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Special Issue Title: Proceedings of the 3rd Asia Pacific Conference on Luminescence and Electron Spin Resonance Dating Okayama, Japan, 2012

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Special Issue Title: Proceedings of the 2nd Asia Pacific Conference on Luminescence Dating, Ahmedabad, India, 2009. Part II Issue Editors: Andrzej Bluszcz, Silesian University of Technology, Gliwice, Poland. Andrzej.Bluszcz@polsl.pl Sheng-Hua Li, The University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong, China. shli@hku.hk Ashok Kumar Singhvi, Physical Research Laboratory, Ahmedabad, India. singhvi@prl.res.in

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Proceedings of the 2 Asia Pacific Conference on Luminescence Dating, Ahmedabad, India, 2009. Part I Editors Andrzej Bluszcz, Sheng-Hua Li and Ashok Kumar Singhvi

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Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1897-1695
First Published
04 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 44 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1897-1695
First Published
04 Jul 2007
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

33 Articles
Open Access

Quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL dating of sand accumulation in the Lower Liao Plain (Liaoning, NE China)

Published Online: 26 Mar 2017
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

The timing of the formation of extensively distributed sand dunes in the Bohai coastal area and its forcing factors are poorly understood. In this study, the chronology of a well-preserved sand dune located in Panjin Forest Park (PJ) in the Lower Liao Plain (LLP) is investigated using quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and K-feldspar postinfrared (IR) infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) (pIRIR) dating. For the pIRIR measurements, the combination of preheating at 180°C and pIRIR stimulation at 150°C (pIRIR150) is exploited. The quartz results show that the sand dune accumulated from c. 120 a (1890 AD) to c. 70 a (1940 AD) before present, and the underlying sandy soil sediments deposited from c. 5.0 ka to c. 0.13 ka as marsh sediment after the sea level highstand since the mid-Holocene. From the evidence in historical coastline records, the PJ sand dune is an inland sand dune and not a coastal sand dune. Based on further information of climate and temperature change after the Little Ice Age (LIA) and human activity in northeastern China, we conclude that the PJ sand dune accumulation was very likely impacted by the immigrants and land reclamation at the end of Qing dynasty. The fading corrected IR50 ages, the apparent and fading corrected pIRIR150 ages are consistent with quartz ages for two sandy soil samples but overestimate those for six sand samples. The overestimation of the feldspar ages is derived from the residual signal which has not been bleached before burial. The offset obtained from the difference between the quartz OSL and the feldspar pIRIR150 ages are ~20–160 a (predicted residual dose: ~0.08–0.60 Gy), whereas the measured residual dose after bleaching 4 h in a solar simulator yielded age overestimation of ~10–40 a (~0.05–0.16 Gy). The age discrepancy calculated from the predicted residual was larger than those obtained from the laboratory measured residuals. We conclude that the pIRIR150 of aeolian sediment is applicable for samples older than ~1000 years where the effect of the residual dose become negligible.

Keywords

  • optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating
  • sand accumulation
  • the Lower Liao Plain
  • K-feldspar post-IR IRSL
  • Holocene
Open Access

Testing the suitability of dim sedimentary quartz from northern Switzerland for OSL burial dose estimation

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 66 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

We investigate the suitability of sedimentary quartz associated with former glacial advances in northern Switzerland to provide reliable burial dose estimates using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). Previous studies on northern alpine quartz show that its signal characteristics can be poor and potentially problematic. We analyse quartz signals of small aliquots, which reveal the presence of a prominent medium or slow component in the initial part of some signals. Nonetheless, rejection of aliquots with unfavourable signal composition does not alter the burial dose estimates, but significantly reduces the data set for De determination. Signal lifetimes from isothermal decay measurements cover a wide range of values, yet the lowest lifetimes are high enough to guarantee a reliable burial dose estimate for samples of < 400 ka. Comparison of small aliquot and single grain burial dose distributions reveals that signal averaging masks partial bleaching in some of the samples. We therefore strongly recommend single grain measurements for samples from this setting and area, in order to exclude age overestimation due to partial bleaching.

Keywords

  • OSL
  • quartz
  • dim
  • signal components
  • lifetime
  • Alps
Open Access

Methodological study on single grain OSL dating of mortars: Comparison of five reference archaeological sites

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 77 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on single grain OSL dating of quartz extracted from known age archaeological mortars, potentially representing a new tool for dating the construction of historical buildings. Apart from SG-OSL measurements and annual dose rate determination, the samples are systematically studied by means of optical microscopy, EDX-SEM cartography and beta autoradiography in order to evaluate the possible microdosimetric heterogeneity of each sample, arising principally from local variations of potassium content. Besides the practical aspects concerning sampling, preparation and appropriate choice of measurement conditions, the paper aims at the differences in microstructure and in elementary composition between different mortars and attempts to evaluate the impact of these aspects on the dispersion of equivalent dose distributions. Finally, archaeological doses (paleodoses) are calculated by using central age model (CAM), minimum age model (MAM) and internal-external consistency criterion (IEU). The appropriateness of these models for the exploitation of the measured SG-OSL data as well as for a hypothesis on the estimation of the input parameter needed to run these models are discussed. Three categories of mortars were identified: samples without any exploitable SG-OSL signal, samples that could have been reliably dated and poorly bleached samples affected by microdosimetric variations whose dating still remains complicated. Finally, the hypothesis on distinguishing between reliable and questionable dating results is raised and the potentials of the method for dating mortars are pointed out.

Keywords

  • mortar
  • single grain
  • OSL dating
  • quartz
  • archaeology
Open Access

Testing feldspar luminescence dating of young archaeological heated materials using potshards from Pella (Tell Tabqat Fahl) in the Jordan valley

Published Online: 02 May 2017
Page range: 98 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

Recent developments in the use of more stable feldspar signals in the luminescence dating of sediments offer the possibility of obtaining accurate feldspar luminescence ages for ceramic artefacts; this is especially interesting in locations which do not provide suitable quartz extracts. Here we examine the application of the stable infrared stimulated luminescence signal measured at elevated temperature (in this case 290°C; pIRIR290) after stimulation at about room temperature to Levantine pottery samples. A total of 52 potsherds were collected from three superimposed iron-age units at Pella (Jordan); based on 14C dating, typology and seriation these units were deposited between 700 and 900 BCE. Sand-sized quartz extracts were unsuitable, and there was insufficient sand-sized feldspar, and so polymineral fine grains were chosen for dating. Various tests for reliability were undertaken (dose recovery, dependence of De on first stimulation temperature etc.). The pIRIR signals are weak, and 14 potsherds were rejected on this basis. Of the remainder, 3 were confidently identified as outliers. Based on those sherds for which IR signals were sufficiently intense, we use the ratio of the IR50 to pIRIR290 signals to argue that these outliers do not arise from incomplete resetting during manufacture. The ages from each layer are considerably over dispersed (typically by ∼25%) but average ages for each unit are consistent with each other and with the expected age range. The average OSL age for the site is 2840 ± 220 years (n = 35), with the overall uncertainty dominated by systematic uncertainties; this average is consistent with the range of 14C ages from 970–1270 BCE reported from across the destruction horizon. We conclude that the pIRIR290 signal is delivering accurate ages, but that the variability in age from shard to shard is much greater than would be expected from known sources of uncertainty. This demonstrates the need for site ages to be based on multiple samples; individual shard ages are unlikely to be sufficiently accurate.

Keywords

  • Luminescence dating
  • feldspar
  • Tabqat Fahl
  • Pella
  • Jordan
Open Access

Kohonen artificial neural networks and the IndVal index as supplementary tools for the quantitative analysis of palaeoecological data

Published Online: 02 May 2017
Page range: 111 - 111

Abstract

Open Access

240+239Pu depositional signatures as a viable geochronological tool in the Amazon Basin

Published Online: 02 Jun 2017
Page range: 142 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

Anthropogenic radionuclide signatures associated with nuclear testing are increasingly utilized in environmental science to explore recent sedimentation. In this study, we assess the suitability of Pu radioisotope analysis in floodplain lake environments in the Amazon Basin to form geochronologies during the 20th century. The 240Pu + 239Pu (240+239Pu) signatures in six sediment cores indicate sediment accumulation rates in the floodplain lakes of the major rivers; Amazon (2.3 mm year-1), Tapajos (10.2 and 2.4 mm year-1) and Madeira (3.4, 4.2 and 6.2 mm year-1). The results from this study show that 240+239Pu fallout activities, and the well documented (240Pu/239Pu) atomic ratios of the above ground nuclear tests which began in the 1950’s, are sufficient and well preserved in Amazon floodplain lake sediments to infer chronologies. Lead-210 dating analyses in the same sediment cores produced comparable sediment accumulation rates at three of the six sites. The differences between dating methods may be attributed to the different time scale these dating methods represent and/or in the solubility between Pb and Pu along the sediment column. The geochronologies derived from the 240+239Pu and 210Pb dating methods outlined in this work are of interest to identify the effects of changing sediment accumulation rates during the previous century as a result of development, including deforestation, along the Amazon Basin which increased towards the middle of the 20th century. This study shows that Pu dating provides a viable alternative geochronology tool for recent sediment accumulation (previous ~60 years) along the Amazon Basin.

Keywords

  • plutonium dating
  • geochronology
  • Amazon floodplain lakes
  • sedimentation
Open Access

New luminescence-based geochronology framing the last two glacial cycles at the southern limit of European Pleistocene loess in Stalać (Serbia)

Published Online: 14 Jun 2017
Page range: 150 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

A new geochronology was established for the Stalać loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) in Serbia. The section is located in the interior of the Central Balkan region, south of the typical loess distribution, in a zone of paleoclimatic shifts between continental and Mediterranean climate regimes. The sampled sequence contains four well-developed paleosol and loess layers, a crypto tephra and one visible tephra layer. Optically stimulated luminescence measurements showed a strong dependency of preheat temperature on equivalent dose for one fine-grained quartz sample, which makes it unsuitable for dating. A firm chronology framing the last two glacial cycles was established using fine-grained polyminerals and the post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR50IR290) protocol instead. The characteristics of dated paleosols indicate similar climatic conditions during the last interstadial and interglacial phases, which were different from the penultimate interglacial period. The tephra within the L2 loess, probably related to tephra layers also found in other sections in Southeastern Europe, was sandwich-dated. The results indicate an age between 118 ka and 141 ka. Furthermore, a weak pedogenic layer dated to between 126 ka and 148 ka gives a first numerical age to this soil formation in Southeastern Europe.

Keywords

  • post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (plRIR) dating
  • Pleistocene, loess-paleosol sequences
  • preheat-plateau
  • quartz and polymineral fine grains
  • Serbia
Open Access

Mid-Holocene horizons of strongly decomposed peat and problems of dating paleohydrological changes in mires in the Racibórz basin, Southern Poland

Published Online: 05 Oct 2017
Page range: 162 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

During litho-stratigraphic studies of deposits in small mires in the upper basin of the Oder River, mid-Holocene hiatuses identified by the presence of horizons of strongly decomposed peat (HSDP), were identified at four sites. Radiocarbon dating results indicate long (103 years) breaks in peat accumulation and the dates obtained from the underlying layers of deposit are inconsistent with the pollen record. In order to explain these discrepancies, an attempt was made to recreate the conditions of HSDP formation under the influence of endo- and exogenous factors determining peatland productivity. In the light of macrofossil analysis, the development of HSDP during the Atlantic and Subboreal periods, when the humidity of habitats decreased, occurred at an advanced stage of development of swamps with Alnetea glutinosae forest communities. The gradual rise in water levels in the mires that started in the Subboreal period and intensified during the Subatlantic period was recorded as a slow shift in vegetation towards non-forest, sedge-moss communities belonging to the Magnocaricion alliance or the Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae class. One consequence of the mechanism of HSDP formation is the existence of limitations on the dating of the duration of the dry phase owing to the presence of organic matter of different ages in the degraded peat layer. The determination of the age of wet phases offers better prospects. In the light of radiocarbon dating, which is essentially in line with the pollen analysis results, the transition towards positive peatland productivity occurred between ca. 9th century BC and 7th century CE.

Keywords

  • sedimentary hiatuses
  • moorsh horizons
  • climate change
  • palaeobotanical analysis
  • Atlantic period
Open Access

U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of Gandab volcanic rocks, northeastern Iran

Published Online: 16 Nov 2017
Page range: 269 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

This paper addresses U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic setting in the Gandab volcanic rocks. The Gandab volcanic rocks belong to the Sabzevar zone magmatic arc (northeastern Iran). Petrographically, all the studied volcanic rocks indicate porphyritic textures with phenocrysts of plagioclase, K-feldespar, hornblende, pyroxene, and magnetite which are embedded in a fine to medium grained groundmass. As well, amygdaloidal, and poikilitic textures are seen in some rocks. The standard chemical classifications show that the studied rocks are basaltic trachy andesite, trachy andesite, trachyte, and trachy dacite. Major elements reveal that the studied samples are metaluminous and their alumina saturation index varies from 0.71 to 1.02. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element and mantle-normalized trace element patterns show enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE). As well they show a slightly negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.72 – 0.97). The whole-rock geochemistry of the studied rocks suggests that they are related to each other by fractional crystallization. LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses in zircon grains from two volcanic rock samples (GCH-119 and GCH-171) gave ages ranging of 5.47 ± 0.22 Ma to 2.44 ± 0.79 Ma, which corresponds to the Pliocene period. In four samples analysed for Sr and Nd isotopes 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.704082 to 0.705931 and εNd values vary between +3.34 and +5. These values could be regarded to as representing mantle derived magmas. Taking into account the comparing rare earth element (REE) patterns, an origin of the parental magmas in enriched lithospheric mantle is suggested. Finally, it is concluded that Pliocene Gandab volcanic rocks are related to the post-collision environment that followed the Neo-Tethys subduction.

Keywords

  • U-Pb geochronology
  • Sr-Nd geochemistry
  • post-collision
  • Gandab volcanic rocks
  • Northeastern Iran
Open Access

Some novel features of post-500°C heating blue stimulated OSL emission of fired natural quartz

Published Online: 23 Nov 2017
Page range: 287 - 298

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, some novel features of the post 500°C blue stimulated optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of fired geological quartz are reported. Different observations (i) pulse annealing and (ii) impact of bleaching on high temperature TL glow peak suggested 510°C (heating rate of 2°C/s) TL peak trap to be responsible for the observed emission. The dosimetric properties of this emission were seen to make its applicability for dose assessment till kGy range. The signal was seen to be easily bleachable, reaching background value within 100 s with blue light at 125°C. The signal qualified all the tests (i) reproducibility, (ii) negligible recuperation and (iii) accuracy of dose recovery needed for reliable assessment of the radiation dose with modified Single aliquot regenerative (SAR) protocol. Considering the bleachability and high dynamic dose range of this signal, it has the potential to stretch the upper dose limit of dating by one order of magnitude than possible with conventional OSL, corresponding to 325°C TL trap. So, combining all the results, the signal reported here could be very useful for dosimetric applications involving measurement of high radiation dose, like dating.

Keywords

  • deep traps
  • quartz
  • OSL
Open Access

Application of different protocols and age-models in OSL dating of earthen mortars

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 341 - 351

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, OSL dating was applied to earthen mortars, consisting in a quartz-rich aggregate dispersed in silty-clayey matrix. The samples were taken from two independently dated structures in Cremona, Northern Italy (Palazzo Raimondi, 1495–1499 AD and Palazzo Soldi, 1770–1790 AD). The evaluation of the equivalent dose (De) was attempted with both the multigrain and the single grain protocols using the 150–250 μm quartz fraction.

The reliability and effectiveness of the various statistical methods in identifying the well-bleached samples were tested. The use of the multi-grain technique gave unreliable results, due to the high amount of poorly bleached grains. With the single-grain technique, more promising results were obtained: in particular, the un-log MAM3 and IEU models allowed an accurate evaluation of the mortar expected age in most cases, even if the precision is still relatively low.

Keywords

  • mortar dating
  • OSL
  • quartz
  • single grain
Open Access

Post-IR IRSL dating of K-feldspar from last interglacial marine terrace deposits on the Kamikita coastal plain, northeastern Japan

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 352 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

To establish a suitable luminescence dating protocol for marine terrace deposits in Japan, we tested the applicability of K-feldspar post-infrared (IR) infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) (pIRIR) dating using a marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e terrace deposit from the Kamikita coastal plain (NE Japan), where independent age control from a tephra is available. One of the most commonly used pIRIR signals, measured at 290°C with the first IR stimulation temperature at 50°C (pIRIR50/290), faded with a mean g2days value of 1.94 ± 0.19%/decade. In contrast, the pIRIR signal with a higher first IR stimulation temperature of 200°C (pIRIR200/290) had a much lower fading rate (g2days = 0.16 ± 0.49%/decade). The average fading-uncorrected and -corrected pIRIR200/290 ages of MIS 5e subtidal sediments obtained from two sampling sites were 126 ± 3 ka and 132 ± 2 ka, which is in good agreement with the independent age control. We conclude that is it is now possible to use pIRIR protocol to estimate the ages of not only marine terraces formed during MIS 5 substages (5a, 5c) but also of older marine terraces, for which age evidence is limited.

Keywords

  • post-IR IRSL dating
  • K-rich feldspar
  • fading correction
  • marine terrace
  • MIS 5e

Conference Proceedings of the 12 International Conference “Methods of Absolute Chronology” May 11-13, 2016, Gliwice-Paniówki, Poland

Open Access

The Epigravettian and the Magdalenian in Poland: New chronological data and an old problem

Published Online: 30 Mar 2017
Page range: 16 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present a new chronological model of recolonisation of the area located north of the Sudetes and the Carpathians after Late Glacial Maximum (LGM). Until recently, it was believed that reoccupation of these areas occurred only due to the Magdalenian people. New chronometric data (radiocarbon and optoluminescence ones) coming from the Magdalenian and Epigravettian sites together with the application of Bayesian modelling of new records allowed us to present another model. In the light of the new research, it seems that the groups classified as the Epigravettian and Magdalenian could have coexisted at the same time in the same areas. The new model states that it is possible to assume coexistence of these groups during the period of 2300 years between 16500 and 14200 years BP.

Keywords

  • chronological records
  • Bayesian method
  • recolonization
  • Epigravettian
  • Magdalenian
  • Poland
Open Access

Chronology of multicultural site Sowinki in Greater Poland

Published Online: 29 Mar 2017
Page range: 30 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Sowinki is a village located 35 km south of Poznań, where archaeological research has revealed the remains of settlement from different archaeological periods, ranging from the Mesolithic (ca. six thousand years BC) to the Late Medieval period (ca. 15th century AD). This area, therefore, provides a record of the history of Greater Poland (Poznań) region, tracing back to about seven and a half thousand years ago. Samples of bones and wood were collected from different features, including mostly cellar pits, refuse pits and grave pits. Eight of the samples, all collected from grave pits, were selected for radiocarbon dating. The obtained 14C measurements have confirmed previous findings concerning different cultures registered in the studied area, and additionally, they have helped to clarify chronology of the early medieval cemetery. The presented results are the first isotopic measurements taken for the site of Sowinki. Previously, chronological frameworks of this site were determined on the basis of relative chronology, according to stratigraphy of sediments, examination of metal finds, pottery and flint objects. The deposition depth of the analysed charcoals did not exceed 100 cm below ground level. According to the analysis, all the samples date to the time of the early Piasts’ dynasty. The obtained data have allowed for defining two chronological phases of the early medieval cemetery. This is an important archaeological site both in terms of its spread and the long time of existence. In addition, it provides a valuable background for the study on the emergence of early medieval elites and the formation of the Polish “early feudal” state.

Keywords

  • C dating of chamber grave
  • multicultural site Sowinki
  • from Mesolithic to Medieval in Greater Poland
  • archaeological cultures chronology of Greater Poland
  • Early Medieval cemetery
Open Access

Radiocarbon and lead-210 age-depth model and trace elements concentration in the Wolbrom fen (S Poland)

Published Online: 29 Mar 2017
Page range: 40 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

A one-meter long peat core was taken from the peatland in Wolbrom (Silesian-Cracovian Upland, southern Poland). The analysis of the botanical composition showed that Wolbrom is a fen. Vegetation species such as Carex rostrata and Phragmites australis have been found. An age-depth model was constructed using 12 conventional radiocarbon dates and 13 lead-210 dates from the upper part of the deposit. In this work, the results of radiocarbon dating are presented. According to the model, we can estimate the age of the fen. The oldest part comes from a depth of 1.05 meter and its conventional age is 5940 ± 95 BP (modelled date 5000–4790 BC, 68.2% probability interval). The accumulation rate varies between approximately 0.53 mm·yr-1 and 6.48 mm·yr− 1.

The core has been also tested for the presence of trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) using ICP-OES. There are considerable variations in the concentrations of the tested metals – in many cases the concentration starts to rise at about 40 cm and may be connected with the human activity. This depth corresponds to the modelled age intervals 355–300 BC (17.4%) and 205–45 BC (50.7%).

Keywords

  • geochemical analysis
  • C dating
  • Pb dating
  • peat pollution
  • peat sediments
  • southern Poland
Open Access

Pleistocene glaciations of the SE Altai, Russia, based on geomorphological data and absolute dating of glacial deposits in Chagan reference section

Published Online: 30 Mar 2017
Page range: 49 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

Geomorphological evidence of at least two Pleistocene glacial epochsis noted within the Chagan-Uzun river basin, SE Altai. A review and analysis of all available absolute dates for reference Chagan section is presented. The highest correlation amongst all TL dates is observed for the lens of glacio-lacustrine sediments – the most suitable among glacial deposits for luminescence dating, and indicates its possible Middle Pleistocene age. IRSL dates obtained from feldspar indicate a Middle Pleistocene age of moraines already in the upper part of the section. The small number of obtained IRSL dates does not allow making geochronological reconstructions of the Pleistocene glaciations, but gives the possibility for further experiments with different variation of OSL (IRSL) techniques. Strong low temperature peak in TL signal and strong response to IR stimulation are specific regional quartz features, which could be explained by combination of short transportation distance and low number of depositional cycles for mineral grains. Available radiocarbon dates of carbonate concretions from this section are not related to the age of moraine sedimentation and most likely indicate the period of the Chagan river incision into the ancient glacial deposits.

This study has shown that TL method is not valid for dating glacial sediments and TL dates cannot be utilized as chronostratigraphic markers. Generally, the Chagan section could hardly serve as a reference section for the Altai stratigraphy; available depositional correlation schemes for the Russian Altai and Siberia which are based on several TL dates obtained in the last century needs to be improved.

Keywords

  • Pleistocene
  • glacial sedimentation
  • luminescent dating
  • radiocarbon dating
  • Chagan section
  • Russian Altai
Open Access

Benefits and weaknesses of radiocarbon dating of plant material as reflected by Neolithic archaeological sites from Poland, Slovakia and Hungary

Published Online: 06 Oct 2017
Page range: 188 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

Radiocarbon dating of the plant material is important for chronology of archaeological sites. Therefore, a selection of suitable plant samples is an important task. The contribution emphasizes the necessity of taxonomical identification prior to radiocarbon dating as a crucial element of such selection. The benefits and weaknesses of dating of taxonomically undetermined and identified samples will be analysed based on several case studies referring to Neolithic sites from Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. These examples better illustrate the significance of the taxonomical identification since plant materials of the Neolithic age include only a limited number of cultivated species (e.g. hulled wheats) and typically do not contain remains of late arrived plants (e.g. Carpinus betulus and Fagus sylvatica). For more accurate dating results cereal grains, fruits and seeds, which reflect a single vegetative season, are preferred. Among charred wood, fragments of twigs, branches and external rings should mainly be taken into account, while those of trunks belonging to long-lived trees should be avoided. Besides the absolute chronology of archaeological features and artefacts, radiocarbon dating of identified plant remains might significantly contribute to the history of local vegetation and food production systems.

Keywords

  • plant materials
  • taxonomical identification
  • radiocarbon dating
  • taphonomy
  • Neolithic
Open Access

Reflection of climatic changes during interpleniglacial in the geoecosystems of South-Eastern Poland

Published Online: 06 Oct 2017
Page range: 202 - 215

Abstract

Abstract

About 70% of the last cold stage was taken by transitional phases of continuous fluctuations of climate and permafrost extension. All this is reflected especially well in slope types and the thickness of slope, fluvial and aeolian deposits. Very distinct and relatively fast changes took place around 33–30 ka BP: the aridification of climate with an ice sheet transgression, expansion of continuous permafrost and the onset of loess deposition. The greatest transformations of slopes and river valleys in the Carpathians and Subcarpathian Basins took place not in the coolest phases but during the Interpleniglacial. The authors exemplified a number of sites in Southern Poland documenting frequent fluctuations of climate and permafrost from that 25–30 ka long period. Calibrated dates of dated episodes correlate well with the δ18O curve from Greenland with frequent warmings. These rapid warmings are reflected in the higher rate of aggradation in valley floors and thick colluvial material deposited over slopes, both combined with a retreat of permafrost. The comparison with the Greenland 18O curve is valuable to establish a comparable chronology of events, even for such a distant area like Central-Eastern Europe.

Keywords

  • Interpleniglacial
  • frequent climate fluctuations
  • permafrost
  • South-Eastern Poland
Open Access

Early Holocene alluvia in the lower Wisłok River valley and their chronostratigraphy in the light of radiocarbon datings and palynological analysis

Published Online: 04 Nov 2017
Page range: 216 - 225

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the latest radiocarbon dating and the palynological analyses of organic sediments found in the alluvia of the Wisłok River valley between the towns of Łańcut and Przeworsk. The study conducted in the gravel pit made possible the dating of several alluvial fills of the 7–8 m high Holocene terrace and the 5–6 m high floodplain. The oldest channel alluvia and palaeochannel sediments of the 7–8 m high terrace were dated at 10 100–9300 BP (11 960–10 500 cal BP). According to the anthracological analysis the top cover of clay overbank alluvia, which bears charcoal fragments, was deposited in the Subboreal and/or the Subatlantic Phases. In the sequence of the 5–6 m high floodplain, the bottom fills of palaeochannels, dated at 10 195–9885 cal BP (probability level: 68.2%; GdS-3233: 8900 ± 95 BP ) and 11 095–10 755 cal BP (probability level: 68.2%; GdS-3228: 9575 ± 95 BP), were truncated by erosion and covered by alluvia of palaeomeanders, which were active in the 19th century. Preservation of the erosional bench of the Early Holocene organic sediments indicates the predomination of lateral migration of the river channel during the last 200 years and the formation of wide erosional floodplain that has been aggraded with recent flood alluvia. In the 20th century the floodplain aggradation was simultaneous with the deepening of the Wisłok riverbed.

Keywords

  • alluvia
  • chronostratigraphy
  • Early Holocene
  • radiocarbon dating
  • palynology
Open Access

Variations of tree ring width and chemical composition of wood of pine growing in the area nearby chemical factories

Published Online: 04 Nov 2017
Page range: 226 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

This study reports the variation of tree-ring widths and annual variation of concentration of metals (Na, Mg, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in pine growing nearby chemical factories. The conifers (Pinus silvestris L.) investigated in this study covered the time span from 1920s to 2010 AD. Tree-ring widths were measured, dated and rechecked using the COFECHA. Radial trace-element profiles were determined by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The combined usage of tree ring width and chemical composition of wood provides historic records of anthropogenic impact on the environment and allows identifying the behavior adaptation of trees to the pollution. Data of pine tree cores collected from the sites nearby chemical factories show increasing levels of pollution linked to the increasing of industrial activities in Poland and subsequent dust fallout around the site. This study evidences that tree rings can be used as archives of past environmental contamination.

Keywords

  • tree rings
  • pine
  • trace element
  • contamination
  • LA-ICP-MS
Open Access

Climatic signals in tree-ring width and stable isotopes composition of Pinus sylvestris L. Growing in the industrialized area nearby Kędzierzyn-Koźle

Published Online: 04 Nov 2017
Page range: 240 - 255

Abstract

Abstract

The main aims of these studies were dendrochronological and mass spectrometric analysis of the impact of climate on tree rings width and stable isotopes composition in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The conifers were growing in the vicinity of chemical and nitrogen factories in Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Poland) in the period of time from 1920s to 2012 AD. The combined usage of tree ring width and isotopic composition data provides historic records of the environment changes. These data allows identifying the behavior adaptation of pine growing under pollution stress to climate changes. The incremental rhythm of the studied pine populations was not identical, probably due to their different sensitivities to some climatic factors. This study evidences that the isotopic records in tree-rings α-cellulose may be sensitive bio-indicators of the way that the components of air and water may be changed by the trees in response to the climate changes and anthropogenic effects. The water use efficiency may be strongly correlated with variability of the surface temperature that may be due to increase of CO2 emission.

Keywords

  • pine
  • climate
  • tree rings width
  • stable isotopes
  • water use efficiency
Open Access

Absolute chronology of the Zedmar culture: Re-thinking radiocarbon dates

Published Online: 16 Nov 2017
Page range: 256 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

The Zedmar culture is linked with the subneolithic circle of the South-Eastern Baltic region. So far, excavations have been carried out only on seven archaeological sites. Nonetheless, there are quite a lot of radiocarbon measurements. Most of them refer to the stratigraphic contexts. This allows to integrate all of the data into statistical models. With these, it is possible to query some statements about the Zedmar culture origin and its duration. At least as long as placing the Zedmar culture into an absolute timescale may offer any solution to those issues.

The idea that radiocarbon dates could provide solutions or even final answers to some arguable questions in prehistorical studies was dropped, as soon as it became clear that in the whole approach the key role is played by calibration methods and the general variability of sampled material.

However – thanks to including Bayesian analysis, a better understanding of dated materials and more complex examination of received results – it has been asserted again.

Keywords

  • the Zedmar culture
  • Subneolithic
  • South-Eastern Baltic
  • radiocarbon dating
  • modelled chronology
Open Access

Variation of OSL residual doses in terms of coarse and fine grain modern sediments along the Hungarian section of the Danube

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 319 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Reliable OSL dating of fluvial sediments requires an assessment of incomplete bleaching and consequent residual dose in samples. A well-established way of this is determining the equivalent dose of modern samples from similar sedimentary environments as in the case of palaeo-samples. Meanwhile, relatively low, or close to zero doses are also greatly affected by the thermal transfer phenomenon, which can also lead to a palaeodose overestimation. The present study attempts to quantify both factors in coarse and fine grain modern sediments along the Hungarian section of the Danube River, with the aim of determining their significance when dating both young and palaeo-sediments. Investigations were performed at 30 sites along a 417 km long river section with varying morphological and erosive character. The studied samples were deposited during the record flood of 2013, mobilising and relocating a vast amount of sediment in the system. Tests have shown that thermal transfer can be minimized successfully by choosing preheat temperatures below 200°C, however it remains a significant factor when dating young or modern sediments. Based on equivalent dose measurements, coarse grain samples proved to be relatively well bleached, and residual doses showed only a minor spatial variation. Although in terms of fine grain samples residual doses were obviously much higher, results can enhance the reliability of dates retrieved later from fine grain palaeo-samples. In the meantime, the higher spatial variability of fine grain residual doses may also allow the assessment of the erosive character of different river reaches.

Keywords

  • OSL
  • modern fluvial samples
  • residual dose
  • thermal transfer
  • Danube

Conference Proceedings of the 4 Asia Pacific Luminescence and Electron Spin Resonance Dating Conference Nov 23-25, 2015, Adelaide, Australia

Open Access

Low temperature thermochronology using thermoluminescence signals from K-feldspar

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 112 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

Thermoluminescence (TL) and isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) signals from K-feldspar were studied. The signals from K-feldspar have provided multiple thermometers for thermochronological study. Protocols of multiple aliquot (MA) additive-dose (A) and regenerative-dose (R) have been applied and tested for equivalent dose (De) determinations using TL and ITL signals (MAA-TL, MAR-TL, MAA-ITL and MAR-ITL). Single aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol was only applied for De determination using ITL signals (SAR-ITL). A 50–60°C translation of heating temperature was necessary for the ITL De values to agree with TL De values. Based on the experiment results and merits-drawbacks comparison of the five tested protocols, the MAR-TL and SAR-ITL are favorable because of their efficiency and accuracy in De determinations. These two protocols were further applied to the samples from the Nujiang River valley and both explicitly demonstrated the thermal history of the samples. They are suitable for K-feldspar thermochronology study. They, as a parallelism of the previous studies of quartz TL and ITL signals, can provide multiple measures for a rock sample with the same thermal history in geo-thermochronological studies.

Keywords

  • thermochronology
  • luminescence signals
  • K-feldspar
  • protocol
Open Access

Investigation of the role of the production process on the luminescence of sea salt products

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 121 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

Luminescence dosimetry assumes samples of a given material with diverse provenances behave in a predictable manner, allowing a standardised testing protocol, such as SAR for quartz, to be employed. This article demonstrates that distinct salt products derived from a single manufacturer’s feedstock retain comparable luminescence behaviour. This is the basis of a standardised test protocol: uniting testing procedures which have been shown to be individually applicable. Generalization across samples from different manufacturers and processes is currently under investigation.

Luminescent evaluation of five samples produced by Cheetham & Co. gave useful intensities for all emission bands (590 nm, 420 nm and 360 nm TL and blue stimulated OSL), with the spectral and intensity balance of emissions generally similar for each sample. 590 nm emission sensitization was noted after preheating samples to 135°C and 300°C for five minutes. But, the 360 nm TL emission from feedstock salt was a factor of five greater than the same signal from the other processed samples despite the OSL intensity being similar to the other samples.

Spectrum variation between aliquots as measured by the 3D TL spectrometer was also investigated and found to be minimal for both the first and second TL glow cycles.

Keywords

  • TL
  • OSL
  • salt
  • retrospective dosimetry
  • NaCl
Open Access

Cathodoluminescence of synthetic zircon implanted by He+ ion

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 129 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

He+ ion implantation at 4.0 MeV, equivalent to energy of α particles from natural radioactive nuclei 238U and 232Th, has been conducted for undoped synthetic zircon. The cathodoluminescence (CL) of implanted samples was measured to clarify the radiation-induced effects. Unimplanted synthetic zircon shows pronounced and multiple blue emission bands between 310 nm and 380 nm, whereas the implanted samples have an intense yellow band at ~550 nm. The blue emission bands can be assigned to intrinsic defect centers formed during crystal growth. The yellow band should be derived from induced-defect centers by He+ ion implantation, which might be related to the metamicitization originated from a self-induced radiation in natural zircon. The yellow band may be separated into two emission components at 1.96 eV and 2.16 eV. The emission component at 2.16 eV is recognized in both unimplanted and implanted samples, and its intensity increases with an increase in the implantation dose. The CL of zircon can be used as the geodosimeter.

Keywords

  • cathodoluminescence
  • zircon
  • He ion implantation
  • radiation damage
  • metamict
Open Access

Cathodoluminescence color zonation in the Antarctic meteorite (enstatite chondrite) of Yamato 86004

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 136 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

Enstatite in Yamato 86004 classified as EH melt rock shows cathodoluminescence (CL) zonation as arranged in a concentric pattern from within outward blue, light blue, red and non-CL areas (fusion crust). The zonation observed in the meteorite results from different distribution ratio of the enstatite with various CL colors. CL spectra of the enstatite have two broad emission bands at around 400 nm in the blue region and at around 670 nm in a red region. The emission components obtained by a spectral deconvolution can be assigned to three defect centers (2.73, 3.13–3.15 and 3.77 eV) in a blue region and to impurity centers of Cr3+ ion (1.71 eV) and Mn2+ ion (1.86–1.91 eV) in a red region. According to the CL related to structural defects in the enstatite, blue-CL enstatite might be originally formed from the melt by a quenching from the melt on the surface of parent body. The enstatite with light blue and red CL might be thermally altered from blue-CL enstatite with phase transitions during a flash heating when the meteorite passed through the atmosphere. Therefore, the color CL zonation reflects a thermal history recorded in the meteorite.

Keywords

  • enstatite
  • cathodoluminescence
  • enstatite chondrite
  • Antarctic meteorite
Open Access

Optical dating of sediments from manas lake in northwestern china: Paleoenvironmental and neotectonic implications

Published Online: 05 Oct 2017
Page range: 175 - 187

Abstract

Abstract

Manas Lake is a closed lake basin in northern Xinjiang Province of China, with its current lake bed at 244 m a.s.l. Sediments from the lake area provide valuable information about the paleoenvironmental changes in the Westerlies-dominated arid region. To obtain a chronological constraint on the past changes, optically stimulated luminescence dating was conducted on sediments from the lake beaches. The results show that lacustrine episodes dated at ~80–73 ka ago were recorded in northwestern side of the lake at 270 m a.s.l., while paleoshoreline to near-shore environments during ~80–90 ka ago were recorded in the opposite side of the lake at 262 m a.s.l. The ~80 ka old sedimentary layers are overlain by paleoshoreline sediments formed within the last ~1 ka, separated by a large age gap. From this study and the results from previous studies, it is concluded that breaks in sedimentary records are common in the lake area at elevation > 260 m a.s.l. When comparing sedimentary environments at different times from different sites in this study and previous studies, it is suggested that a small amount of uplift of the northwestern side of Manas Lake relative to the southeastern side may have occurred in the last 80 ka.

Keywords

  • Manas Lake
  • lacustrine and paleoshoreline sediments
  • quartz OSL dating
  • uplift
Open Access

Coarse versus fine-grain quartz optical dating of the sediments related to the 1985 Ms7.1 Wuqia earthquake, northeastern margin of the Pamir salient, China

Published Online: 23 Nov 2017
Page range: 299 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

Optical dating of earthquake related sediments were investigated including one modern sample and three samples from a trench excavated across the 1985 Ms7.4 Wuqia Earthquake surface rupture. The results indicated that equivalent dose (De) values vary with grain size and the method used for De determination. The residual dose of the modern sample is 0.1 ka ( 0.20.1+0.2$\begin{array}{} 0.2_{-0.1}^{+0.2} \end{array} $ Gy) for the quartz single grain measurements. Only 1.5–3.6% of the grains have a detectable OSL signal. Single grain quartz ages are similar to the expected ages. Fine grain quartz results overestimate the De values and are much older than single grain quartz and coarse grain quartz small aliquot standardized growth curve (SA-SGC) ages. Single grain quartz OSL dating may be optimal for dating earthquake related deposits, but SA-SGC can save measurement time and has potential for dating some poorly bleaching samples.

Keywords

  • paleo-earthquake
  • quartz OSL dating
  • single grain
  • coarse grain
Open Access

OSL chronostratigraphy for loess deposits from Tyszowce – Poland

Published Online: 30 Nov 2017
Page range: 307 - 318

Abstract

Abstract

The presented work concerns a loess profile located in Tyszowce, in the eastern part of Poland on the Volyn Upland, close to the Ukrainian border. The investigated loess formation is well preserved and is characterised by clear stratigraphic units providing an opportunity to refine the loess chronostratigraphy in Poland. In the paper, we present luminescence ages of loess from the last glacial cycle in SE Poland (up to about 100 ka) together with seven radiocarbon ages. Twenty-one samples were collected and dated using infrared (post-IR IRSL) and blue light stimulated luminescence dating. Two fractions were used, namely polymineral fine grains (4–11 μm) and medium sized quartz grains (45–63 μm). The obtained luminescence ages show very good agreement of both methods in relation to loess deposits, however for the fossil soil units the post-IR IRSL method yields older ages. Radiocarbon dates also confirm luminescence chronostratigraphy for younger units. Moreover, the luminescence results are supported by detailed analyses of grain size distribution, carbonate content and magnetic susceptibility variations allowing to create a comprehensive picture of chronological evolution of this site.

Keywords

  • luminescence dating
  • equivalent dose
  • Polish loess stratigraphy
Open Access

Koonalda Cave, Nullarbor Plain, South Australia – issues in optical and radiometric dating of deep karst caves

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 366 - 373

Abstract

Abstract

Koonalda Cave is located on the Nullarbor Plain of South Australia and is one of 17 deep karst caves in this region. In 2014, the cave was listed as a National Heritage Place in recognition of its significant archaeological and cultural heritage features. It In order to understand the antiquity of and complex human activity in this site a range of dating methods have been applied including typologic, radiometric and luminescence. Each has been challenged and the chronology of this highly significant site has relied on contextual data from other sites. This paper presents an overview of the archaeology recorded at Koonalda Cave, the issues in dating sites in deep karst systems and emphasises the urgent need to resolve these issues so that a reliable chronology can be presented for Koonalda Cave.

Keywords

  • Koonalda Cave
  • Allen’s Cave
  • Nullarbor
  • dating techniques
  • Gallus excavation
Open Access

Obituary – Prof. Jacek Rutkowski (1934–2016)

Published Online: 05 Oct 2017
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

33 Articles
Open Access

Quartz OSL and K-feldspar post-IR IRSL dating of sand accumulation in the Lower Liao Plain (Liaoning, NE China)

Published Online: 26 Mar 2017
Page range: 1 - 15

Abstract

Abstract

The timing of the formation of extensively distributed sand dunes in the Bohai coastal area and its forcing factors are poorly understood. In this study, the chronology of a well-preserved sand dune located in Panjin Forest Park (PJ) in the Lower Liao Plain (LLP) is investigated using quartz optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) and K-feldspar postinfrared (IR) infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) (pIRIR) dating. For the pIRIR measurements, the combination of preheating at 180°C and pIRIR stimulation at 150°C (pIRIR150) is exploited. The quartz results show that the sand dune accumulated from c. 120 a (1890 AD) to c. 70 a (1940 AD) before present, and the underlying sandy soil sediments deposited from c. 5.0 ka to c. 0.13 ka as marsh sediment after the sea level highstand since the mid-Holocene. From the evidence in historical coastline records, the PJ sand dune is an inland sand dune and not a coastal sand dune. Based on further information of climate and temperature change after the Little Ice Age (LIA) and human activity in northeastern China, we conclude that the PJ sand dune accumulation was very likely impacted by the immigrants and land reclamation at the end of Qing dynasty. The fading corrected IR50 ages, the apparent and fading corrected pIRIR150 ages are consistent with quartz ages for two sandy soil samples but overestimate those for six sand samples. The overestimation of the feldspar ages is derived from the residual signal which has not been bleached before burial. The offset obtained from the difference between the quartz OSL and the feldspar pIRIR150 ages are ~20–160 a (predicted residual dose: ~0.08–0.60 Gy), whereas the measured residual dose after bleaching 4 h in a solar simulator yielded age overestimation of ~10–40 a (~0.05–0.16 Gy). The age discrepancy calculated from the predicted residual was larger than those obtained from the laboratory measured residuals. We conclude that the pIRIR150 of aeolian sediment is applicable for samples older than ~1000 years where the effect of the residual dose become negligible.

Keywords

  • optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating
  • sand accumulation
  • the Lower Liao Plain
  • K-feldspar post-IR IRSL
  • Holocene
Open Access

Testing the suitability of dim sedimentary quartz from northern Switzerland for OSL burial dose estimation

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 66 - 76

Abstract

Abstract

We investigate the suitability of sedimentary quartz associated with former glacial advances in northern Switzerland to provide reliable burial dose estimates using Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL). Previous studies on northern alpine quartz show that its signal characteristics can be poor and potentially problematic. We analyse quartz signals of small aliquots, which reveal the presence of a prominent medium or slow component in the initial part of some signals. Nonetheless, rejection of aliquots with unfavourable signal composition does not alter the burial dose estimates, but significantly reduces the data set for De determination. Signal lifetimes from isothermal decay measurements cover a wide range of values, yet the lowest lifetimes are high enough to guarantee a reliable burial dose estimate for samples of < 400 ka. Comparison of small aliquot and single grain burial dose distributions reveals that signal averaging masks partial bleaching in some of the samples. We therefore strongly recommend single grain measurements for samples from this setting and area, in order to exclude age overestimation due to partial bleaching.

Keywords

  • OSL
  • quartz
  • dim
  • signal components
  • lifetime
  • Alps
Open Access

Methodological study on single grain OSL dating of mortars: Comparison of five reference archaeological sites

Published Online: 12 Apr 2017
Page range: 77 - 97

Abstract

Abstract

The paper focuses on single grain OSL dating of quartz extracted from known age archaeological mortars, potentially representing a new tool for dating the construction of historical buildings. Apart from SG-OSL measurements and annual dose rate determination, the samples are systematically studied by means of optical microscopy, EDX-SEM cartography and beta autoradiography in order to evaluate the possible microdosimetric heterogeneity of each sample, arising principally from local variations of potassium content. Besides the practical aspects concerning sampling, preparation and appropriate choice of measurement conditions, the paper aims at the differences in microstructure and in elementary composition between different mortars and attempts to evaluate the impact of these aspects on the dispersion of equivalent dose distributions. Finally, archaeological doses (paleodoses) are calculated by using central age model (CAM), minimum age model (MAM) and internal-external consistency criterion (IEU). The appropriateness of these models for the exploitation of the measured SG-OSL data as well as for a hypothesis on the estimation of the input parameter needed to run these models are discussed. Three categories of mortars were identified: samples without any exploitable SG-OSL signal, samples that could have been reliably dated and poorly bleached samples affected by microdosimetric variations whose dating still remains complicated. Finally, the hypothesis on distinguishing between reliable and questionable dating results is raised and the potentials of the method for dating mortars are pointed out.

Keywords

  • mortar
  • single grain
  • OSL dating
  • quartz
  • archaeology
Open Access

Testing feldspar luminescence dating of young archaeological heated materials using potshards from Pella (Tell Tabqat Fahl) in the Jordan valley

Published Online: 02 May 2017
Page range: 98 - 110

Abstract

Abstract

Recent developments in the use of more stable feldspar signals in the luminescence dating of sediments offer the possibility of obtaining accurate feldspar luminescence ages for ceramic artefacts; this is especially interesting in locations which do not provide suitable quartz extracts. Here we examine the application of the stable infrared stimulated luminescence signal measured at elevated temperature (in this case 290°C; pIRIR290) after stimulation at about room temperature to Levantine pottery samples. A total of 52 potsherds were collected from three superimposed iron-age units at Pella (Jordan); based on 14C dating, typology and seriation these units were deposited between 700 and 900 BCE. Sand-sized quartz extracts were unsuitable, and there was insufficient sand-sized feldspar, and so polymineral fine grains were chosen for dating. Various tests for reliability were undertaken (dose recovery, dependence of De on first stimulation temperature etc.). The pIRIR signals are weak, and 14 potsherds were rejected on this basis. Of the remainder, 3 were confidently identified as outliers. Based on those sherds for which IR signals were sufficiently intense, we use the ratio of the IR50 to pIRIR290 signals to argue that these outliers do not arise from incomplete resetting during manufacture. The ages from each layer are considerably over dispersed (typically by ∼25%) but average ages for each unit are consistent with each other and with the expected age range. The average OSL age for the site is 2840 ± 220 years (n = 35), with the overall uncertainty dominated by systematic uncertainties; this average is consistent with the range of 14C ages from 970–1270 BCE reported from across the destruction horizon. We conclude that the pIRIR290 signal is delivering accurate ages, but that the variability in age from shard to shard is much greater than would be expected from known sources of uncertainty. This demonstrates the need for site ages to be based on multiple samples; individual shard ages are unlikely to be sufficiently accurate.

Keywords

  • Luminescence dating
  • feldspar
  • Tabqat Fahl
  • Pella
  • Jordan
Open Access

Kohonen artificial neural networks and the IndVal index as supplementary tools for the quantitative analysis of palaeoecological data

Published Online: 02 May 2017
Page range: 111 - 111

Abstract

Open Access

240+239Pu depositional signatures as a viable geochronological tool in the Amazon Basin

Published Online: 02 Jun 2017
Page range: 142 - 149

Abstract

Abstract

Anthropogenic radionuclide signatures associated with nuclear testing are increasingly utilized in environmental science to explore recent sedimentation. In this study, we assess the suitability of Pu radioisotope analysis in floodplain lake environments in the Amazon Basin to form geochronologies during the 20th century. The 240Pu + 239Pu (240+239Pu) signatures in six sediment cores indicate sediment accumulation rates in the floodplain lakes of the major rivers; Amazon (2.3 mm year-1), Tapajos (10.2 and 2.4 mm year-1) and Madeira (3.4, 4.2 and 6.2 mm year-1). The results from this study show that 240+239Pu fallout activities, and the well documented (240Pu/239Pu) atomic ratios of the above ground nuclear tests which began in the 1950’s, are sufficient and well preserved in Amazon floodplain lake sediments to infer chronologies. Lead-210 dating analyses in the same sediment cores produced comparable sediment accumulation rates at three of the six sites. The differences between dating methods may be attributed to the different time scale these dating methods represent and/or in the solubility between Pb and Pu along the sediment column. The geochronologies derived from the 240+239Pu and 210Pb dating methods outlined in this work are of interest to identify the effects of changing sediment accumulation rates during the previous century as a result of development, including deforestation, along the Amazon Basin which increased towards the middle of the 20th century. This study shows that Pu dating provides a viable alternative geochronology tool for recent sediment accumulation (previous ~60 years) along the Amazon Basin.

Keywords

  • plutonium dating
  • geochronology
  • Amazon floodplain lakes
  • sedimentation
Open Access

New luminescence-based geochronology framing the last two glacial cycles at the southern limit of European Pleistocene loess in Stalać (Serbia)

Published Online: 14 Jun 2017
Page range: 150 - 161

Abstract

Abstract

A new geochronology was established for the Stalać loess-paleosol sequence (LPS) in Serbia. The section is located in the interior of the Central Balkan region, south of the typical loess distribution, in a zone of paleoclimatic shifts between continental and Mediterranean climate regimes. The sampled sequence contains four well-developed paleosol and loess layers, a crypto tephra and one visible tephra layer. Optically stimulated luminescence measurements showed a strong dependency of preheat temperature on equivalent dose for one fine-grained quartz sample, which makes it unsuitable for dating. A firm chronology framing the last two glacial cycles was established using fine-grained polyminerals and the post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (pIR50IR290) protocol instead. The characteristics of dated paleosols indicate similar climatic conditions during the last interstadial and interglacial phases, which were different from the penultimate interglacial period. The tephra within the L2 loess, probably related to tephra layers also found in other sections in Southeastern Europe, was sandwich-dated. The results indicate an age between 118 ka and 141 ka. Furthermore, a weak pedogenic layer dated to between 126 ka and 148 ka gives a first numerical age to this soil formation in Southeastern Europe.

Keywords

  • post-infrared infrared stimulated luminescence (plRIR) dating
  • Pleistocene, loess-paleosol sequences
  • preheat-plateau
  • quartz and polymineral fine grains
  • Serbia
Open Access

Mid-Holocene horizons of strongly decomposed peat and problems of dating paleohydrological changes in mires in the Racibórz basin, Southern Poland

Published Online: 05 Oct 2017
Page range: 162 - 174

Abstract

Abstract

During litho-stratigraphic studies of deposits in small mires in the upper basin of the Oder River, mid-Holocene hiatuses identified by the presence of horizons of strongly decomposed peat (HSDP), were identified at four sites. Radiocarbon dating results indicate long (103 years) breaks in peat accumulation and the dates obtained from the underlying layers of deposit are inconsistent with the pollen record. In order to explain these discrepancies, an attempt was made to recreate the conditions of HSDP formation under the influence of endo- and exogenous factors determining peatland productivity. In the light of macrofossil analysis, the development of HSDP during the Atlantic and Subboreal periods, when the humidity of habitats decreased, occurred at an advanced stage of development of swamps with Alnetea glutinosae forest communities. The gradual rise in water levels in the mires that started in the Subboreal period and intensified during the Subatlantic period was recorded as a slow shift in vegetation towards non-forest, sedge-moss communities belonging to the Magnocaricion alliance or the Scheuchzerio-Caricetea nigrae class. One consequence of the mechanism of HSDP formation is the existence of limitations on the dating of the duration of the dry phase owing to the presence of organic matter of different ages in the degraded peat layer. The determination of the age of wet phases offers better prospects. In the light of radiocarbon dating, which is essentially in line with the pollen analysis results, the transition towards positive peatland productivity occurred between ca. 9th century BC and 7th century CE.

Keywords

  • sedimentary hiatuses
  • moorsh horizons
  • climate change
  • palaeobotanical analysis
  • Atlantic period
Open Access

U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic setting of Gandab volcanic rocks, northeastern Iran

Published Online: 16 Nov 2017
Page range: 269 - 286

Abstract

Abstract

This paper addresses U-Pb geochronology, Sr-Nd geochemistry, petrogenesis and tectonic setting in the Gandab volcanic rocks. The Gandab volcanic rocks belong to the Sabzevar zone magmatic arc (northeastern Iran). Petrographically, all the studied volcanic rocks indicate porphyritic textures with phenocrysts of plagioclase, K-feldespar, hornblende, pyroxene, and magnetite which are embedded in a fine to medium grained groundmass. As well, amygdaloidal, and poikilitic textures are seen in some rocks. The standard chemical classifications show that the studied rocks are basaltic trachy andesite, trachy andesite, trachyte, and trachy dacite. Major elements reveal that the studied samples are metaluminous and their alumina saturation index varies from 0.71 to 1.02. The chondrite-normalized rare earth element and mantle-normalized trace element patterns show enrichment in light rare earth elements (LREE) relative to heavy rare earth elements (HREE) and in large ion lithophile elements (LILE) relative to high field strength elements (HFSE). As well they show a slightly negative Eu anomaly (Eu/Eu* = 0.72 – 0.97). The whole-rock geochemistry of the studied rocks suggests that they are related to each other by fractional crystallization. LA-MC-ICP-MS U-Pb analyses in zircon grains from two volcanic rock samples (GCH-119 and GCH-171) gave ages ranging of 5.47 ± 0.22 Ma to 2.44 ± 0.79 Ma, which corresponds to the Pliocene period. In four samples analysed for Sr and Nd isotopes 87Sr/86Sr ratios range from 0.704082 to 0.705931 and εNd values vary between +3.34 and +5. These values could be regarded to as representing mantle derived magmas. Taking into account the comparing rare earth element (REE) patterns, an origin of the parental magmas in enriched lithospheric mantle is suggested. Finally, it is concluded that Pliocene Gandab volcanic rocks are related to the post-collision environment that followed the Neo-Tethys subduction.

Keywords

  • U-Pb geochronology
  • Sr-Nd geochemistry
  • post-collision
  • Gandab volcanic rocks
  • Northeastern Iran
Open Access

Some novel features of post-500°C heating blue stimulated OSL emission of fired natural quartz

Published Online: 23 Nov 2017
Page range: 287 - 298

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, some novel features of the post 500°C blue stimulated optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) of fired geological quartz are reported. Different observations (i) pulse annealing and (ii) impact of bleaching on high temperature TL glow peak suggested 510°C (heating rate of 2°C/s) TL peak trap to be responsible for the observed emission. The dosimetric properties of this emission were seen to make its applicability for dose assessment till kGy range. The signal was seen to be easily bleachable, reaching background value within 100 s with blue light at 125°C. The signal qualified all the tests (i) reproducibility, (ii) negligible recuperation and (iii) accuracy of dose recovery needed for reliable assessment of the radiation dose with modified Single aliquot regenerative (SAR) protocol. Considering the bleachability and high dynamic dose range of this signal, it has the potential to stretch the upper dose limit of dating by one order of magnitude than possible with conventional OSL, corresponding to 325°C TL trap. So, combining all the results, the signal reported here could be very useful for dosimetric applications involving measurement of high radiation dose, like dating.

Keywords

  • deep traps
  • quartz
  • OSL
Open Access

Application of different protocols and age-models in OSL dating of earthen mortars

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 341 - 351

Abstract

Abstract

In this study, OSL dating was applied to earthen mortars, consisting in a quartz-rich aggregate dispersed in silty-clayey matrix. The samples were taken from two independently dated structures in Cremona, Northern Italy (Palazzo Raimondi, 1495–1499 AD and Palazzo Soldi, 1770–1790 AD). The evaluation of the equivalent dose (De) was attempted with both the multigrain and the single grain protocols using the 150–250 μm quartz fraction.

The reliability and effectiveness of the various statistical methods in identifying the well-bleached samples were tested. The use of the multi-grain technique gave unreliable results, due to the high amount of poorly bleached grains. With the single-grain technique, more promising results were obtained: in particular, the un-log MAM3 and IEU models allowed an accurate evaluation of the mortar expected age in most cases, even if the precision is still relatively low.

Keywords

  • mortar dating
  • OSL
  • quartz
  • single grain
Open Access

Post-IR IRSL dating of K-feldspar from last interglacial marine terrace deposits on the Kamikita coastal plain, northeastern Japan

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 352 - 365

Abstract

Abstract

To establish a suitable luminescence dating protocol for marine terrace deposits in Japan, we tested the applicability of K-feldspar post-infrared (IR) infrared stimulated luminescence (IRSL) (pIRIR) dating using a marine isotope stage (MIS) 5e terrace deposit from the Kamikita coastal plain (NE Japan), where independent age control from a tephra is available. One of the most commonly used pIRIR signals, measured at 290°C with the first IR stimulation temperature at 50°C (pIRIR50/290), faded with a mean g2days value of 1.94 ± 0.19%/decade. In contrast, the pIRIR signal with a higher first IR stimulation temperature of 200°C (pIRIR200/290) had a much lower fading rate (g2days = 0.16 ± 0.49%/decade). The average fading-uncorrected and -corrected pIRIR200/290 ages of MIS 5e subtidal sediments obtained from two sampling sites were 126 ± 3 ka and 132 ± 2 ka, which is in good agreement with the independent age control. We conclude that is it is now possible to use pIRIR protocol to estimate the ages of not only marine terraces formed during MIS 5 substages (5a, 5c) but also of older marine terraces, for which age evidence is limited.

Keywords

  • post-IR IRSL dating
  • K-rich feldspar
  • fading correction
  • marine terrace
  • MIS 5e

Conference Proceedings of the 12 International Conference “Methods of Absolute Chronology” May 11-13, 2016, Gliwice-Paniówki, Poland

Open Access

The Epigravettian and the Magdalenian in Poland: New chronological data and an old problem

Published Online: 30 Mar 2017
Page range: 16 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present a new chronological model of recolonisation of the area located north of the Sudetes and the Carpathians after Late Glacial Maximum (LGM). Until recently, it was believed that reoccupation of these areas occurred only due to the Magdalenian people. New chronometric data (radiocarbon and optoluminescence ones) coming from the Magdalenian and Epigravettian sites together with the application of Bayesian modelling of new records allowed us to present another model. In the light of the new research, it seems that the groups classified as the Epigravettian and Magdalenian could have coexisted at the same time in the same areas. The new model states that it is possible to assume coexistence of these groups during the period of 2300 years between 16500 and 14200 years BP.

Keywords

  • chronological records
  • Bayesian method
  • recolonization
  • Epigravettian
  • Magdalenian
  • Poland
Open Access

Chronology of multicultural site Sowinki in Greater Poland

Published Online: 29 Mar 2017
Page range: 30 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

Sowinki is a village located 35 km south of Poznań, where archaeological research has revealed the remains of settlement from different archaeological periods, ranging from the Mesolithic (ca. six thousand years BC) to the Late Medieval period (ca. 15th century AD). This area, therefore, provides a record of the history of Greater Poland (Poznań) region, tracing back to about seven and a half thousand years ago. Samples of bones and wood were collected from different features, including mostly cellar pits, refuse pits and grave pits. Eight of the samples, all collected from grave pits, were selected for radiocarbon dating. The obtained 14C measurements have confirmed previous findings concerning different cultures registered in the studied area, and additionally, they have helped to clarify chronology of the early medieval cemetery. The presented results are the first isotopic measurements taken for the site of Sowinki. Previously, chronological frameworks of this site were determined on the basis of relative chronology, according to stratigraphy of sediments, examination of metal finds, pottery and flint objects. The deposition depth of the analysed charcoals did not exceed 100 cm below ground level. According to the analysis, all the samples date to the time of the early Piasts’ dynasty. The obtained data have allowed for defining two chronological phases of the early medieval cemetery. This is an important archaeological site both in terms of its spread and the long time of existence. In addition, it provides a valuable background for the study on the emergence of early medieval elites and the formation of the Polish “early feudal” state.

Keywords

  • C dating of chamber grave
  • multicultural site Sowinki
  • from Mesolithic to Medieval in Greater Poland
  • archaeological cultures chronology of Greater Poland
  • Early Medieval cemetery
Open Access

Radiocarbon and lead-210 age-depth model and trace elements concentration in the Wolbrom fen (S Poland)

Published Online: 29 Mar 2017
Page range: 40 - 48

Abstract

Abstract

A one-meter long peat core was taken from the peatland in Wolbrom (Silesian-Cracovian Upland, southern Poland). The analysis of the botanical composition showed that Wolbrom is a fen. Vegetation species such as Carex rostrata and Phragmites australis have been found. An age-depth model was constructed using 12 conventional radiocarbon dates and 13 lead-210 dates from the upper part of the deposit. In this work, the results of radiocarbon dating are presented. According to the model, we can estimate the age of the fen. The oldest part comes from a depth of 1.05 meter and its conventional age is 5940 ± 95 BP (modelled date 5000–4790 BC, 68.2% probability interval). The accumulation rate varies between approximately 0.53 mm·yr-1 and 6.48 mm·yr− 1.

The core has been also tested for the presence of trace elements (Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn) using ICP-OES. There are considerable variations in the concentrations of the tested metals – in many cases the concentration starts to rise at about 40 cm and may be connected with the human activity. This depth corresponds to the modelled age intervals 355–300 BC (17.4%) and 205–45 BC (50.7%).

Keywords

  • geochemical analysis
  • C dating
  • Pb dating
  • peat pollution
  • peat sediments
  • southern Poland
Open Access

Pleistocene glaciations of the SE Altai, Russia, based on geomorphological data and absolute dating of glacial deposits in Chagan reference section

Published Online: 30 Mar 2017
Page range: 49 - 65

Abstract

Abstract

Geomorphological evidence of at least two Pleistocene glacial epochsis noted within the Chagan-Uzun river basin, SE Altai. A review and analysis of all available absolute dates for reference Chagan section is presented. The highest correlation amongst all TL dates is observed for the lens of glacio-lacustrine sediments – the most suitable among glacial deposits for luminescence dating, and indicates its possible Middle Pleistocene age. IRSL dates obtained from feldspar indicate a Middle Pleistocene age of moraines already in the upper part of the section. The small number of obtained IRSL dates does not allow making geochronological reconstructions of the Pleistocene glaciations, but gives the possibility for further experiments with different variation of OSL (IRSL) techniques. Strong low temperature peak in TL signal and strong response to IR stimulation are specific regional quartz features, which could be explained by combination of short transportation distance and low number of depositional cycles for mineral grains. Available radiocarbon dates of carbonate concretions from this section are not related to the age of moraine sedimentation and most likely indicate the period of the Chagan river incision into the ancient glacial deposits.

This study has shown that TL method is not valid for dating glacial sediments and TL dates cannot be utilized as chronostratigraphic markers. Generally, the Chagan section could hardly serve as a reference section for the Altai stratigraphy; available depositional correlation schemes for the Russian Altai and Siberia which are based on several TL dates obtained in the last century needs to be improved.

Keywords

  • Pleistocene
  • glacial sedimentation
  • luminescent dating
  • radiocarbon dating
  • Chagan section
  • Russian Altai
Open Access

Benefits and weaknesses of radiocarbon dating of plant material as reflected by Neolithic archaeological sites from Poland, Slovakia and Hungary

Published Online: 06 Oct 2017
Page range: 188 - 201

Abstract

Abstract

Radiocarbon dating of the plant material is important for chronology of archaeological sites. Therefore, a selection of suitable plant samples is an important task. The contribution emphasizes the necessity of taxonomical identification prior to radiocarbon dating as a crucial element of such selection. The benefits and weaknesses of dating of taxonomically undetermined and identified samples will be analysed based on several case studies referring to Neolithic sites from Hungary, Slovakia and Poland. These examples better illustrate the significance of the taxonomical identification since plant materials of the Neolithic age include only a limited number of cultivated species (e.g. hulled wheats) and typically do not contain remains of late arrived plants (e.g. Carpinus betulus and Fagus sylvatica). For more accurate dating results cereal grains, fruits and seeds, which reflect a single vegetative season, are preferred. Among charred wood, fragments of twigs, branches and external rings should mainly be taken into account, while those of trunks belonging to long-lived trees should be avoided. Besides the absolute chronology of archaeological features and artefacts, radiocarbon dating of identified plant remains might significantly contribute to the history of local vegetation and food production systems.

Keywords

  • plant materials
  • taxonomical identification
  • radiocarbon dating
  • taphonomy
  • Neolithic
Open Access

Reflection of climatic changes during interpleniglacial in the geoecosystems of South-Eastern Poland

Published Online: 06 Oct 2017
Page range: 202 - 215

Abstract

Abstract

About 70% of the last cold stage was taken by transitional phases of continuous fluctuations of climate and permafrost extension. All this is reflected especially well in slope types and the thickness of slope, fluvial and aeolian deposits. Very distinct and relatively fast changes took place around 33–30 ka BP: the aridification of climate with an ice sheet transgression, expansion of continuous permafrost and the onset of loess deposition. The greatest transformations of slopes and river valleys in the Carpathians and Subcarpathian Basins took place not in the coolest phases but during the Interpleniglacial. The authors exemplified a number of sites in Southern Poland documenting frequent fluctuations of climate and permafrost from that 25–30 ka long period. Calibrated dates of dated episodes correlate well with the δ18O curve from Greenland with frequent warmings. These rapid warmings are reflected in the higher rate of aggradation in valley floors and thick colluvial material deposited over slopes, both combined with a retreat of permafrost. The comparison with the Greenland 18O curve is valuable to establish a comparable chronology of events, even for such a distant area like Central-Eastern Europe.

Keywords

  • Interpleniglacial
  • frequent climate fluctuations
  • permafrost
  • South-Eastern Poland
Open Access

Early Holocene alluvia in the lower Wisłok River valley and their chronostratigraphy in the light of radiocarbon datings and palynological analysis

Published Online: 04 Nov 2017
Page range: 216 - 225

Abstract

Abstract

The paper presents the results of the latest radiocarbon dating and the palynological analyses of organic sediments found in the alluvia of the Wisłok River valley between the towns of Łańcut and Przeworsk. The study conducted in the gravel pit made possible the dating of several alluvial fills of the 7–8 m high Holocene terrace and the 5–6 m high floodplain. The oldest channel alluvia and palaeochannel sediments of the 7–8 m high terrace were dated at 10 100–9300 BP (11 960–10 500 cal BP). According to the anthracological analysis the top cover of clay overbank alluvia, which bears charcoal fragments, was deposited in the Subboreal and/or the Subatlantic Phases. In the sequence of the 5–6 m high floodplain, the bottom fills of palaeochannels, dated at 10 195–9885 cal BP (probability level: 68.2%; GdS-3233: 8900 ± 95 BP ) and 11 095–10 755 cal BP (probability level: 68.2%; GdS-3228: 9575 ± 95 BP), were truncated by erosion and covered by alluvia of palaeomeanders, which were active in the 19th century. Preservation of the erosional bench of the Early Holocene organic sediments indicates the predomination of lateral migration of the river channel during the last 200 years and the formation of wide erosional floodplain that has been aggraded with recent flood alluvia. In the 20th century the floodplain aggradation was simultaneous with the deepening of the Wisłok riverbed.

Keywords

  • alluvia
  • chronostratigraphy
  • Early Holocene
  • radiocarbon dating
  • palynology
Open Access

Variations of tree ring width and chemical composition of wood of pine growing in the area nearby chemical factories

Published Online: 04 Nov 2017
Page range: 226 - 239

Abstract

Abstract

This study reports the variation of tree-ring widths and annual variation of concentration of metals (Na, Mg, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Pb) in pine growing nearby chemical factories. The conifers (Pinus silvestris L.) investigated in this study covered the time span from 1920s to 2010 AD. Tree-ring widths were measured, dated and rechecked using the COFECHA. Radial trace-element profiles were determined by Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry. The combined usage of tree ring width and chemical composition of wood provides historic records of anthropogenic impact on the environment and allows identifying the behavior adaptation of trees to the pollution. Data of pine tree cores collected from the sites nearby chemical factories show increasing levels of pollution linked to the increasing of industrial activities in Poland and subsequent dust fallout around the site. This study evidences that tree rings can be used as archives of past environmental contamination.

Keywords

  • tree rings
  • pine
  • trace element
  • contamination
  • LA-ICP-MS
Open Access

Climatic signals in tree-ring width and stable isotopes composition of Pinus sylvestris L. Growing in the industrialized area nearby Kędzierzyn-Koźle

Published Online: 04 Nov 2017
Page range: 240 - 255

Abstract

Abstract

The main aims of these studies were dendrochronological and mass spectrometric analysis of the impact of climate on tree rings width and stable isotopes composition in pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). The conifers were growing in the vicinity of chemical and nitrogen factories in Kędzierzyn-Koźle (Poland) in the period of time from 1920s to 2012 AD. The combined usage of tree ring width and isotopic composition data provides historic records of the environment changes. These data allows identifying the behavior adaptation of pine growing under pollution stress to climate changes. The incremental rhythm of the studied pine populations was not identical, probably due to their different sensitivities to some climatic factors. This study evidences that the isotopic records in tree-rings α-cellulose may be sensitive bio-indicators of the way that the components of air and water may be changed by the trees in response to the climate changes and anthropogenic effects. The water use efficiency may be strongly correlated with variability of the surface temperature that may be due to increase of CO2 emission.

Keywords

  • pine
  • climate
  • tree rings width
  • stable isotopes
  • water use efficiency
Open Access

Absolute chronology of the Zedmar culture: Re-thinking radiocarbon dates

Published Online: 16 Nov 2017
Page range: 256 - 268

Abstract

Abstract

The Zedmar culture is linked with the subneolithic circle of the South-Eastern Baltic region. So far, excavations have been carried out only on seven archaeological sites. Nonetheless, there are quite a lot of radiocarbon measurements. Most of them refer to the stratigraphic contexts. This allows to integrate all of the data into statistical models. With these, it is possible to query some statements about the Zedmar culture origin and its duration. At least as long as placing the Zedmar culture into an absolute timescale may offer any solution to those issues.

The idea that radiocarbon dates could provide solutions or even final answers to some arguable questions in prehistorical studies was dropped, as soon as it became clear that in the whole approach the key role is played by calibration methods and the general variability of sampled material.

However – thanks to including Bayesian analysis, a better understanding of dated materials and more complex examination of received results – it has been asserted again.

Keywords

  • the Zedmar culture
  • Subneolithic
  • South-Eastern Baltic
  • radiocarbon dating
  • modelled chronology
Open Access

Variation of OSL residual doses in terms of coarse and fine grain modern sediments along the Hungarian section of the Danube

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 319 - 330

Abstract

Abstract

Reliable OSL dating of fluvial sediments requires an assessment of incomplete bleaching and consequent residual dose in samples. A well-established way of this is determining the equivalent dose of modern samples from similar sedimentary environments as in the case of palaeo-samples. Meanwhile, relatively low, or close to zero doses are also greatly affected by the thermal transfer phenomenon, which can also lead to a palaeodose overestimation. The present study attempts to quantify both factors in coarse and fine grain modern sediments along the Hungarian section of the Danube River, with the aim of determining their significance when dating both young and palaeo-sediments. Investigations were performed at 30 sites along a 417 km long river section with varying morphological and erosive character. The studied samples were deposited during the record flood of 2013, mobilising and relocating a vast amount of sediment in the system. Tests have shown that thermal transfer can be minimized successfully by choosing preheat temperatures below 200°C, however it remains a significant factor when dating young or modern sediments. Based on equivalent dose measurements, coarse grain samples proved to be relatively well bleached, and residual doses showed only a minor spatial variation. Although in terms of fine grain samples residual doses were obviously much higher, results can enhance the reliability of dates retrieved later from fine grain palaeo-samples. In the meantime, the higher spatial variability of fine grain residual doses may also allow the assessment of the erosive character of different river reaches.

Keywords

  • OSL
  • modern fluvial samples
  • residual dose
  • thermal transfer
  • Danube

Conference Proceedings of the 4 Asia Pacific Luminescence and Electron Spin Resonance Dating Conference Nov 23-25, 2015, Adelaide, Australia

Open Access

Low temperature thermochronology using thermoluminescence signals from K-feldspar

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 112 - 120

Abstract

Abstract

Thermoluminescence (TL) and isothermal thermoluminescence (ITL) signals from K-feldspar were studied. The signals from K-feldspar have provided multiple thermometers for thermochronological study. Protocols of multiple aliquot (MA) additive-dose (A) and regenerative-dose (R) have been applied and tested for equivalent dose (De) determinations using TL and ITL signals (MAA-TL, MAR-TL, MAA-ITL and MAR-ITL). Single aliquot regenerative-dose (SAR) protocol was only applied for De determination using ITL signals (SAR-ITL). A 50–60°C translation of heating temperature was necessary for the ITL De values to agree with TL De values. Based on the experiment results and merits-drawbacks comparison of the five tested protocols, the MAR-TL and SAR-ITL are favorable because of their efficiency and accuracy in De determinations. These two protocols were further applied to the samples from the Nujiang River valley and both explicitly demonstrated the thermal history of the samples. They are suitable for K-feldspar thermochronology study. They, as a parallelism of the previous studies of quartz TL and ITL signals, can provide multiple measures for a rock sample with the same thermal history in geo-thermochronological studies.

Keywords

  • thermochronology
  • luminescence signals
  • K-feldspar
  • protocol
Open Access

Investigation of the role of the production process on the luminescence of sea salt products

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 121 - 128

Abstract

Abstract

Luminescence dosimetry assumes samples of a given material with diverse provenances behave in a predictable manner, allowing a standardised testing protocol, such as SAR for quartz, to be employed. This article demonstrates that distinct salt products derived from a single manufacturer’s feedstock retain comparable luminescence behaviour. This is the basis of a standardised test protocol: uniting testing procedures which have been shown to be individually applicable. Generalization across samples from different manufacturers and processes is currently under investigation.

Luminescent evaluation of five samples produced by Cheetham & Co. gave useful intensities for all emission bands (590 nm, 420 nm and 360 nm TL and blue stimulated OSL), with the spectral and intensity balance of emissions generally similar for each sample. 590 nm emission sensitization was noted after preheating samples to 135°C and 300°C for five minutes. But, the 360 nm TL emission from feedstock salt was a factor of five greater than the same signal from the other processed samples despite the OSL intensity being similar to the other samples.

Spectrum variation between aliquots as measured by the 3D TL spectrometer was also investigated and found to be minimal for both the first and second TL glow cycles.

Keywords

  • TL
  • OSL
  • salt
  • retrospective dosimetry
  • NaCl
Open Access

Cathodoluminescence of synthetic zircon implanted by He+ ion

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 129 - 135

Abstract

Abstract

He+ ion implantation at 4.0 MeV, equivalent to energy of α particles from natural radioactive nuclei 238U and 232Th, has been conducted for undoped synthetic zircon. The cathodoluminescence (CL) of implanted samples was measured to clarify the radiation-induced effects. Unimplanted synthetic zircon shows pronounced and multiple blue emission bands between 310 nm and 380 nm, whereas the implanted samples have an intense yellow band at ~550 nm. The blue emission bands can be assigned to intrinsic defect centers formed during crystal growth. The yellow band should be derived from induced-defect centers by He+ ion implantation, which might be related to the metamicitization originated from a self-induced radiation in natural zircon. The yellow band may be separated into two emission components at 1.96 eV and 2.16 eV. The emission component at 2.16 eV is recognized in both unimplanted and implanted samples, and its intensity increases with an increase in the implantation dose. The CL of zircon can be used as the geodosimeter.

Keywords

  • cathodoluminescence
  • zircon
  • He ion implantation
  • radiation damage
  • metamict
Open Access

Cathodoluminescence color zonation in the Antarctic meteorite (enstatite chondrite) of Yamato 86004

Published Online: 01 Jun 2017
Page range: 136 - 141

Abstract

Abstract

Enstatite in Yamato 86004 classified as EH melt rock shows cathodoluminescence (CL) zonation as arranged in a concentric pattern from within outward blue, light blue, red and non-CL areas (fusion crust). The zonation observed in the meteorite results from different distribution ratio of the enstatite with various CL colors. CL spectra of the enstatite have two broad emission bands at around 400 nm in the blue region and at around 670 nm in a red region. The emission components obtained by a spectral deconvolution can be assigned to three defect centers (2.73, 3.13–3.15 and 3.77 eV) in a blue region and to impurity centers of Cr3+ ion (1.71 eV) and Mn2+ ion (1.86–1.91 eV) in a red region. According to the CL related to structural defects in the enstatite, blue-CL enstatite might be originally formed from the melt by a quenching from the melt on the surface of parent body. The enstatite with light blue and red CL might be thermally altered from blue-CL enstatite with phase transitions during a flash heating when the meteorite passed through the atmosphere. Therefore, the color CL zonation reflects a thermal history recorded in the meteorite.

Keywords

  • enstatite
  • cathodoluminescence
  • enstatite chondrite
  • Antarctic meteorite
Open Access

Optical dating of sediments from manas lake in northwestern china: Paleoenvironmental and neotectonic implications

Published Online: 05 Oct 2017
Page range: 175 - 187

Abstract

Abstract

Manas Lake is a closed lake basin in northern Xinjiang Province of China, with its current lake bed at 244 m a.s.l. Sediments from the lake area provide valuable information about the paleoenvironmental changes in the Westerlies-dominated arid region. To obtain a chronological constraint on the past changes, optically stimulated luminescence dating was conducted on sediments from the lake beaches. The results show that lacustrine episodes dated at ~80–73 ka ago were recorded in northwestern side of the lake at 270 m a.s.l., while paleoshoreline to near-shore environments during ~80–90 ka ago were recorded in the opposite side of the lake at 262 m a.s.l. The ~80 ka old sedimentary layers are overlain by paleoshoreline sediments formed within the last ~1 ka, separated by a large age gap. From this study and the results from previous studies, it is concluded that breaks in sedimentary records are common in the lake area at elevation > 260 m a.s.l. When comparing sedimentary environments at different times from different sites in this study and previous studies, it is suggested that a small amount of uplift of the northwestern side of Manas Lake relative to the southeastern side may have occurred in the last 80 ka.

Keywords

  • Manas Lake
  • lacustrine and paleoshoreline sediments
  • quartz OSL dating
  • uplift
Open Access

Coarse versus fine-grain quartz optical dating of the sediments related to the 1985 Ms7.1 Wuqia earthquake, northeastern margin of the Pamir salient, China

Published Online: 23 Nov 2017
Page range: 299 - 306

Abstract

Abstract

Optical dating of earthquake related sediments were investigated including one modern sample and three samples from a trench excavated across the 1985 Ms7.4 Wuqia Earthquake surface rupture. The results indicated that equivalent dose (De) values vary with grain size and the method used for De determination. The residual dose of the modern sample is 0.1 ka ( 0.20.1+0.2$\begin{array}{} 0.2_{-0.1}^{+0.2} \end{array} $ Gy) for the quartz single grain measurements. Only 1.5–3.6% of the grains have a detectable OSL signal. Single grain quartz ages are similar to the expected ages. Fine grain quartz results overestimate the De values and are much older than single grain quartz and coarse grain quartz small aliquot standardized growth curve (SA-SGC) ages. Single grain quartz OSL dating may be optimal for dating earthquake related deposits, but SA-SGC can save measurement time and has potential for dating some poorly bleaching samples.

Keywords

  • paleo-earthquake
  • quartz OSL dating
  • single grain
  • coarse grain
Open Access

OSL chronostratigraphy for loess deposits from Tyszowce – Poland

Published Online: 30 Nov 2017
Page range: 307 - 318

Abstract

Abstract

The presented work concerns a loess profile located in Tyszowce, in the eastern part of Poland on the Volyn Upland, close to the Ukrainian border. The investigated loess formation is well preserved and is characterised by clear stratigraphic units providing an opportunity to refine the loess chronostratigraphy in Poland. In the paper, we present luminescence ages of loess from the last glacial cycle in SE Poland (up to about 100 ka) together with seven radiocarbon ages. Twenty-one samples were collected and dated using infrared (post-IR IRSL) and blue light stimulated luminescence dating. Two fractions were used, namely polymineral fine grains (4–11 μm) and medium sized quartz grains (45–63 μm). The obtained luminescence ages show very good agreement of both methods in relation to loess deposits, however for the fossil soil units the post-IR IRSL method yields older ages. Radiocarbon dates also confirm luminescence chronostratigraphy for younger units. Moreover, the luminescence results are supported by detailed analyses of grain size distribution, carbonate content and magnetic susceptibility variations allowing to create a comprehensive picture of chronological evolution of this site.

Keywords

  • luminescence dating
  • equivalent dose
  • Polish loess stratigraphy
Open Access

Koonalda Cave, Nullarbor Plain, South Australia – issues in optical and radiometric dating of deep karst caves

Published Online: 29 Dec 2017
Page range: 366 - 373

Abstract

Abstract

Koonalda Cave is located on the Nullarbor Plain of South Australia and is one of 17 deep karst caves in this region. In 2014, the cave was listed as a National Heritage Place in recognition of its significant archaeological and cultural heritage features. It In order to understand the antiquity of and complex human activity in this site a range of dating methods have been applied including typologic, radiometric and luminescence. Each has been challenged and the chronology of this highly significant site has relied on contextual data from other sites. This paper presents an overview of the archaeology recorded at Koonalda Cave, the issues in dating sites in deep karst systems and emphasises the urgent need to resolve these issues so that a reliable chronology can be presented for Koonalda Cave.

Keywords

  • Koonalda Cave
  • Allen’s Cave
  • Nullarbor
  • dating techniques
  • Gallus excavation
Open Access

Obituary – Prof. Jacek Rutkowski (1934–2016)

Published Online: 05 Oct 2017
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

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