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Journal & Issues

Volume 12 (2022): Issue 1-2 (June 2022)

Volume 11 (2021): Issue 3-4 (December 2021)

Volume 11 (2021): Issue 1-2 (June 2021)

Volume 10 (2020): Issue 3-4 (December 2020)

Volume 10 (2020): Issue 1-2 (June 2020)

Volume 9 (2019): Issue 3-4 (December 2019)

Volume 9 (2019): Issue 1-2 (June 2019)

Volume 8 (2018): Issue 3-4 (December 2018)

Volume 8 (2018): Issue 1-2 (June 2018)

Volume 7 (2017): Issue 3-4 (December 2017)

Volume 7 (2017): Issue 1-2 (June 2017)

Volume 6 (2016): Issue 3-4 (December 2016)

Volume 6 (2016): Issue 1-2 (June 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7829
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 10 (2020): Issue 1-2 (June 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7829
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

Prolonged life and good death in Antiquity

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

This paper studies the connections between the notions of prolonging life and a good death in Antiquity. It is demonstrated that while prolonged life generally meant forestalling the human constitution’s death, ancient philosophers also pointed to the limitations of prolongation. The paper shows how philosophers welcomed prolonged life when it was shown to foster movement toward the good, such as self-realization and social usefulness. Yet, they rejected prolongation when it led to the perpetuation of evil, such as social uselessness and suffering. We ask whether a contemporary good death is a mercy killing or an improvement of prolonged life, as the ultimate end of “goods practicable for man”.

Keywords

  • euthanasia
  • good death
  • prolonged life
  • the end
  • physician
  • medicine
  • social usefulness
  • self-realization
  • Hippocrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
Open Access

Dying in dignity

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 10 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

The question of what might constitute “good dying” is a sensitive subject that is being discussed and is socially and politically controversial. My contribution discusses whether a reference to concepts such as autonomy and dignity in the debate over suicide and euthanasia is in fact convincing. Important impulses for the train of thought stem from Kantian philosophy. I will argue that suicide, as presented by Kant, is not an expression of autonomy, but exactly the opposite: an expression of heteronomy.

Keywords

  • autonomy
  • dignity
  • euthanasia
  • Kant
Open Access

To live is to die: A virtue account of arguments for the right to die

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 20 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, debates about euthanasia and assisted suicide have increased to the point that now, many people defend the recognition of the right to die, the right for people to decide upon the end of their life. Consistently, advocates fight to legalise practices such as euthanasia to guarantee patients’ possibility to die when they request it. In this paper, I review two of the strongest arguments invoked by proponents of physician-assisted suicide: the argument for compassion and the argument for dignity. The focus of this paper is to propose a review of these arguments through the lens of virtue ethics to inform the debate on physician-assisted suicide and question the relevance of such arguments for the legalisation of that right that would greatly ease the possibilities to end the life of a patient asking for it.

Keywords

  • compassion
  • dignity
  • right to die
  • virtue ethics
  • physician-assisted suicide
Open Access

The limits of libertarianism in debates over euthanasia and the application of moral fictionalism in bioethics

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 30 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

This text focuses on selected basic arguments of libertarianism that could be found in certain debates on the moral issues of euthanasia and the application of moral fictionalism in bioethics. Firstly, I devote my article to the criticism of libertarian arguments (as one of the dominant discourses related to the debate over euthanasia) in a wider perspective of moral philosophy. The article is based on an approach that understands morality as a kind of social practice and the primary goal is to grasp the key theoretical concepts which are included in the mechanism for identifying and assessing our moral intuitions. This text is primarily an analysis of selected arguments of current normative theories of libertarianism on two levels: first it examines the idea of self-ownership in connection with certain debates over euthanasia, while the latter part of the article concerns an analysis of the critique of libertarian arguments and a comparison of the alternative arguments of moral fictionalism. The last part of this text, focusing on moral fictionalism and its general application in bioethics, is the core of the article.

Keywords

  • bioethics
  • euthanasia
  • liberalism
  • libertarianism
  • moral fictionalism
  • self-ownership
Open Access

The Liverpool Care Pathway for the dying patient: Euthanasia through the back door, or the sign of poor death education?

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 40 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP) was an integrated care pathway for patients in the final days or hours of life, developed at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital in conjunction with the Marie Curie Palliative Care Institute, Liverpool. The LCP became increasingly the normative style of care for patients in the terminal stage across NHS England from the 1990s onwards. Following significant questions raised in Parliament, by the media and other stakeholders, an independent review panel was established under Baroness Neuberger in 2013 to investigate the LCP. The findings of the panel were published as More Care Less Pathway: a Review of the Liverpool Care Pathway identifying significant failings in the delivery of the LCP thus leading to it being phased out some six months later. Rather than being euthanasia through the backdoor, many of the criticisms of the LCP and its poor implementation are indicative of poor communication, limited knowledge of the dying process and a paucity of death education.

Keywords

  • The Liverpool Care Pathway
  • communication
  • culture shift & death education
Open Access

Inappropriate hemodialysis treatment and palliative care

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 48 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The paper discusses inappropriate (futile) treatment by analyzing the casuistics of palliative patients in the terminal stage of illness who are hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics of the Faculty hospital with policlinic (FNsP). Our research applies the principles of palliative care in the context of bioethics. The existing clinical conditions of healthcare in Slovakia are characteristic of making a taboo of the issues of inappropriate treatment of palliative patients. Inductive-deductive and normative clinical bioethics methods of palliative care and ethical strategy are applied for defining issues found in inappropriate hemodialysis treatment. An algorithm of hemodialysis treatment requires the definition of those lege artis criteria which, in the context of a patient’s autonomy and his/her decision, precondition the avoidance of the situation in which hemodialysis treatment is inappropriate (futile). Futile treatment in a terminal condition is ethically inappropriate medical treatment that extends the suffering of patients and their relatives. Its definition is determined by the relevant legislation and the methods of bioethics. An active palliative strategy is aimed at managing the process of incurable diseases in the patient’s bio-psycho-socio-spiritual continuity in the process of special bioethics. The global bioethical objective of general bioethics for palliative care is based on the paradigm of social harmony and solidarity in the context of an authentic modus of the patient’s existence as a constitutive principle for the phenomenon of the patient’s being to finite being (death).

Keywords

  • hemodialysis treatment
  • futile treatment
  • bioethics
  • individualized prognostic strategy
  • palliative care
Open Access

Current issues in aesthetics and beyond: Revisiting lookism

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Lookism is a term used to describe discrimination based on the physical appearance of a person. We suppose that the social impact of lookism is a philosophical issue, because, from this perspective, attractive people have an advantage over others. The first line of our argumentation involves the issue of lookism as a global ethical and aesthetical phenomenon. A person’s attractiveness has a significant impact on the social and public status of this individual. The common view in society is that it is good to be more attractive and healthier. This concept generates several ethical questions about human aesthetical identity, health, authenticity, and integrity in society. It seems that this unequal treatment causes discrimination, diminishes self-confidence, and lowers the chance of a job or social enforcement for many human beings. Currently, aesthetic improvements are being made through plastic surgery. There is no place on the human body that we cannot improve with plastic surgery or aesthetic medicine. We should not forget that it may result in the problem of elitism, in dividing people into primary and secondary categories. The second line of our argumentation involves a particular case of lookism: Melanie Gaydos. A woman that is considered to be a model with a unique look.

Keywords

  • aesthetic authenticity
  • discrimination
  • health
  • lookism
  • social identity
  • unique look
Open Access

The ethical dimension of erotic self-education and development ethics

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 69 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The ethical dimension of sexual education can referred to morality, religion and the ethos of life. Morality and religion exert pressure on certain behavior patterns. “Ethical eroticism” in relation to the theory of Development ethics implies a positive integration of sexuality with the ethos of life. “Ethical eroticism” in this area is not identical to sexual morality. Sexual morality is an external element as comprehended by a person, while “ethical eroticism” based on the ethos of life expresses a person’s moral subjectivity. In the principles of development ethics, the emphasis is shifted to individual development, which is the reason for propounding the postulate of erotic self-education.

Keywords

  • morality
  • sexual education
  • ethical eroticism
  • Development ethics
Open Access

Unethical practices in the Slovak business environment: Entrepreneurs vs. the State?

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 78 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

This paper critically analyses one of the unexpected results of qualitative research aimed at detecting the presence of unethical business practices in Slovakia. The authors seek to find out why entrepreneurs participating in this research do not take responsibility for the development of business ethics and why, in their primary reflections on unethical practices in the Slovak business environment, have they shifted it almost completely to the State level (1), and whether their attitude is morally justified (2). The main theoretical foundation in the following analysis is the theory of development of business ethics on three levels (micro, mezzo and macro), also known as the “subject-matter of business ethics” approach. The paper discusses attitudes of the research sample, including Slovak entrepreneurs and company representatives, towards the State, and the consecutive critical reflection of their opinions shows that businesspersons tend to give up on their own proactive approach to the development of business ethics and position themselves in the role of an “expectant” instead of a “creator” of ethical standards in society. Furthermore, the paper points out that businesses lack ethical self-reflection in relation to corruption, more precisely, they lack reflection of their place in the corrupt relationship with the State. Given these findings, the paper concludes that an essential basis for the long-term development of business ethics in our country is the establishment of partnerships between the State and business entities, while recognizing the place of nongovernmental democratic institutions.

Keywords

  • subject-matter of business ethics
  • micro level
  • mezzo level
  • macro level
  • business ethics
  • unethical practices
  • entrepreneurs
  • state
  • Slovakia
  • CEE
Open Access

Perceptions of the importance of business ethics in SMEs: A comparative study of Czech and Slovak entrepreneurs

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 96 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

This article focuses on the perception of the importance of business ethics among Czech and Slovak entrepreneurs (this includes business owners and managers) within the SME sector. The comparison is based on an analysis of the approach to business ethics according to a set of parameters, namely company size, years in business, and the gender and education of the entrepreneurs. Empirical research was conducted in 2020 on a sample set consisting of 454 respondents in the Czech Republic and 368 respondents in Slovakia. The most important outcome of the research was the finding that business ethics is considered extremely important in both countries. The research results not only revealed that just over 90% of Czech entrepreneurs and 88% of Slovak entrepreneurs within the SME sector agreed that they should take into account the moral and ethical consequences of their decisions, but that the structure of their answers was very similar. Also, of interest were the findings that women were more aware of business ethics than their male counterparts, as were those entrepreneurs who possessed a higher education over those with a secondary education.

Keywords

  • business ethics
  • small and medium-sized enterprises
  • Czech Republic
  • Slovakia
10 Articles
Open Access

Prolonged life and good death in Antiquity

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

Abstract

This paper studies the connections between the notions of prolonging life and a good death in Antiquity. It is demonstrated that while prolonged life generally meant forestalling the human constitution’s death, ancient philosophers also pointed to the limitations of prolongation. The paper shows how philosophers welcomed prolonged life when it was shown to foster movement toward the good, such as self-realization and social usefulness. Yet, they rejected prolongation when it led to the perpetuation of evil, such as social uselessness and suffering. We ask whether a contemporary good death is a mercy killing or an improvement of prolonged life, as the ultimate end of “goods practicable for man”.

Keywords

  • euthanasia
  • good death
  • prolonged life
  • the end
  • physician
  • medicine
  • social usefulness
  • self-realization
  • Hippocrates
  • Plato
  • Aristotle
Open Access

Dying in dignity

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 10 - 19

Abstract

Abstract

The question of what might constitute “good dying” is a sensitive subject that is being discussed and is socially and politically controversial. My contribution discusses whether a reference to concepts such as autonomy and dignity in the debate over suicide and euthanasia is in fact convincing. Important impulses for the train of thought stem from Kantian philosophy. I will argue that suicide, as presented by Kant, is not an expression of autonomy, but exactly the opposite: an expression of heteronomy.

Keywords

  • autonomy
  • dignity
  • euthanasia
  • Kant
Open Access

To live is to die: A virtue account of arguments for the right to die

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 20 - 29

Abstract

Abstract

In recent years, debates about euthanasia and assisted suicide have increased to the point that now, many people defend the recognition of the right to die, the right for people to decide upon the end of their life. Consistently, advocates fight to legalise practices such as euthanasia to guarantee patients’ possibility to die when they request it. In this paper, I review two of the strongest arguments invoked by proponents of physician-assisted suicide: the argument for compassion and the argument for dignity. The focus of this paper is to propose a review of these arguments through the lens of virtue ethics to inform the debate on physician-assisted suicide and question the relevance of such arguments for the legalisation of that right that would greatly ease the possibilities to end the life of a patient asking for it.

Keywords

  • compassion
  • dignity
  • right to die
  • virtue ethics
  • physician-assisted suicide
Open Access

The limits of libertarianism in debates over euthanasia and the application of moral fictionalism in bioethics

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 30 - 39

Abstract

Abstract

This text focuses on selected basic arguments of libertarianism that could be found in certain debates on the moral issues of euthanasia and the application of moral fictionalism in bioethics. Firstly, I devote my article to the criticism of libertarian arguments (as one of the dominant discourses related to the debate over euthanasia) in a wider perspective of moral philosophy. The article is based on an approach that understands morality as a kind of social practice and the primary goal is to grasp the key theoretical concepts which are included in the mechanism for identifying and assessing our moral intuitions. This text is primarily an analysis of selected arguments of current normative theories of libertarianism on two levels: first it examines the idea of self-ownership in connection with certain debates over euthanasia, while the latter part of the article concerns an analysis of the critique of libertarian arguments and a comparison of the alternative arguments of moral fictionalism. The last part of this text, focusing on moral fictionalism and its general application in bioethics, is the core of the article.

Keywords

  • bioethics
  • euthanasia
  • liberalism
  • libertarianism
  • moral fictionalism
  • self-ownership
Open Access

The Liverpool Care Pathway for the dying patient: Euthanasia through the back door, or the sign of poor death education?

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 40 - 47

Abstract

Abstract

The Liverpool Care Pathway for the Dying Patient (LCP) was an integrated care pathway for patients in the final days or hours of life, developed at the Royal Liverpool University Hospital in conjunction with the Marie Curie Palliative Care Institute, Liverpool. The LCP became increasingly the normative style of care for patients in the terminal stage across NHS England from the 1990s onwards. Following significant questions raised in Parliament, by the media and other stakeholders, an independent review panel was established under Baroness Neuberger in 2013 to investigate the LCP. The findings of the panel were published as More Care Less Pathway: a Review of the Liverpool Care Pathway identifying significant failings in the delivery of the LCP thus leading to it being phased out some six months later. Rather than being euthanasia through the backdoor, many of the criticisms of the LCP and its poor implementation are indicative of poor communication, limited knowledge of the dying process and a paucity of death education.

Keywords

  • The Liverpool Care Pathway
  • communication
  • culture shift & death education
Open Access

Inappropriate hemodialysis treatment and palliative care

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 48 - 58

Abstract

Abstract

The paper discusses inappropriate (futile) treatment by analyzing the casuistics of palliative patients in the terminal stage of illness who are hospitalized at the Department of Internal Medicine and Geriatrics of the Faculty hospital with policlinic (FNsP). Our research applies the principles of palliative care in the context of bioethics. The existing clinical conditions of healthcare in Slovakia are characteristic of making a taboo of the issues of inappropriate treatment of palliative patients. Inductive-deductive and normative clinical bioethics methods of palliative care and ethical strategy are applied for defining issues found in inappropriate hemodialysis treatment. An algorithm of hemodialysis treatment requires the definition of those lege artis criteria which, in the context of a patient’s autonomy and his/her decision, precondition the avoidance of the situation in which hemodialysis treatment is inappropriate (futile). Futile treatment in a terminal condition is ethically inappropriate medical treatment that extends the suffering of patients and their relatives. Its definition is determined by the relevant legislation and the methods of bioethics. An active palliative strategy is aimed at managing the process of incurable diseases in the patient’s bio-psycho-socio-spiritual continuity in the process of special bioethics. The global bioethical objective of general bioethics for palliative care is based on the paradigm of social harmony and solidarity in the context of an authentic modus of the patient’s existence as a constitutive principle for the phenomenon of the patient’s being to finite being (death).

Keywords

  • hemodialysis treatment
  • futile treatment
  • bioethics
  • individualized prognostic strategy
  • palliative care
Open Access

Current issues in aesthetics and beyond: Revisiting lookism

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 59 - 68

Abstract

Abstract

Lookism is a term used to describe discrimination based on the physical appearance of a person. We suppose that the social impact of lookism is a philosophical issue, because, from this perspective, attractive people have an advantage over others. The first line of our argumentation involves the issue of lookism as a global ethical and aesthetical phenomenon. A person’s attractiveness has a significant impact on the social and public status of this individual. The common view in society is that it is good to be more attractive and healthier. This concept generates several ethical questions about human aesthetical identity, health, authenticity, and integrity in society. It seems that this unequal treatment causes discrimination, diminishes self-confidence, and lowers the chance of a job or social enforcement for many human beings. Currently, aesthetic improvements are being made through plastic surgery. There is no place on the human body that we cannot improve with plastic surgery or aesthetic medicine. We should not forget that it may result in the problem of elitism, in dividing people into primary and secondary categories. The second line of our argumentation involves a particular case of lookism: Melanie Gaydos. A woman that is considered to be a model with a unique look.

Keywords

  • aesthetic authenticity
  • discrimination
  • health
  • lookism
  • social identity
  • unique look
Open Access

The ethical dimension of erotic self-education and development ethics

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 69 - 77

Abstract

Abstract

The ethical dimension of sexual education can referred to morality, religion and the ethos of life. Morality and religion exert pressure on certain behavior patterns. “Ethical eroticism” in relation to the theory of Development ethics implies a positive integration of sexuality with the ethos of life. “Ethical eroticism” in this area is not identical to sexual morality. Sexual morality is an external element as comprehended by a person, while “ethical eroticism” based on the ethos of life expresses a person’s moral subjectivity. In the principles of development ethics, the emphasis is shifted to individual development, which is the reason for propounding the postulate of erotic self-education.

Keywords

  • morality
  • sexual education
  • ethical eroticism
  • Development ethics
Open Access

Unethical practices in the Slovak business environment: Entrepreneurs vs. the State?

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 78 - 95

Abstract

Abstract

This paper critically analyses one of the unexpected results of qualitative research aimed at detecting the presence of unethical business practices in Slovakia. The authors seek to find out why entrepreneurs participating in this research do not take responsibility for the development of business ethics and why, in their primary reflections on unethical practices in the Slovak business environment, have they shifted it almost completely to the State level (1), and whether their attitude is morally justified (2). The main theoretical foundation in the following analysis is the theory of development of business ethics on three levels (micro, mezzo and macro), also known as the “subject-matter of business ethics” approach. The paper discusses attitudes of the research sample, including Slovak entrepreneurs and company representatives, towards the State, and the consecutive critical reflection of their opinions shows that businesspersons tend to give up on their own proactive approach to the development of business ethics and position themselves in the role of an “expectant” instead of a “creator” of ethical standards in society. Furthermore, the paper points out that businesses lack ethical self-reflection in relation to corruption, more precisely, they lack reflection of their place in the corrupt relationship with the State. Given these findings, the paper concludes that an essential basis for the long-term development of business ethics in our country is the establishment of partnerships between the State and business entities, while recognizing the place of nongovernmental democratic institutions.

Keywords

  • subject-matter of business ethics
  • micro level
  • mezzo level
  • macro level
  • business ethics
  • unethical practices
  • entrepreneurs
  • state
  • Slovakia
  • CEE
Open Access

Perceptions of the importance of business ethics in SMEs: A comparative study of Czech and Slovak entrepreneurs

Published Online: 12 Jun 2020
Page range: 96 - 106

Abstract

Abstract

This article focuses on the perception of the importance of business ethics among Czech and Slovak entrepreneurs (this includes business owners and managers) within the SME sector. The comparison is based on an analysis of the approach to business ethics according to a set of parameters, namely company size, years in business, and the gender and education of the entrepreneurs. Empirical research was conducted in 2020 on a sample set consisting of 454 respondents in the Czech Republic and 368 respondents in Slovakia. The most important outcome of the research was the finding that business ethics is considered extremely important in both countries. The research results not only revealed that just over 90% of Czech entrepreneurs and 88% of Slovak entrepreneurs within the SME sector agreed that they should take into account the moral and ethical consequences of their decisions, but that the structure of their answers was very similar. Also, of interest were the findings that women were more aware of business ethics than their male counterparts, as were those entrepreneurs who possessed a higher education over those with a secondary education.

Keywords

  • business ethics
  • small and medium-sized enterprises
  • Czech Republic
  • Slovakia

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