Issues

Journal & Issues

Volume 12 (2022): Issue 3-4 (December 2022)

Volume 12 (2022): Issue 1-2 (June 2022)

Volume 11 (2021): Issue 3-4 (December 2021)

Volume 11 (2021): Issue 1-2 (June 2021)

Volume 10 (2020): Issue 3-4 (December 2020)

Volume 10 (2020): Issue 1-2 (June 2020)

Volume 9 (2019): Issue 3-4 (December 2019)

Volume 9 (2019): Issue 1-2 (June 2019)

Volume 8 (2018): Issue 3-4 (December 2018)

Volume 8 (2018): Issue 1-2 (June 2018)

Volume 7 (2017): Issue 3-4 (December 2017)

Volume 7 (2017): Issue 1-2 (June 2017)

Volume 6 (2016): Issue 3-4 (December 2016)

Volume 6 (2016): Issue 1-2 (June 2016)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7829
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 12 (2022): Issue 1-2 (June 2022)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7829
First Published
16 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English

Search

10 Articles
Open Access

The ethical in Jan Patočka’s thought: Sacrifice and care for the soul

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 1 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

In his two works from the 1970s, Patočka proposes a very personal way that the spiritual crisis, which manifests itself as a techno-scientific reality of Gestell, can be overcome. Patočka argues that the only way to escape spiritual decline is through sacrifice. This study examines how the ethical is represented in Patočka’s philosophy. It focuses on his two main concepts of sacrifice and care for the soul and explores the relationship between them. Through a close reading of Plato and Europe (1973), ‘Four Seminars’ (1973), and his essay ‘The dangers of technicization’ (1973), this study reveals how Patočka proposes that the ethical can be implemented within the realm of the political. Drawing a parallel between Socrates’ and Patočka’s lives and fates, this study points to the significance of ethics in political life – both in the ancient Greek polis of Socrates’ time and in communist Czechoslovakia in Patočka’s time. This approach highlights the influence that the philosophy of Socrates had on Patočka’s thinking.

Keywords

  • sacrifice
  • care for the soul
  • the ethical
  • Socrates
  • polis
Open Access

Michel Onfray’s concept of new ethics

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 13 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

A new form of ethics suggested by the Francophone philosopher M. Onfray concerns, first of all, the resignation from faith in a transcendent God, which is substituted with an undefined sacrum (which is holy, highest) in immanence. This new form of ethics is, today, becoming a popular alternative to religious ethics. However, traditional, and new ethics should not be treated as separate sets, as they do not necessarily compete with each other. Systems of spiritual development related to specific denominations will always provide inspiration even for atheists’ ethics. The latter can indicate that, apart from religion, there is also a spirituality that can develop in a person. Nihilism is not the only alternative to religion, as sometimes the defenders of the old religious order try to show.

Keywords

  • Michel Onfray
  • French philosophy of religion
  • new atheism
  • new ethics
Open Access

T. G. Masaryk’s involvement in the Jewish issue

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 21 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

T. G. Masaryk’s thought is famous for his concept of the Czech nation as well as his ideals of humanity. As a philosopher, sociologist, and politician, he was confronted with Czech anti-Semitism, and after Czechoslovakia was founded, with issues of the Jewish national minority. He tried to solve all the questions with respect to his ethical conviction and the ideals of democracy and equality. The most difficult personal situation for Masaryk emerged with the ‘Hilsner affair’, when his brave stance against anti-Semitism caused animosity and even hatred from the public. As a consequence of that Masaryk had to abandon his public activities including lecturing at university for some time. The philosopher Jan Patočka analysed Masaryk’s involvement in this case and the following events in his study Masaryk’s struggle against anti-Semitism. Patočka pointed out that there is an interconnection between Masaryk’s involvement in this affair and his engagement in the question of Czech nationality, as Masaryk intended to improve the ethical level of the nation by disposing of bias and namely the ritual murder myth. The second part of the present contribution is focused on Masaryk’s views on Zionism and the assimilation movement and his ambiguity in relation to the issue. It seems that Masaryk’s concept of the Czech nation, formed for the struggle against the Habsburg monarchy, became inadequate in the new republic, as it was not inclusive of the many minorities, the Jewish one included. On the other hand, Masaryk’s ideals of humanity provide a certain solution on the level of ethics.

Keywords

  • T. G. Masaryk
  • anti-Semitism
  • Hilsner affair
  • Jewish question
  • Zionism and assimilation movement
  • Czech question
Open Access

Karol Frenkel and the tradition of ethics

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 29 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Karol Frenkel was one of Kazimierz Twardowski’s first disciples to undertake an attempt to develop their own concept of ethics. In his case, the process of developing his own ethical concept involved questioning the tradition in which he had been educated. Accordingly, he was able to formulate an original concept of independent ethics. In his doctoral dissertation, Frenkel analyzed two ethical systems, formulated by David Hume and Arthur Schopenhauer respectively which sought ethical determinants in the affective sphere. For Frenkel, these proposals turned out to be unsatisfactory, and thus he proposed his own solution derived from the accepted concept of morality. From today’s perspective, it was the first reflection in Poland referring to scientific ethics, which – chronologically speaking – in many respects preceded the analogous solutions proposed later by British analytical philosophers.

Keywords

  • Karol Frenkel
  • ethics
  • Kazimierz Twardowski
  • The Lvov–Warsaw School
  • David Hume
  • Artur Schopenhauer
Open Access

Ethical principles as the basis of governance in the works of Johann Weber Janus Bifrons and Lectio principum

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 38 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Our study deals with two works by Johann Weber, a pharmacist and mayor of the town Prešov, in which he tried to create an image of a virtuous ruler and governor who cares about the welfare of his people and the whole country. It is a physiological-political mirror (Specullum Physico Politicum) written in German and supplemented by Latin, forming the first part of a political trilogy. In the trilogy, Weber describes the qualities a ruler should possess, likening them to the various parts of the human body. The second part of the trilogy, Lectio principum, which is textually more complete and written both in German and Latin. Both are regnal mirrors, and contain ideas about governance in the 17th century.

Keywords

  • ethical principles
  • ruling mirrors
  • values
  • virtues
  • Prešov
Open Access

Modern ideas about the object of scientific knowledge and bioethics

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 53 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

The present article analyzes and outlines significant changes in ideas about the object of scientific knowledge in modern science. Special attention is paid to the transition to the paradigm of complexity, within which the object of scientific knowledge acquires a complex systemic character and remains in the same complex connections with systems of different levels. It is marked that such changes entail a number of methodological requirements, which are especially clearly manifested in modern theories of bioethics and its real practices. A special role in this case is assigned to issues of transdisciplinary approach, complementary methodology, and values of the subject of bioethical cognition. The prospects for further research are related to the possibilities of deepening the methodology of the paradigm of complexity based on the application of a transdisciplinary approach.

Keywords

  • scientific revolution
  • paradigm of complexity
  • complex system object
  • transdisciplinary approach
  • value orientations of the subject
  • problems of survival
  • theory and practice of bioethics
Open Access

Utilitarianism on the front lines: COVID-19, public ethics, and the “hidden assumption” problem

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 60 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

How should we think of the preferences of citizens? Whereas self-optimal policy is relatively straightforward to produce, socially optimal policy often requires a more detailed examination. In this paper, we identify an issue that has received far too little attention in welfarist modelling of public policy, which we name the “hidden assumptions” problem. Hidden assumptions can be deceptive because they are not expressed explicitly and the social planner (e.g. a policy maker, a regulator, a legislator) may not give them the critical attention they need. We argue that ethical expertise has a direct role to play in public discourse because it is hard to adopt a position on major issues like public health policy or healthcare prioritisation without making contentious assumptions about population ethics. We then postulate that ethicists are best situated to critically evaluate these hidden assumptions, and can therefore play a vital role in public policy debates.

Keywords

  • utilitarianism
  • COVID-19
  • ethical analysis
  • health resources
  • health care rationing
  • public health
  • public ethics
Open Access

No room for patients or ethics: COVID-19-broken hospitals in Madrid

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 79 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

In 2020, COVID-19 patients overwhelmed hospital beds in several Spanish cities, producing an increase in mortality derived from a lack of resources. The provision of new spaces to be reconfigured as healthcare centers for COVID patients was one of the measures implemented. In Madrid, two of these COVID centers drew enormous media and political repercussions due to their high cost and the controversy surrounding the quality of the care they offered. In this scenario of misinformation, several doctors and patients rejected to be transferred to such medical centers, but they were nonetheless compelled to make the move. This manuscript underscores how this lack of transparency affects health workers, patients, and the relationship between them, and brings out the question of how many essential bioethical principles can be individually violated by a matter of public health. New guidelines for the transfer of patients should be designed from an ethical perspective and updated, as the epidemic continues, to improve the modern understanding of human factors in times of uncertainty. The lesson that these centers provide us is that we must rethink crisis resource management from a new perspective that prioritizes access to quality information. In its absence, the principle of autonomy must prevail.

Keywords

  • ethics
  • pandemic
  • uncertainty
  • transfer
  • patient
  • safety
Open Access

Values consolidating and disintegrating lyrical relationships as evaluated by women and men

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 84 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, we will discuss and identify infidelity. We will take a closer look at some theories and research. This article will also describe concepts of sexuality, monogamy, and partner relationships. In the first paragraph, we will take a closer look at infidelity in general and we will mention the most common reasons for infidelity. The next paragraph deals with differences between men and women in response to infidelity. Based on this, we will define two types of infidelity- sexual and emotional infidelity. In the last paragraph, we will describe the most commonly known predictors of infidelity. Knowing and understanding the reasons, factors, differences and predictors of infidelity can help people in critical situations and this article can be a useful source of information for partners in their future relationships.

Keywords

  • predictors of infidelity
  • sexuality
  • monogamy
  • partner relationships
Open Access

Ethics programs in business and management literature: Bibliometric analysis of performance, content, and trends

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 92 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Research regarding ethics programs represents an important segment of business ethics literature. In the last thirty years, scientific discourse on ethics programs has flourished. Numerous studies examined their functions, composition, application in organizational practice, and impact on employee ethical behavior and many other organizational variables. However, so far there has been no study that would comprehensively map this particular field. Given that, this paper aims to examine discourse on ethics programs in its complexity within business and management literature. Based on a sophistically composed search protocol in the Scopus database, and after multiple rounds of checks, we extracted a final sample of 287 documents that matched the selection criteria. The sample was thoroughly analyzed by means of advanced bibliometric analytics tools. The results show the quantitative impact of ethics program literature via publication and citation metrics, a network of co-occurring themes and clusters of scientific inquiry, and the evolution of respective discourse over time. This detailed analysis results in a set of conclusions provided in the last part of the paper summarizing the quantitative performance and thematic scope of literature on ethics programs.

Keywords

  • bibliometric analysis
  • business ethics
  • ethics management
  • ethics program
  • organizational ethics
10 Articles
Open Access

The ethical in Jan Patočka’s thought: Sacrifice and care for the soul

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 1 - 12

Abstract

Abstract

In his two works from the 1970s, Patočka proposes a very personal way that the spiritual crisis, which manifests itself as a techno-scientific reality of Gestell, can be overcome. Patočka argues that the only way to escape spiritual decline is through sacrifice. This study examines how the ethical is represented in Patočka’s philosophy. It focuses on his two main concepts of sacrifice and care for the soul and explores the relationship between them. Through a close reading of Plato and Europe (1973), ‘Four Seminars’ (1973), and his essay ‘The dangers of technicization’ (1973), this study reveals how Patočka proposes that the ethical can be implemented within the realm of the political. Drawing a parallel between Socrates’ and Patočka’s lives and fates, this study points to the significance of ethics in political life – both in the ancient Greek polis of Socrates’ time and in communist Czechoslovakia in Patočka’s time. This approach highlights the influence that the philosophy of Socrates had on Patočka’s thinking.

Keywords

  • sacrifice
  • care for the soul
  • the ethical
  • Socrates
  • polis
Open Access

Michel Onfray’s concept of new ethics

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 13 - 20

Abstract

Abstract

A new form of ethics suggested by the Francophone philosopher M. Onfray concerns, first of all, the resignation from faith in a transcendent God, which is substituted with an undefined sacrum (which is holy, highest) in immanence. This new form of ethics is, today, becoming a popular alternative to religious ethics. However, traditional, and new ethics should not be treated as separate sets, as they do not necessarily compete with each other. Systems of spiritual development related to specific denominations will always provide inspiration even for atheists’ ethics. The latter can indicate that, apart from religion, there is also a spirituality that can develop in a person. Nihilism is not the only alternative to religion, as sometimes the defenders of the old religious order try to show.

Keywords

  • Michel Onfray
  • French philosophy of religion
  • new atheism
  • new ethics
Open Access

T. G. Masaryk’s involvement in the Jewish issue

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 21 - 28

Abstract

Abstract

T. G. Masaryk’s thought is famous for his concept of the Czech nation as well as his ideals of humanity. As a philosopher, sociologist, and politician, he was confronted with Czech anti-Semitism, and after Czechoslovakia was founded, with issues of the Jewish national minority. He tried to solve all the questions with respect to his ethical conviction and the ideals of democracy and equality. The most difficult personal situation for Masaryk emerged with the ‘Hilsner affair’, when his brave stance against anti-Semitism caused animosity and even hatred from the public. As a consequence of that Masaryk had to abandon his public activities including lecturing at university for some time. The philosopher Jan Patočka analysed Masaryk’s involvement in this case and the following events in his study Masaryk’s struggle against anti-Semitism. Patočka pointed out that there is an interconnection between Masaryk’s involvement in this affair and his engagement in the question of Czech nationality, as Masaryk intended to improve the ethical level of the nation by disposing of bias and namely the ritual murder myth. The second part of the present contribution is focused on Masaryk’s views on Zionism and the assimilation movement and his ambiguity in relation to the issue. It seems that Masaryk’s concept of the Czech nation, formed for the struggle against the Habsburg monarchy, became inadequate in the new republic, as it was not inclusive of the many minorities, the Jewish one included. On the other hand, Masaryk’s ideals of humanity provide a certain solution on the level of ethics.

Keywords

  • T. G. Masaryk
  • anti-Semitism
  • Hilsner affair
  • Jewish question
  • Zionism and assimilation movement
  • Czech question
Open Access

Karol Frenkel and the tradition of ethics

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 29 - 37

Abstract

Abstract

Karol Frenkel was one of Kazimierz Twardowski’s first disciples to undertake an attempt to develop their own concept of ethics. In his case, the process of developing his own ethical concept involved questioning the tradition in which he had been educated. Accordingly, he was able to formulate an original concept of independent ethics. In his doctoral dissertation, Frenkel analyzed two ethical systems, formulated by David Hume and Arthur Schopenhauer respectively which sought ethical determinants in the affective sphere. For Frenkel, these proposals turned out to be unsatisfactory, and thus he proposed his own solution derived from the accepted concept of morality. From today’s perspective, it was the first reflection in Poland referring to scientific ethics, which – chronologically speaking – in many respects preceded the analogous solutions proposed later by British analytical philosophers.

Keywords

  • Karol Frenkel
  • ethics
  • Kazimierz Twardowski
  • The Lvov–Warsaw School
  • David Hume
  • Artur Schopenhauer
Open Access

Ethical principles as the basis of governance in the works of Johann Weber Janus Bifrons and Lectio principum

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 38 - 52

Abstract

Abstract

Our study deals with two works by Johann Weber, a pharmacist and mayor of the town Prešov, in which he tried to create an image of a virtuous ruler and governor who cares about the welfare of his people and the whole country. It is a physiological-political mirror (Specullum Physico Politicum) written in German and supplemented by Latin, forming the first part of a political trilogy. In the trilogy, Weber describes the qualities a ruler should possess, likening them to the various parts of the human body. The second part of the trilogy, Lectio principum, which is textually more complete and written both in German and Latin. Both are regnal mirrors, and contain ideas about governance in the 17th century.

Keywords

  • ethical principles
  • ruling mirrors
  • values
  • virtues
  • Prešov
Open Access

Modern ideas about the object of scientific knowledge and bioethics

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 53 - 59

Abstract

Abstract

The present article analyzes and outlines significant changes in ideas about the object of scientific knowledge in modern science. Special attention is paid to the transition to the paradigm of complexity, within which the object of scientific knowledge acquires a complex systemic character and remains in the same complex connections with systems of different levels. It is marked that such changes entail a number of methodological requirements, which are especially clearly manifested in modern theories of bioethics and its real practices. A special role in this case is assigned to issues of transdisciplinary approach, complementary methodology, and values of the subject of bioethical cognition. The prospects for further research are related to the possibilities of deepening the methodology of the paradigm of complexity based on the application of a transdisciplinary approach.

Keywords

  • scientific revolution
  • paradigm of complexity
  • complex system object
  • transdisciplinary approach
  • value orientations of the subject
  • problems of survival
  • theory and practice of bioethics
Open Access

Utilitarianism on the front lines: COVID-19, public ethics, and the “hidden assumption” problem

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 60 - 78

Abstract

Abstract

How should we think of the preferences of citizens? Whereas self-optimal policy is relatively straightforward to produce, socially optimal policy often requires a more detailed examination. In this paper, we identify an issue that has received far too little attention in welfarist modelling of public policy, which we name the “hidden assumptions” problem. Hidden assumptions can be deceptive because they are not expressed explicitly and the social planner (e.g. a policy maker, a regulator, a legislator) may not give them the critical attention they need. We argue that ethical expertise has a direct role to play in public discourse because it is hard to adopt a position on major issues like public health policy or healthcare prioritisation without making contentious assumptions about population ethics. We then postulate that ethicists are best situated to critically evaluate these hidden assumptions, and can therefore play a vital role in public policy debates.

Keywords

  • utilitarianism
  • COVID-19
  • ethical analysis
  • health resources
  • health care rationing
  • public health
  • public ethics
Open Access

No room for patients or ethics: COVID-19-broken hospitals in Madrid

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 79 - 83

Abstract

Abstract

In 2020, COVID-19 patients overwhelmed hospital beds in several Spanish cities, producing an increase in mortality derived from a lack of resources. The provision of new spaces to be reconfigured as healthcare centers for COVID patients was one of the measures implemented. In Madrid, two of these COVID centers drew enormous media and political repercussions due to their high cost and the controversy surrounding the quality of the care they offered. In this scenario of misinformation, several doctors and patients rejected to be transferred to such medical centers, but they were nonetheless compelled to make the move. This manuscript underscores how this lack of transparency affects health workers, patients, and the relationship between them, and brings out the question of how many essential bioethical principles can be individually violated by a matter of public health. New guidelines for the transfer of patients should be designed from an ethical perspective and updated, as the epidemic continues, to improve the modern understanding of human factors in times of uncertainty. The lesson that these centers provide us is that we must rethink crisis resource management from a new perspective that prioritizes access to quality information. In its absence, the principle of autonomy must prevail.

Keywords

  • ethics
  • pandemic
  • uncertainty
  • transfer
  • patient
  • safety
Open Access

Values consolidating and disintegrating lyrical relationships as evaluated by women and men

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 84 - 91

Abstract

Abstract

In this article, we will discuss and identify infidelity. We will take a closer look at some theories and research. This article will also describe concepts of sexuality, monogamy, and partner relationships. In the first paragraph, we will take a closer look at infidelity in general and we will mention the most common reasons for infidelity. The next paragraph deals with differences between men and women in response to infidelity. Based on this, we will define two types of infidelity- sexual and emotional infidelity. In the last paragraph, we will describe the most commonly known predictors of infidelity. Knowing and understanding the reasons, factors, differences and predictors of infidelity can help people in critical situations and this article can be a useful source of information for partners in their future relationships.

Keywords

  • predictors of infidelity
  • sexuality
  • monogamy
  • partner relationships
Open Access

Ethics programs in business and management literature: Bibliometric analysis of performance, content, and trends

Published Online: 18 Jun 2022
Page range: 92 - 107

Abstract

Abstract

Research regarding ethics programs represents an important segment of business ethics literature. In the last thirty years, scientific discourse on ethics programs has flourished. Numerous studies examined their functions, composition, application in organizational practice, and impact on employee ethical behavior and many other organizational variables. However, so far there has been no study that would comprehensively map this particular field. Given that, this paper aims to examine discourse on ethics programs in its complexity within business and management literature. Based on a sophistically composed search protocol in the Scopus database, and after multiple rounds of checks, we extracted a final sample of 287 documents that matched the selection criteria. The sample was thoroughly analyzed by means of advanced bibliometric analytics tools. The results show the quantitative impact of ethics program literature via publication and citation metrics, a network of co-occurring themes and clusters of scientific inquiry, and the evolution of respective discourse over time. This detailed analysis results in a set of conclusions provided in the last part of the paper summarizing the quantitative performance and thematic scope of literature on ethics programs.

Keywords

  • bibliometric analysis
  • business ethics
  • ethics management
  • ethics program
  • organizational ethics

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