Journal & Issues

Volume 7 (2023): Issue 2 (April 2023)

Volume 7 (2023): Issue 1 (January 2023)

Volume 6 (2022): Issue 4 (October 2022)

Volume 6 (2022): Issue 3 (July 2022)

Volume 6 (2022): Issue 2 (April 2022)

Volume 6 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Volume 5 (2021): Issue 4 (October 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Issue 3 (July 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Issue s2 (December 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Issue 2 (April 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 5 (2021): Issue s1 (June 2021)

Volume 4 (2020): Issue 4 (October 2020)

Volume 4 (2020): Issue 3 (July 2020)

Volume 4 (2020): Issue 2 (April 2020)

Volume 4 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 3 (2019): Issue 4 (October 2019)

Volume 3 (2019): Issue 3 (July 2019)

Volume 3 (2019): Issue 2 (April 2019)

Volume 3 (2019): Issue 1 (January 2019)

Volume 2 (2018): Issue 4 (October 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Issue 3 (July 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Issue 2 (April 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Issue 1 (January 2018)

Volume 2 (2018): Issue s1 (September 2018)

Volume 1 (2017): Issue 4 (October 2017)

Volume 1 (2017): Issue 3 (July 2017)

Volume 1 (2017): Issue 2 (May 2017)

Volume 1 (2017): Issue s2 (December 2017)
MAGI group activity - Research, diagnosis and treatment of genetic and rare diseases

Volume 1 (2017): Issue 1 (January 2017)

Volume 1 (2017): Issue s1 (October 2017)
EBTNA Utility Gene Test on Ophthalmology

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2564-615X
First Published
30 Jan 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 3 (2019): Issue 2 (April 2019)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2564-615X
First Published
30 Jan 2017
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles

Review

Open Access

Future Biotechnology

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 53 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The field of biotechnology is large and could be considered tritely as simply the development of technology that is based on biology. It is clear that the concepts of biotechnology can spread to cover many different fields of application and so the future developments in biotechnology will be similarly wide-ranging across many fields of applications. Here we focus onto medical biotechnology and further refine our discussion onto considering aspects of genetics and nanotechnologies that could impact on the development of future biotechnologies in the medical field. These areas that we consider in this brief article provide the basis for a panel discussion on Future Biotechnology at the European Biotechnology Congress held in Valencia, Spain in April 2019.

Keywords

  • Medical biotechnology
  • nanotechnology
  • genetics
  • future developments

Research Article

Open Access

Physiological role of Prion Protein in Copper homeostasis and angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial cells

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 57 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The Prion Protein (PrP) is mostly known for its role in prion diseases, where its misfolding and aggregation can cause fatal neurodegenerative conditions such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy and human Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Physiologically, PrP is involved in several processes including adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and angiogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms behind its role remain unclear. PrP, due to its well-described structure, is known to be able to regulate copper homeostasis; however, copper dyshomeostasis can lead to developmental defects. We investigated PrP-dependent regulation of copper homeostasis in human endothelial cells (HUVEC) using an RNA-interference protocol. PrP knockdown did not influence cell viability in silenced HUVEC (PrPKD) compared to control cells, but significantly increased PrPKD HUVEC cells sensitivity to cytotoxic copper concentrations. A reduction of PrPKD cells reductase activity and copper ions transport capacity was observed. Furthermore, PrPKD-derived spheroids exhibited altered morphogenesis and their derived cells showed a decreased vitality 24 and 48 hours after seeding. PrPKD spheroid-derived cells also showed disrupted tubulogenesis in terms of decreased coverage area, tubule length and total nodes number on matrigel, preserving unaltered VEGF receptors expression levels. Our results highlight PrP physiological role in cellular copper homeostasis and in the angiogenesis of endothelial cells.

Keywords

  • Prion Protein
  • copper transport
  • HUVEC cells
  • angiogenesis
  • siRNA
Open Access

Solid-state fermentation of paper sludge to obtain spores of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 71 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Paper production generates large quantities of a solid waste known as papermaking sludge (PS), which needs to be handled properly for final disposal. The high amount of this byproduct creates expensive economical costs and induces environmental and ecological risks. Therefore, it is necessary to search uses for PS, in order to reduce the negative environmental impact and to generate a more valuable byproduct. Due to the cellulolytic composition of PS, this work evaluated a solid state fermentation process using it as substrate to obtain spores of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum. Optimal conditions to obtain T. asperellum spores were: 60% water content, 3% (w/w) salts (Nutrisol P® and Nutrisol K®), inoculum concentration at 1x105 spores/g, and pasteurized or sterilized PS. Under these conditions it was possible to obtain 2.37x109 spores/g. T. asperellum spores applied directly to pepper (Capsicum anuum) seeds without PS increased significantly seedling dry mass in greenhouse assays. This work suggests an alternative, economic and abundant substrate for production of T. asperellum spores.

Keywords

  • Papermaking sludge
  • cellulose
  • water activity
Open Access

Application of whey retentate as complex nitrogen source for growth of the polyhydroxyalkanoate producer Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain DSM1023

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 78 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates, microbial polyesters produced in vivo starting from renewable resources, are considered the future materials of choice to compete recalcitrant petro-chemical plastic on the polymer market. In order to make polyhydroxyalkanoates market-fit, (techno)economics of their production need to be improved. Among the multifarious factors affecting costs of polyhydroxyalkanoate production, increased volumetric productivity is of utmost importance. Improving microbial growth kinetics and increasing cell density are strategies leading to a high concentration of catalytically active biomass within a short time; after changing cultivation conditions, these cells can accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates as intracellular products. The resulting increase of volumetric productivity for polyhydroxyalkanoates can be realized by supplying complex nitrogen sources to growing microbial cultures. In the present study, the impact of different expensive and inexpensive complex nitrogen sources, in particular whey retentate, on the growth and specific growth rates of Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava was tested.

Based on a detailed kinetic process analysis, the study demonstrates that especially whole (not hydrolyzed) whey retentate, an amply available surplus material from dairy industry, displays positive effects on cultivations of H. pseudoflava in defined media (increase of concentration of catalytically active biomass after 26.25 h of cultivation by about 50%, increase of specific growth rate μ from 0.28 to 0.41 1/h during exponential growth), while inhibiting effects (inhibition constant K i = 6.1 g/L) of acidically hydrolyzed whey retentate need to be overcome. Considering the huge amounts of surplus whey accruing especially in Europe, the combined utilization of whey permeate (carbon source) and whey retentate (complex nitrogen source) for biopolyester production can be considered a viable bioeconomic strategy for the next future.

Keywords

  • Bioeconomy
  • biopolyesters
  • biopolymers
  • complex nitrogen sources
  • feedstocks, growth additives
  • industrial waste
  • polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
  • whey
  • whey retentate
Open Access

Total nitrogen, water-soluble nitrogen and free amino acids profile during ripening of soft cheese enriched with Nigella sativa seed oil

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 90 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

Various antimicrobial solutions have been tested as additives for raw milk traditional cheeses, among which Nigella sativa cold pressed seed oil (NSSO) is recognized for its positive effect on the microbial quality of such products. The overall effect on the quality of enriched cheeses during ripening is still under extensive investigation. Three batches of traditional raw milk brined cheese were included in the current experiment: control cheese without Nigella sativa seed oil (NSSO) and cheese samples enriched with 0.2 and 1% w/w NSSO. Experimental cheese samples were analyzed in duplicates for total nitrogen content (TN), at 0, 14, 28 and 42 days of ripening, while single determinations of total nitrogen (WSN) and free amino acids (FAA) were performed at 14, 28 and 42 ripening days. The TN content revealed similar values for control cheeses and NSSO cheeses, and no significant differences were noticed within the three treatment groups (p >.05) throughout ripening. WSN values followed a significant rising shift in all cheeses during ripening, yet computing data obtained for the three considered treatments, despite an obvious higher WSN content of NSSO enriched cheeses, no statistical significance could be associated to this difference. The FAA composition of the experimental cheeses, varied quantitatively, by increasing with ripening time, but no qualitative variation was noticed during the follow-up period. The FAA composition of the did not vary significantly within treatments.

Keywords

  • seed oil
  • soft cheese
  • ripening indices
Open Access

Real time human micro-organisms biotyping based on Water-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 97 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that remote infrared Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization technology (Spidermass) using endogenous water as matrix (or so called water assisted laser desorption/ionization) was enabling real-time in vitro and in vivo analysis of clinical pathological tissues. In the present work, Spidermass was used to biotype human pathogens either from liquid bacteria growth in time course, from petri dish or on smears. Reproducibility experiments as well as bacteria dispersion and lipids identifications with SpiderMass in MS/MS mode were undertaken. The whole of the data establish that SpiderMass instrument allows real time bacteria biotyping and can be useful in clinic for pathogen identification.

Keywords

  • Spidermass
  • real time analysis
  • mass spectrometry
  • bacteria typing
Open Access

Toxic, but beneficial compounds from endophytic fungi of Carica papaya

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Fungi remain a promising source of novel biologically active compounds with potentials in drug discovery and development. This study was aimed at investigating the secondary metabolites from endophytic Fusarium equiseti and Epicoccum sorghinum associated with leaves of Carica papaya collected from Agulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Isolation of the endophytic fungi, taxonomic identification, fermentation, extraction and isolation of fungal secondary metabolites were carried out using standard procedures. Chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses of the fungal secondary metabolites yielded three toxigenic compounds - equisetin and its epimer 5’- epiequisetin from F. equiseti and tenuazonic acid from E. sorghinum These compounds are known to possess several beneficial biological properties that can be explored for pharmaceutical, agricultural or industrial purposes.

Keywords

  • Endophytic fungi
  • secondary metabolites
Open Access

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Helianthus annuus Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 112 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

This study evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Helianthus annuus Linn. in rats. Methanol extract of Helianthus annuus (HAE) leaf was used in this study. Formalin- and egg-albumin induced-paw edema were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities while acetic acid-induced writhing reflex and tail flick models were used to evaluate the analgesic properties. The doses of HAE used were 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as reference drug in the anti-inflammatory and writhing reflex models while pentazocine (reference drug) was used in tail flick model. The negative control was dosed 5% tween-20 (10 ml/kg). The HAE exhibited significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. At 3 hour (h) post treatment, the HAE (300 mg/kg) produced 33.33% and 32.94% while ASA produced 36.36% and 35.29% reduction in paw volume in the formalin and egg-albumin induced paw edema models respectively when compared with negative control. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex, ASA and HAE (600 mg/kg) produced 67.89% and 35.78% reduction in the number of writhing, respectively when compared with the negative control. Pentazocine and HAE (300 mg/kg) caused 67.62% and 35.24% increase in pain reaction time when compared with the negative control. The study affirms the folkloric uses of Helianthus annuus in the management of pain and inflammation.

Keywords

  • Acetic acid
  • acetylsalicylic acid
  • analgesic
  • anti-inflammatory
8 Articles

Review

Open Access

Future Biotechnology

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 53 - 56

Abstract

Abstract

The field of biotechnology is large and could be considered tritely as simply the development of technology that is based on biology. It is clear that the concepts of biotechnology can spread to cover many different fields of application and so the future developments in biotechnology will be similarly wide-ranging across many fields of applications. Here we focus onto medical biotechnology and further refine our discussion onto considering aspects of genetics and nanotechnologies that could impact on the development of future biotechnologies in the medical field. These areas that we consider in this brief article provide the basis for a panel discussion on Future Biotechnology at the European Biotechnology Congress held in Valencia, Spain in April 2019.

Keywords

  • Medical biotechnology
  • nanotechnology
  • genetics
  • future developments

Research Article

Open Access

Physiological role of Prion Protein in Copper homeostasis and angiogenic mechanisms of endothelial cells

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 57 - 70

Abstract

Abstract

The Prion Protein (PrP) is mostly known for its role in prion diseases, where its misfolding and aggregation can cause fatal neurodegenerative conditions such as the bovine spongiform encephalopathy and human Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease. Physiologically, PrP is involved in several processes including adhesion, proliferation, differentiation and angiogenesis, but the molecular mechanisms behind its role remain unclear. PrP, due to its well-described structure, is known to be able to regulate copper homeostasis; however, copper dyshomeostasis can lead to developmental defects. We investigated PrP-dependent regulation of copper homeostasis in human endothelial cells (HUVEC) using an RNA-interference protocol. PrP knockdown did not influence cell viability in silenced HUVEC (PrPKD) compared to control cells, but significantly increased PrPKD HUVEC cells sensitivity to cytotoxic copper concentrations. A reduction of PrPKD cells reductase activity and copper ions transport capacity was observed. Furthermore, PrPKD-derived spheroids exhibited altered morphogenesis and their derived cells showed a decreased vitality 24 and 48 hours after seeding. PrPKD spheroid-derived cells also showed disrupted tubulogenesis in terms of decreased coverage area, tubule length and total nodes number on matrigel, preserving unaltered VEGF receptors expression levels. Our results highlight PrP physiological role in cellular copper homeostasis and in the angiogenesis of endothelial cells.

Keywords

  • Prion Protein
  • copper transport
  • HUVEC cells
  • angiogenesis
  • siRNA
Open Access

Solid-state fermentation of paper sludge to obtain spores of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 71 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

Paper production generates large quantities of a solid waste known as papermaking sludge (PS), which needs to be handled properly for final disposal. The high amount of this byproduct creates expensive economical costs and induces environmental and ecological risks. Therefore, it is necessary to search uses for PS, in order to reduce the negative environmental impact and to generate a more valuable byproduct. Due to the cellulolytic composition of PS, this work evaluated a solid state fermentation process using it as substrate to obtain spores of the fungus Trichoderma asperellum. Optimal conditions to obtain T. asperellum spores were: 60% water content, 3% (w/w) salts (Nutrisol P® and Nutrisol K®), inoculum concentration at 1x105 spores/g, and pasteurized or sterilized PS. Under these conditions it was possible to obtain 2.37x109 spores/g. T. asperellum spores applied directly to pepper (Capsicum anuum) seeds without PS increased significantly seedling dry mass in greenhouse assays. This work suggests an alternative, economic and abundant substrate for production of T. asperellum spores.

Keywords

  • Papermaking sludge
  • cellulose
  • water activity
Open Access

Application of whey retentate as complex nitrogen source for growth of the polyhydroxyalkanoate producer Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava strain DSM1023

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 78 - 89

Abstract

Abstract

Polyhydroxyalkanoates, microbial polyesters produced in vivo starting from renewable resources, are considered the future materials of choice to compete recalcitrant petro-chemical plastic on the polymer market. In order to make polyhydroxyalkanoates market-fit, (techno)economics of their production need to be improved. Among the multifarious factors affecting costs of polyhydroxyalkanoate production, increased volumetric productivity is of utmost importance. Improving microbial growth kinetics and increasing cell density are strategies leading to a high concentration of catalytically active biomass within a short time; after changing cultivation conditions, these cells can accumulate polyhydroxyalkanoates as intracellular products. The resulting increase of volumetric productivity for polyhydroxyalkanoates can be realized by supplying complex nitrogen sources to growing microbial cultures. In the present study, the impact of different expensive and inexpensive complex nitrogen sources, in particular whey retentate, on the growth and specific growth rates of Hydrogenophaga pseudoflava was tested.

Based on a detailed kinetic process analysis, the study demonstrates that especially whole (not hydrolyzed) whey retentate, an amply available surplus material from dairy industry, displays positive effects on cultivations of H. pseudoflava in defined media (increase of concentration of catalytically active biomass after 26.25 h of cultivation by about 50%, increase of specific growth rate μ from 0.28 to 0.41 1/h during exponential growth), while inhibiting effects (inhibition constant K i = 6.1 g/L) of acidically hydrolyzed whey retentate need to be overcome. Considering the huge amounts of surplus whey accruing especially in Europe, the combined utilization of whey permeate (carbon source) and whey retentate (complex nitrogen source) for biopolyester production can be considered a viable bioeconomic strategy for the next future.

Keywords

  • Bioeconomy
  • biopolyesters
  • biopolymers
  • complex nitrogen sources
  • feedstocks, growth additives
  • industrial waste
  • polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHA)
  • whey
  • whey retentate
Open Access

Total nitrogen, water-soluble nitrogen and free amino acids profile during ripening of soft cheese enriched with Nigella sativa seed oil

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 90 - 96

Abstract

Abstract

Various antimicrobial solutions have been tested as additives for raw milk traditional cheeses, among which Nigella sativa cold pressed seed oil (NSSO) is recognized for its positive effect on the microbial quality of such products. The overall effect on the quality of enriched cheeses during ripening is still under extensive investigation. Three batches of traditional raw milk brined cheese were included in the current experiment: control cheese without Nigella sativa seed oil (NSSO) and cheese samples enriched with 0.2 and 1% w/w NSSO. Experimental cheese samples were analyzed in duplicates for total nitrogen content (TN), at 0, 14, 28 and 42 days of ripening, while single determinations of total nitrogen (WSN) and free amino acids (FAA) were performed at 14, 28 and 42 ripening days. The TN content revealed similar values for control cheeses and NSSO cheeses, and no significant differences were noticed within the three treatment groups (p >.05) throughout ripening. WSN values followed a significant rising shift in all cheeses during ripening, yet computing data obtained for the three considered treatments, despite an obvious higher WSN content of NSSO enriched cheeses, no statistical significance could be associated to this difference. The FAA composition of the experimental cheeses, varied quantitatively, by increasing with ripening time, but no qualitative variation was noticed during the follow-up period. The FAA composition of the did not vary significantly within treatments.

Keywords

  • seed oil
  • soft cheese
  • ripening indices
Open Access

Real time human micro-organisms biotyping based on Water-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 97 - 104

Abstract

Abstract

We previously demonstrated that remote infrared Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization technology (Spidermass) using endogenous water as matrix (or so called water assisted laser desorption/ionization) was enabling real-time in vitro and in vivo analysis of clinical pathological tissues. In the present work, Spidermass was used to biotype human pathogens either from liquid bacteria growth in time course, from petri dish or on smears. Reproducibility experiments as well as bacteria dispersion and lipids identifications with SpiderMass in MS/MS mode were undertaken. The whole of the data establish that SpiderMass instrument allows real time bacteria biotyping and can be useful in clinic for pathogen identification.

Keywords

  • Spidermass
  • real time analysis
  • mass spectrometry
  • bacteria typing
Open Access

Toxic, but beneficial compounds from endophytic fungi of Carica papaya

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Fungi remain a promising source of novel biologically active compounds with potentials in drug discovery and development. This study was aimed at investigating the secondary metabolites from endophytic Fusarium equiseti and Epicoccum sorghinum associated with leaves of Carica papaya collected from Agulu, Anambra State, Nigeria. Isolation of the endophytic fungi, taxonomic identification, fermentation, extraction and isolation of fungal secondary metabolites were carried out using standard procedures. Chromatographic separation and spectroscopic analyses of the fungal secondary metabolites yielded three toxigenic compounds - equisetin and its epimer 5’- epiequisetin from F. equiseti and tenuazonic acid from E. sorghinum These compounds are known to possess several beneficial biological properties that can be explored for pharmaceutical, agricultural or industrial purposes.

Keywords

  • Endophytic fungi
  • secondary metabolites
Open Access

Anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities of methanol extract of Helianthus annuus Linn. (Asteraceae) leaf

Published Online: 24 Apr 2019
Page range: 112 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

This study evaluate the anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties of Helianthus annuus Linn. in rats. Methanol extract of Helianthus annuus (HAE) leaf was used in this study. Formalin- and egg-albumin induced-paw edema were used to investigate the anti-inflammatory activities while acetic acid-induced writhing reflex and tail flick models were used to evaluate the analgesic properties. The doses of HAE used were 150, 300 and 600 mg/kg. Acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) was used as reference drug in the anti-inflammatory and writhing reflex models while pentazocine (reference drug) was used in tail flick model. The negative control was dosed 5% tween-20 (10 ml/kg). The HAE exhibited significant (P < 0.05) dose-dependent anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities. At 3 hour (h) post treatment, the HAE (300 mg/kg) produced 33.33% and 32.94% while ASA produced 36.36% and 35.29% reduction in paw volume in the formalin and egg-albumin induced paw edema models respectively when compared with negative control. In the acetic acid-induced writhing reflex, ASA and HAE (600 mg/kg) produced 67.89% and 35.78% reduction in the number of writhing, respectively when compared with the negative control. Pentazocine and HAE (300 mg/kg) caused 67.62% and 35.24% increase in pain reaction time when compared with the negative control. The study affirms the folkloric uses of Helianthus annuus in the management of pain and inflammation.

Keywords

  • Acetic acid
  • acetylsalicylic acid
  • analgesic
  • anti-inflammatory