume 62 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 62 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 62 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 62 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 61 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 61 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 61 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 61 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 60 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Volume 60 (2012): Issue 3 (September 2012)

Volume 60 (2012): Issue 2 (June 2012)

Volume 60 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Volume 59 (2011): Issue 4 (December 2011)

Volume 59 (2011): Issue 3 (September 2011)

Volume 59 (2011): Issue 2 (June 2011)

Volume 59 (2011): Issue 1 (March 2011)

Volume 58 (2010): Issue 4 (December 2010)

Volume 58 (2010): Issue 3 (September 2010)

Volume 58 (2010): Issue 2 (June 2010)

Volume 58 (2010): Issue 1 (March 2010)

Volume 57 (2009): Issue 4 (December 2009)

Volume 57 (2009): Issue 3 (September 2009)

Volume 57 (2009): Issue 2 (June 2009)

Volume 57 (2009): Issue 1 (March 2009)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4333
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 65 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1338-4333
First Published
28 Mar 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

12 Articles
Open Access

Thematic Issue on Soil Water Infiltration

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 205 - 208

Abstract

Open Access

The role of heterogeneous lithology in a glaciofluvial deposit on unsaturated preferential flow – a numerical study

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 209 - 221

Abstract

Abstract

An understanding of preferential flow in the vadose zone is crucial for the prediction of the fate of pollutants. Infiltration basins, developed to mitigate the adverse effects of impervious surfaces in urban areas, are established above strongly heterogeneous and highly permeable deposits and thus are prone to preferential flow and enhanced pollutant transport. This study numerically investigates the establishment of preferential flow in an infiltration basin in the Lyon suburbs (France) established over a highly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit covering much of the Lyon region. An investigation of the soil transect (13.5 m long and 2.5 m deep) provided full characterization of lithology and hydraulic properties of present lithofacies. Numerical modeling with the HYDRUS-2D model of water flow in the transect was used to identify the effects of individual lithofacies that constitute the deposit. Multiple scenarios that considered different levels of heterogeneity were evaluated. Preferential flow was studied for several values of infiltration rates applied after a long dry period. The numerical study shows that the high contrast in hydraulic properties of different lithofacies triggers the establishment of preferential flow (capillary barriers and funneled flow). Preferential flow develops mainly for low water fluxes imposed at the surface. The role of individual lithofacies in triggering preferential flow depends on their shapes (layering versus inclusions) and their sizes. While lenses and inclusions produce preferential flow pathways, the presence of the surface layer has no effect on the development of preferential flow and it only affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the heterogeneous transect.

Keywords

  • Preferential flow
  • Heterogeneity
  • Lithology
  • Numerical modeling
  • Soil hydraulic properties
  • Boundary conditions
  • HYDRUS-2D
Open Access

Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 222 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France). A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated), revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

Keywords

  • Aquifer recharge
  • Unsaturated/saturated modeling
  • Infiltration test
  • Air entrapment
  • Temperature dependence
Open Access

Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study in a soil column from a headwater catchment

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 234 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration experiments with tracer breakthrough were carried out in the laboratory on one intact column (18.9 cm in diameter, 25 cm in height) of sandy loam soil. For the isothermal experiment, the temperature of the infiltrating water was 20°C to the initial temperature of the sample. For the two non-isothermal experiments water temperature was set at 8°C and 6°C, while the initial temperature of the sample was 22°C. The experiments were conducted under the same initial and boundary conditions. Pressure heads and temperatures were monitored in two depths (8.8 and 15.3 cm) inside the soil sample. Two additional temperature sensors monitored the entering and leaving temperatures of the water. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample by gravity and outflow was measured using a tipping bucket flowmeter. The permeability of the sample calculated for steady state stages of the experiment showed that the significant difference between water flow rates recorded during the two experiments could not only be justified by temperature induced changes of the water viscosity and density. The observed data points of the breakthrough curve were successfully fitted using the two-region physical non-equilibrium model. The results of the breakthrough curves showed similar asymmetric shapes under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

Keywords

  • Isothermal infiltration
  • Non-isothermal infiltration
  • Column leaching
  • Breakthrough curve
  • Deuterium
  • Viscosity
  • Capillary trapping
  • Entrapped air
  • Permeability
Open Access

Ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent single-ring infiltrometers: Spatial versus temporal variability

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 244 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

Temporal variability of the soil hydraulic properties is still an open issue. The present study deals with results of ponded infiltration experiments performed annually in a grid of permanent measurement points (18 spatial and 14 temporal replicates). Single ring infiltrometers were installed in 2003 at a meadow site in the Bohemian Forest highlands, the Czech Republic. The soil at the plot is coarse sandy loam classified as oligotrophic Eutric Cambisol. Soil water flow below infiltration rings has distinctly preferential character.

The results are marked with substantial interannual changes of observed infiltration rates. Considering just the results from the initial four years of the study, the temporal variability did not exceed the spatial variability detected in individual years. In later years, a shift to extremely high infiltration rates was observed. We hypothesize that it is related to structural changes of the soil profile possibly related to combined effect of soil biota activity, climatic conditions and experimental procedure. Interestingly, the temporal changes can partly be described as fluctuations between seemingly stable infiltration modes. This phenomenon was detected in the majority of rings and was found independent of the initial soil moisture conditions.

Keywords

  • Soil infiltrability
  • Infiltration instability
  • Infiltration modes
  • Burrowing animals
  • Preferential flow
Open Access

Application of minidisk infiltrometer to estimate water repellency in Mediterranean pine forest soils

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 254 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

Assessment of soil water repellency (SWR) was conducted in the decomposed organic floor layer (duff) and in the mineral soil layer of two Mediterranean pine forests, one in Italy and the other in Spain, by the widely-used water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and alternative indices derived from infiltration experiments carried out by the minidisk infiltrometer (MDI). In particular, the repellency index (RI) was calculated as the adjusted ratio between ethanol and water soil sorptivities whereas the water repellency cessation time (WRCT) and the specifically proposed modified repellency index (RIm) were derived from the hydrophobic and wettable stages of a single water infiltration experiment. Time evolution of SWR and vegetation cover influence was also investigated at the Italian site. All indices unanimously detected severe SWR conditions in the duff of the pine forests. The mineral subsoils in the two forests showed different wettability and the clay-loam subsoil at Ciavolo forest was hydrophobic even if characterized by organic matter (OM) content similar to the wettable soil of an adjacent glade. It was therefore assumed that the composition rather than the total amount of OM influenced SWR. The hydraulic conductivity of the duff differed by a factor of 3.8–5.8 between the two forested sites thus influencing the vertical extent of SWR. Indeed, the mineral subsoil of Javea showed wettable or weak hydrophobic conditions probably because leaching of hydrophobic compounds was slowed or prevented at all. Estimations of SWR according to the different indices were in general agreement even if some discrepancies were observed. In particular, at low hydrophobicity levels the SWR indices gathered from the MDI tests were able to signal sub-critical SWR conditions that were not detected by the traditional WDPT index. The WRCT and modified repellency index RIm yielded SWR estimates in reasonable agreement with those obtained with the more cumbersome RI test and, therefore, can be proposed as alternative procedures for SWR assessment.

Keywords

  • Pine forest
  • Soil water repellency
  • Minidisk infiltrometer
  • Modified repellency index
Open Access

Mapping topsoil field-saturated hydraulic conductivity from point measurements using different methods

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 264 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

Topsoil field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, is a parameter that controls the partition of rainfall between infiltration and runoff and is a key parameter in most distributed hydrological models. There is a mismatch between the scale of local in situ Kfs measurements and the scale at which the parameter is required in models for regional mapping. Therefore methods for extrapolating local Kfs values to larger mapping units are required. The paper explores the feasibility of mapping Kfs in the Cévennes-Vivarais region, in south-east France, using more easily available GIS data concerning geology and land cover. Our analysis makes uses of a data set from infiltration measurements performed in the area and its vicinity for more than ten years. The data set is composed of Kfs derived from infiltration measurements performed using various methods: Guelph permeameters, double ring and single ring infiltrotrometers and tension infiltrometers. The different methods resulted in a large variation in Kfs up to several orders of magnitude. A method is proposed to pool the data from the different infiltration methods to create an equivalent set of Kfs. Statistical tests showed significant differences in Kfs distributions in function of different geological formations and land cover. Thus the mapping of Kfs at regional scale was based on geological formations and land cover. This map was compared to a map based on the Rawls and Brakensiek (RB) pedotransfer function (mainly based on texture) and the two maps showed very different patterns. The RB values did not fit observed equivalent Kfs at the local scale, highlighting that soil texture alone is not a good predictor of Kfs.

Keywords

  • Infiltration methods
  • Topsoil field-saturated hydraulic conductivity
  • Land cover
  • Geology
  • Mapping
Open Access

Impacts of thinning of a Mediterranean oak forest on soil properties influencing water infiltration

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 276 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

In Mediterranean ecosystems, special attention needs to be paid to forest–water relationships due to water scarcity. In this context, Adaptive Forest Management (AFM) has the objective to establish how forest resources have to be managed with regards to the efficient use of water, which needs maintaining healthy soil properties even after disturbance. The main objective of this investigation was to understand the effect of one of the AFM methods, namely forest thinning, on soil hydraulic properties. At this aim, soil hydraulic characterization was performed on two contiguous Mediterranean oak forest plots, one of them thinned to reduce the forest density from 861 to 414 tree per ha. Three years after the intervention, thinning had not affected soil water permeability of the studied plots. Both ponding and tension infiltration runs yielded not significantly different saturated, Ks, and unsaturated, K−20, hydraulic conductivity values at the thinned and control plots. Therefore, thinning had no an adverse effect on vertical water fluxes at the soil surface. Mean Ks values estimated with the ponded ring infiltrometer were two orders of magnitude higher than K−20 values estimated with the minidisk infiltrometer, revealing probably soil structure with macropores and fractures. The input of hydrophobic organic matter, as a consequence of the addition of plant residues after the thinning treatment, resulted in slight differences in terms of both water drop penetration time, WDPT, and the index of water repellency, R, between thinned and control plots. Soil water repellency only affected unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity measurements. Moreover, K−20 values showed a negative correlation with both WDPT and R, whereas Ks values did not, revealing that the soil hydrophobic behavior has no impact on saturated hydraulic conductivity.

Keywords

  • Soil water repellency
  • Forest soils
  • Saturated and near saturated hydraulic conductivity
Open Access

Kinematic diffusion approach to describe recharge phenomena in unsaturated fractured chalk

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 287 - 296

Abstract

Abstract

When dealing with groundwater resources, a better knowledge of the hydrological processes governing flow in the unsaturated zone would improve the assessment of the natural aquifer recharge and its vulnerability to contamination. In North West Europe groundwater from unconfined chalk aquifers constitutes a major water resource, therefore the need for a good hydrological understanding of the chalk unsaturated zone is essential, as it is the main control for aquifer recharge. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In order to describe the flow rate that reaches the water table, the kinematic diffusion theory has been applied that treats the unsaturated water flow equation as a wave equation composed of diffusive and gravitational components. The kinematic diffusion model has proved to be a convenient method to study groundwater recharge processes in that it was able to provide a satisfactory fitting both for rising and falling periods of water table fluctuation. It has also proved to give an answer to the question whether unsaturated flow can be described using the theory of kinematic waves. The answer to the question depends principally on the status of soil moisture. For higher values of hydraulic Peclet number (increasing saturation), the pressure wave velocities dominate and the preferential flow paths is provided by the shallow fractures in the vadose zone. With decreasing values of hydraulic Peclet number (increasing water tension), rapid wave velocities are mostly due to the diffusion of the flow wave. Diffusive phenomena are provided by matrix and fracture-matrix interaction.

The use of a kinematic wave in this context constitutes a good simplified approach especially in cases when there is a lack of information concerning the hydraulic properties of the fractures/macropores close to saturation.

Keywords

  • Unsaturated
  • Recharge
  • Rainfall
  • Chalk
  • Kinematic
  • Diffusive
Open Access

Subsurface flow and large-scale lateral saturated soil hydraulic conductivity in a Mediterranean hillslope with contrasting land uses

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 297 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

The lateral saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks,l, is the soil property that mostly governs subsurface flow in hillslopes. Determinations of Ks,l at the hillslope scale are expected to yield valuable information for interpreting and modeling hydrological processes since soil heterogeneities are functionally averaged in this case. However, these data are rare since the experiments are quite difficult and costly. In this investigation, that was carried out in Sardinia (Italy), large-scale determinations of Ks,l were done in two adjacent hillslopes covered by a Mediterranean maquis and grass, respectively, with the following objectives: i) to evaluate the effect of land use change on Ks,l, and ii) to compare estimates of Ks,l obtained under natural and artificial rainfall conditions. Higher Ks,l values were obtained under the maquis than in the grassed soil since the soil macropore network was better connected in the maquis soil. The lateral conductivity increased sharply close to the soil surface. The sharp increase of Ks,l started at a larger depth for the maquis soil than the grassed one. The Ks,l values estimated during artificial rainfall experiments agreed with those obtained during the natural rainfall periods. For the grassed site, it was possible to detect a stabilization of Ks,l in the upper soil layer, suggesting that flow transport capacity of the soil pore system did not increase indefinitely. This study highlighted the importance of the experimental determination of Ks,l at the hillslope scale for subsurface modeling, and also as a benchmark for developing appropriate sampling methodologies based on near-point estimation of Ks,l.

Keywords

  • Subsurface runoff
  • Drain
  • Pore connectivity
  • Sprinkling experiments
  • Land use change
  • Maquis
Open Access

Application and recalibration of soil water retention pedotransfer functions in a tropical upstream catchment: case study in Bengawan Solo, Indonesia

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 307 - 320

Abstract

Abstract

Hydrological models often require input data on soil-water retention (SWR), but obtaining such data is laborious and costly so that SWR in many places remains unknown. To fill the gap, a prediction of SWR using a pedotransfer function (PTF) is one of the alternatives. This study aims to select the most suitable existing PTFs in order to predict SWR for the case of the upper Bengawan Solo (UBS) catchment on Java, Indonesia. Ten point PTFs and two continuous PTFs, which were developed from tropical soils elsewhere, have been applied directly and recalibrated based on a small soil sample set in UBS. Scatter plots and statistical indices of mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), model efficiency (EF) and Pearson’s correlation (r) showed that recalibration using the Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) algorithm can help to improve the prediction of PTFs significantly compared to direct application of PTFs. This study is the first showing that improving SWR-PTFs by recalibration for a new catchment based on around 50 soil samples provides an effective parsimonious alternative to developing a SWR-PTF from specifically collected soil datasets, which typically needs around 100 soil samples or more.

Keywords

  • Soil-water retention
  • Pedotransfer function recalibration
  • Tropical upstream catchment
  • Java Island
Open Access

Estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity from ring infiltrometer test taking into account the surface moisture stain extension

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 321 - 324

Abstract

Abstract

A large single-ring infiltrometer test was performed in order to characterize the saturated hydraulic conductivity below an infiltration basin in the well field of Lyon (France). Two kinds of data are recorded during the experiment: the volume of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. Then numerical analysis was performed to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil by calibration.

Considering an isotropic hydraulic conductivity, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial deposits is estimated at 3.8 10−6 m s−1. However, with this assumption, we are not able to represent accurately the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. When anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity is introduced, experimental data and simulation results are in good agreement, both for the volume of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain. The vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity in the anisotropic configuration is 4.75 times smaller than in the isotropic configuration (8.0 10−7 m s−1), and the horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity is 125 times higher than the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (1.0 10−4 m s−1).

Keywords

  • Ring infiltrometer test
  • Infiltration basin
  • Numerical modeling
  • Saturated hydraulic conductivity
  • Anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity
12 Articles
Open Access

Thematic Issue on Soil Water Infiltration

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 205 - 208

Abstract

Open Access

The role of heterogeneous lithology in a glaciofluvial deposit on unsaturated preferential flow – a numerical study

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 209 - 221

Abstract

Abstract

An understanding of preferential flow in the vadose zone is crucial for the prediction of the fate of pollutants. Infiltration basins, developed to mitigate the adverse effects of impervious surfaces in urban areas, are established above strongly heterogeneous and highly permeable deposits and thus are prone to preferential flow and enhanced pollutant transport. This study numerically investigates the establishment of preferential flow in an infiltration basin in the Lyon suburbs (France) established over a highly heterogeneous glaciofluvial deposit covering much of the Lyon region. An investigation of the soil transect (13.5 m long and 2.5 m deep) provided full characterization of lithology and hydraulic properties of present lithofacies. Numerical modeling with the HYDRUS-2D model of water flow in the transect was used to identify the effects of individual lithofacies that constitute the deposit. Multiple scenarios that considered different levels of heterogeneity were evaluated. Preferential flow was studied for several values of infiltration rates applied after a long dry period. The numerical study shows that the high contrast in hydraulic properties of different lithofacies triggers the establishment of preferential flow (capillary barriers and funneled flow). Preferential flow develops mainly for low water fluxes imposed at the surface. The role of individual lithofacies in triggering preferential flow depends on their shapes (layering versus inclusions) and their sizes. While lenses and inclusions produce preferential flow pathways, the presence of the surface layer has no effect on the development of preferential flow and it only affects the effective hydraulic conductivity of the heterogeneous transect.

Keywords

  • Preferential flow
  • Heterogeneity
  • Lithology
  • Numerical modeling
  • Soil hydraulic properties
  • Boundary conditions
  • HYDRUS-2D
Open Access

Water infiltration in an aquifer recharge basin affected by temperature and air entrapment

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 222 - 233

Abstract

Abstract

Artificial basins are used to recharge groundwater and protect water pumping fields. In these basins, infiltration rates are monitored to detect any decrease in water infiltration in relation with clogging. However, miss-estimations of infiltration rate may result from neglecting the effects of water temperature change and air-entrapment. This study aims to investigate the effect of temperature and air entrapment on water infiltration at the basin scale by conducting successive infiltration cycles in an experimental basin of 11869 m2 in a pumping field at Crepieux-Charmy (Lyon, France). A first experiment, conducted in summer 2011, showed a strong increase in infiltration rate; which was linked to a potential increase in ground water temperature or a potential dissolution of air entrapped at the beginning of the infiltration. A second experiment was conducted in summer, to inject cold water instead of warm water, and also revealed an increase in infiltration rate. This increase was linked to air dissolution in the soil. A final experiment was conducted in spring with no temperature contrast and no entrapped air (soil initially water-saturated), revealing a constant infiltration rate. Modeling and analysis of experiments revealed that air entrapment and cold water temperature in the soil could substantially reduce infiltration rate over the first infiltration cycles, with respective effects of similar magnitude. Clearly, both water temperature change and air entrapment must be considered for an accurate assessment of the infiltration rate in basins.

Keywords

  • Aquifer recharge
  • Unsaturated/saturated modeling
  • Infiltration test
  • Air entrapment
  • Temperature dependence
Open Access

Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration and deuterium transport: a case study in a soil column from a headwater catchment

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 234 - 243

Abstract

Abstract

Isothermal and non-isothermal infiltration experiments with tracer breakthrough were carried out in the laboratory on one intact column (18.9 cm in diameter, 25 cm in height) of sandy loam soil. For the isothermal experiment, the temperature of the infiltrating water was 20°C to the initial temperature of the sample. For the two non-isothermal experiments water temperature was set at 8°C and 6°C, while the initial temperature of the sample was 22°C. The experiments were conducted under the same initial and boundary conditions. Pressure heads and temperatures were monitored in two depths (8.8 and 15.3 cm) inside the soil sample. Two additional temperature sensors monitored the entering and leaving temperatures of the water. Water drained freely through the perforated plate at the bottom of the sample by gravity and outflow was measured using a tipping bucket flowmeter. The permeability of the sample calculated for steady state stages of the experiment showed that the significant difference between water flow rates recorded during the two experiments could not only be justified by temperature induced changes of the water viscosity and density. The observed data points of the breakthrough curve were successfully fitted using the two-region physical non-equilibrium model. The results of the breakthrough curves showed similar asymmetric shapes under isothermal and non-isothermal conditions.

Keywords

  • Isothermal infiltration
  • Non-isothermal infiltration
  • Column leaching
  • Breakthrough curve
  • Deuterium
  • Viscosity
  • Capillary trapping
  • Entrapped air
  • Permeability
Open Access

Ponded infiltration in a grid of permanent single-ring infiltrometers: Spatial versus temporal variability

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 244 - 253

Abstract

Abstract

Temporal variability of the soil hydraulic properties is still an open issue. The present study deals with results of ponded infiltration experiments performed annually in a grid of permanent measurement points (18 spatial and 14 temporal replicates). Single ring infiltrometers were installed in 2003 at a meadow site in the Bohemian Forest highlands, the Czech Republic. The soil at the plot is coarse sandy loam classified as oligotrophic Eutric Cambisol. Soil water flow below infiltration rings has distinctly preferential character.

The results are marked with substantial interannual changes of observed infiltration rates. Considering just the results from the initial four years of the study, the temporal variability did not exceed the spatial variability detected in individual years. In later years, a shift to extremely high infiltration rates was observed. We hypothesize that it is related to structural changes of the soil profile possibly related to combined effect of soil biota activity, climatic conditions and experimental procedure. Interestingly, the temporal changes can partly be described as fluctuations between seemingly stable infiltration modes. This phenomenon was detected in the majority of rings and was found independent of the initial soil moisture conditions.

Keywords

  • Soil infiltrability
  • Infiltration instability
  • Infiltration modes
  • Burrowing animals
  • Preferential flow
Open Access

Application of minidisk infiltrometer to estimate water repellency in Mediterranean pine forest soils

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 254 - 263

Abstract

Abstract

Assessment of soil water repellency (SWR) was conducted in the decomposed organic floor layer (duff) and in the mineral soil layer of two Mediterranean pine forests, one in Italy and the other in Spain, by the widely-used water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and alternative indices derived from infiltration experiments carried out by the minidisk infiltrometer (MDI). In particular, the repellency index (RI) was calculated as the adjusted ratio between ethanol and water soil sorptivities whereas the water repellency cessation time (WRCT) and the specifically proposed modified repellency index (RIm) were derived from the hydrophobic and wettable stages of a single water infiltration experiment. Time evolution of SWR and vegetation cover influence was also investigated at the Italian site. All indices unanimously detected severe SWR conditions in the duff of the pine forests. The mineral subsoils in the two forests showed different wettability and the clay-loam subsoil at Ciavolo forest was hydrophobic even if characterized by organic matter (OM) content similar to the wettable soil of an adjacent glade. It was therefore assumed that the composition rather than the total amount of OM influenced SWR. The hydraulic conductivity of the duff differed by a factor of 3.8–5.8 between the two forested sites thus influencing the vertical extent of SWR. Indeed, the mineral subsoil of Javea showed wettable or weak hydrophobic conditions probably because leaching of hydrophobic compounds was slowed or prevented at all. Estimations of SWR according to the different indices were in general agreement even if some discrepancies were observed. In particular, at low hydrophobicity levels the SWR indices gathered from the MDI tests were able to signal sub-critical SWR conditions that were not detected by the traditional WDPT index. The WRCT and modified repellency index RIm yielded SWR estimates in reasonable agreement with those obtained with the more cumbersome RI test and, therefore, can be proposed as alternative procedures for SWR assessment.

Keywords

  • Pine forest
  • Soil water repellency
  • Minidisk infiltrometer
  • Modified repellency index
Open Access

Mapping topsoil field-saturated hydraulic conductivity from point measurements using different methods

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 264 - 275

Abstract

Abstract

Topsoil field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, is a parameter that controls the partition of rainfall between infiltration and runoff and is a key parameter in most distributed hydrological models. There is a mismatch between the scale of local in situ Kfs measurements and the scale at which the parameter is required in models for regional mapping. Therefore methods for extrapolating local Kfs values to larger mapping units are required. The paper explores the feasibility of mapping Kfs in the Cévennes-Vivarais region, in south-east France, using more easily available GIS data concerning geology and land cover. Our analysis makes uses of a data set from infiltration measurements performed in the area and its vicinity for more than ten years. The data set is composed of Kfs derived from infiltration measurements performed using various methods: Guelph permeameters, double ring and single ring infiltrotrometers and tension infiltrometers. The different methods resulted in a large variation in Kfs up to several orders of magnitude. A method is proposed to pool the data from the different infiltration methods to create an equivalent set of Kfs. Statistical tests showed significant differences in Kfs distributions in function of different geological formations and land cover. Thus the mapping of Kfs at regional scale was based on geological formations and land cover. This map was compared to a map based on the Rawls and Brakensiek (RB) pedotransfer function (mainly based on texture) and the two maps showed very different patterns. The RB values did not fit observed equivalent Kfs at the local scale, highlighting that soil texture alone is not a good predictor of Kfs.

Keywords

  • Infiltration methods
  • Topsoil field-saturated hydraulic conductivity
  • Land cover
  • Geology
  • Mapping
Open Access

Impacts of thinning of a Mediterranean oak forest on soil properties influencing water infiltration

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 276 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

In Mediterranean ecosystems, special attention needs to be paid to forest–water relationships due to water scarcity. In this context, Adaptive Forest Management (AFM) has the objective to establish how forest resources have to be managed with regards to the efficient use of water, which needs maintaining healthy soil properties even after disturbance. The main objective of this investigation was to understand the effect of one of the AFM methods, namely forest thinning, on soil hydraulic properties. At this aim, soil hydraulic characterization was performed on two contiguous Mediterranean oak forest plots, one of them thinned to reduce the forest density from 861 to 414 tree per ha. Three years after the intervention, thinning had not affected soil water permeability of the studied plots. Both ponding and tension infiltration runs yielded not significantly different saturated, Ks, and unsaturated, K−20, hydraulic conductivity values at the thinned and control plots. Therefore, thinning had no an adverse effect on vertical water fluxes at the soil surface. Mean Ks values estimated with the ponded ring infiltrometer were two orders of magnitude higher than K−20 values estimated with the minidisk infiltrometer, revealing probably soil structure with macropores and fractures. The input of hydrophobic organic matter, as a consequence of the addition of plant residues after the thinning treatment, resulted in slight differences in terms of both water drop penetration time, WDPT, and the index of water repellency, R, between thinned and control plots. Soil water repellency only affected unsaturated soil hydraulic conductivity measurements. Moreover, K−20 values showed a negative correlation with both WDPT and R, whereas Ks values did not, revealing that the soil hydrophobic behavior has no impact on saturated hydraulic conductivity.

Keywords

  • Soil water repellency
  • Forest soils
  • Saturated and near saturated hydraulic conductivity
Open Access

Kinematic diffusion approach to describe recharge phenomena in unsaturated fractured chalk

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 287 - 296

Abstract

Abstract

When dealing with groundwater resources, a better knowledge of the hydrological processes governing flow in the unsaturated zone would improve the assessment of the natural aquifer recharge and its vulnerability to contamination. In North West Europe groundwater from unconfined chalk aquifers constitutes a major water resource, therefore the need for a good hydrological understanding of the chalk unsaturated zone is essential, as it is the main control for aquifer recharge. In the North Paris Basin, much of the recharge must pass through a regional chalk bed that is composed of a porous matrix with embedded fractures. The case study regards the role of the thick unsaturated zone of the Cretaceous chalk aquifer in Picardy (North of France) that controls the hydraulic response to rainfall. In order to describe the flow rate that reaches the water table, the kinematic diffusion theory has been applied that treats the unsaturated water flow equation as a wave equation composed of diffusive and gravitational components. The kinematic diffusion model has proved to be a convenient method to study groundwater recharge processes in that it was able to provide a satisfactory fitting both for rising and falling periods of water table fluctuation. It has also proved to give an answer to the question whether unsaturated flow can be described using the theory of kinematic waves. The answer to the question depends principally on the status of soil moisture. For higher values of hydraulic Peclet number (increasing saturation), the pressure wave velocities dominate and the preferential flow paths is provided by the shallow fractures in the vadose zone. With decreasing values of hydraulic Peclet number (increasing water tension), rapid wave velocities are mostly due to the diffusion of the flow wave. Diffusive phenomena are provided by matrix and fracture-matrix interaction.

The use of a kinematic wave in this context constitutes a good simplified approach especially in cases when there is a lack of information concerning the hydraulic properties of the fractures/macropores close to saturation.

Keywords

  • Unsaturated
  • Recharge
  • Rainfall
  • Chalk
  • Kinematic
  • Diffusive
Open Access

Subsurface flow and large-scale lateral saturated soil hydraulic conductivity in a Mediterranean hillslope with contrasting land uses

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 297 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

The lateral saturated hydraulic conductivity, Ks,l, is the soil property that mostly governs subsurface flow in hillslopes. Determinations of Ks,l at the hillslope scale are expected to yield valuable information for interpreting and modeling hydrological processes since soil heterogeneities are functionally averaged in this case. However, these data are rare since the experiments are quite difficult and costly. In this investigation, that was carried out in Sardinia (Italy), large-scale determinations of Ks,l were done in two adjacent hillslopes covered by a Mediterranean maquis and grass, respectively, with the following objectives: i) to evaluate the effect of land use change on Ks,l, and ii) to compare estimates of Ks,l obtained under natural and artificial rainfall conditions. Higher Ks,l values were obtained under the maquis than in the grassed soil since the soil macropore network was better connected in the maquis soil. The lateral conductivity increased sharply close to the soil surface. The sharp increase of Ks,l started at a larger depth for the maquis soil than the grassed one. The Ks,l values estimated during artificial rainfall experiments agreed with those obtained during the natural rainfall periods. For the grassed site, it was possible to detect a stabilization of Ks,l in the upper soil layer, suggesting that flow transport capacity of the soil pore system did not increase indefinitely. This study highlighted the importance of the experimental determination of Ks,l at the hillslope scale for subsurface modeling, and also as a benchmark for developing appropriate sampling methodologies based on near-point estimation of Ks,l.

Keywords

  • Subsurface runoff
  • Drain
  • Pore connectivity
  • Sprinkling experiments
  • Land use change
  • Maquis
Open Access

Application and recalibration of soil water retention pedotransfer functions in a tropical upstream catchment: case study in Bengawan Solo, Indonesia

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 307 - 320

Abstract

Abstract

Hydrological models often require input data on soil-water retention (SWR), but obtaining such data is laborious and costly so that SWR in many places remains unknown. To fill the gap, a prediction of SWR using a pedotransfer function (PTF) is one of the alternatives. This study aims to select the most suitable existing PTFs in order to predict SWR for the case of the upper Bengawan Solo (UBS) catchment on Java, Indonesia. Ten point PTFs and two continuous PTFs, which were developed from tropical soils elsewhere, have been applied directly and recalibrated based on a small soil sample set in UBS. Scatter plots and statistical indices of mean error (ME), root mean square error (RMSE), model efficiency (EF) and Pearson’s correlation (r) showed that recalibration using the Shuffled Complex Evolution-University of Arizona (SCE-UA) algorithm can help to improve the prediction of PTFs significantly compared to direct application of PTFs. This study is the first showing that improving SWR-PTFs by recalibration for a new catchment based on around 50 soil samples provides an effective parsimonious alternative to developing a SWR-PTF from specifically collected soil datasets, which typically needs around 100 soil samples or more.

Keywords

  • Soil-water retention
  • Pedotransfer function recalibration
  • Tropical upstream catchment
  • Java Island
Open Access

Estimation of saturated hydraulic conductivity from ring infiltrometer test taking into account the surface moisture stain extension

Published Online: 22 Jul 2017
Page range: 321 - 324

Abstract

Abstract

A large single-ring infiltrometer test was performed in order to characterize the saturated hydraulic conductivity below an infiltration basin in the well field of Lyon (France). Two kinds of data are recorded during the experiment: the volume of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. Then numerical analysis was performed to determine the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the soil by calibration.

Considering an isotropic hydraulic conductivity, the saturated hydraulic conductivity of the alluvial deposits is estimated at 3.8 10−6 m s−1. However, with this assumption, we are not able to represent accurately the extension of the moisture stain around the ring. When anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity is introduced, experimental data and simulation results are in good agreement, both for the volume of water infiltrated over time and the extension of the moisture stain. The vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity in the anisotropic configuration is 4.75 times smaller than in the isotropic configuration (8.0 10−7 m s−1), and the horizontal saturated hydraulic conductivity is 125 times higher than the vertical saturated hydraulic conductivity (1.0 10−4 m s−1).

Keywords

  • Ring infiltrometer test
  • Infiltration basin
  • Numerical modeling
  • Saturated hydraulic conductivity
  • Anisotropy of hydraulic conductivity

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo