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Volume 56 (2023): Issue 1 (January 2023)

Volume 55 (2022): Issue 1 (January 2022)

Volume 54 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 53 (2020): Issue 4 (December 2020)

Volume 53 (2020): Issue 3 (September 2020)

Volume 53 (2020): Issue 2 (June 2020)

Volume 53 (2020): Issue 1 (March 2020)

Volume 52 (2019): Issue 3-4 (December 2019)

Volume 52 (2019): Issue 2 (June 2019)

Volume 52 (2019): Issue 1 (March 2019)

Volume 51 (2018): Issue 4 (December 2018)

Volume 51 (2018): Issue 3 (September 2018)

Volume 51 (2018): Issue 2 (June 2018)

Volume 51 (2018): Issue 1 (March 2018)

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 4 (December 2017)

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 3 (September 2017)

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 2 (June 2017)

Volume 50 (2017): Issue 1 (March 2017)

Volume 49 (2016): Issue 1-4 (December 2016)

Volume 48 (2015): Issue 3-4 (December 2015)

Volume 48 (2015): Issue 1-2 (June 2015)

Volume 47 (2014): Issue 4 (December 2014)

Volume 47 (2014): Issue 3 (September 2014)

Volume 47 (2014): Issue 2 (June 2014)

Volume 47 (2014): Issue 1 (March 2014)

Volume 46 (2013): Issue 4 (December 2013)

Volume 46 (2013): Issue 3 (September 2013)

Volume 46 (2013): Issue 2 (June 2013)

Volume 46 (2013): Issue 1 (March 2013)

Volume 45 (2012): Issue 4 (December 2012)

Volume 45 (2012): Issue 3 (October 2012)

Volume 45 (2012): Issue 2 (October 2012)

Volume 45 (2012): Issue 1 (March 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-0571
First Published
24 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 45 (2012): Issue 3 (October 2012)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
1801-0571
First Published
24 Oct 2012
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

0 Articles
Open Access

Feed Intake, Digestibility and Live Weight Change of Lambs Fed Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Straw Supplemented With Atella, Noug Seed (Guizotia abyssinica) Cake and Their Mixtures

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Feed intake, digestibility and body weight change of lambs fed finger millet (Eleusine coracana) straw basal diet supplemented with atella (traditional brewery residue), noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake and mixtures of atella and noug seedcake (NSC) was studied using twenty five yearling male lambs of Ethiopian Highland sheep breed with average initial body weight (BW) of 16.4 ± 1.1 kg (Mean ± SD). The lambs were grouped into five blocks of five animals, and fed with finger millet straw alone (T1), finger millet straw + atella (T2), finger millet straw + mixture of 70% atella: 30% NSC (T3), finger millet straw + mixture of 30% atella: 70% NSC (T4), and finger millet straw + NSC (T5). The supplements were offered at the rate of 300 g/d during the feeding and digestibility trials of 90 and 7 days, respectively. Daily feed intake and body weight change of lambs was measured. Supplementation of atella, NSC and their mixtures increased (P < 0.05) the intakes of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of the total feed. The intake of finger millet straw (393 g/d) DM for lambs in T1 was higher (P < 0.001) as compared to finger millet straw intake by lambs in T4 (353.5 g/d) and T5 (337.8 g/d). Lambs in T5 had the highest (P < 0.05) CP intake of 101 g/d followed by T4, T3 and T2 with 91, 84 and 73 g/d, respectively. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP, as well as the daily BW gain was higher (P < 0.05) for supplemented than for the control (-23.3 g/d). It was concluded that supplementation of lambs with atella alone resulted in lower (P < 0.05) daily BW gain of 51 g/d as compared to BW gain of 63 g/d and 60 g/d as a result of supplementation with a mixture of 30% atella: 70% NSC and sole NSC.

Keywords

  • Body weight gain
  • lambs
  • digestibility
  • Eleucine coracana straw
  • feed intake
  • Guizotia abyssinica.
Open Access

Haematological Response of Broiler Finishers Fed Differently Processed Taro Cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 112 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of differently processed taro cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) on haematological indices of broiler finishers. For the study, 126 day-old chicks were used. The birds were fed broiler starter diet for pre-experimental period of two weeks, after which they were randomly grouped into six treatments and each treatment had 3 replicates with 7 birds per replicate. The control diet was maize-based while the other treatments contained raw unpeeled, raw peeled, boiled unpeeled, boiled peeled sun-dried taro cocoyam and peels in complete replacement of maize. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. The results of the study showed no significant difference across the treatments for packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and lymphocyte. The mean value of red blood cell (RBC) counts for birds on raw peeled taro cocoyam diet (2.7 × 106μl-1) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those on control diet (1.9 × 106μl-1). White blood cell (WBC) counts slightly varied across the treatments. There was no significant difference in total protein across the treatments. Birds on control diet had the highest numerical mean value of 4.3g/dl. In terms of cholesterol, birds on peels had the least mean value of 62.5g/dl which was significantly (P < 0.05) different from those on control diet (105.5g/dl). Birds on boiled unpeeled taro cocoyam had the least mean value of 142.1g/dl for glucose level which significantly (P < 0.05) differed from those on control diet (170.7g/ dl). Taro cocoyam is thus a recommended alternative energy source for poultry.

Keywords

  • Broilers
  • energy
  • feeding trial
  • haematology
  • nutrition
  • processed
  • serum metabolites
  • taro cocoyam.
Open Access

Growth Performance and Milk Yield in Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian Goats Following Crossbreeding in the Semi-Arid Zone of Mali

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 117 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Sahelian Goats (SG) with Anglo-Nubian (AN) bucks on growth performance of kids and milk production of does during the pre-weaning period. Forty four suckled and hand-milked does were randomized and divided into two groups [Sahelian goat (SG; n = 22) and Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goat (ANSG; n = 22)] and ninety kids of three breeds were allocated to three groups [(SG; n = 30), (ANSG; n = 30) and backcross breeds kids (AN (ANSG); n = 30)]. The does and their offspring were kept in a pen in which they stayed indoor for 45 days before they were allowed to outdoor system as the weather was suitable. Every category received a nutritional supplementation depending on the annual season (rainy, dry cold and dry hot season). The body weight gain of the kids and the average daily milk yield of the does were recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age.

The birth weight and live weight of kids were significantly affected by the breed type (P ≤ 0.001). The body weights of kids were greater in AN (ANSG), and ANSG group (P ≤ 0.001), compared to SG at all ages. The growth performance was the greatest in AN (ANSG) kids until 30 days (113.70 ± 15.79 g) and until 100 days, 91.23 ± 8.12 g (P ≤ 0.001). Moderate correlation was found between overall kids birth weight and live-body weight at 60 days of age (r = 0.52). Similarly, daily milk yield was highly affected by breed type (P ≤ 0.001) throughout the observation period, while the effect of sex on daily milk production was not significant. The total milk yield at 100 days has increased of 103% in ANSG over SG. Results of this study indicate that crossbreeding Sahelian Goat with Anglo-Nubian goat breed improved their growth rate and milk production.

Keywords

  • Pure Sahelian Goat
  • Anglo-Nubian
  • crossbreeding
  • growth
  • milk yield.
Open Access

Selected Microbiological and Organoleptic Changes in Vacuum Packed Imported Beef

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 126 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine selected microbiological and organoleptic changes of vacuum packed cooled beef imported from Argentina as one of the few South American countries which export beef to Europe. The changes were studied during its common shelf life (4 months) and 1 month thereafter in case of longer storage. The storage temperature was -1 °C to +2 °C. Four packages of boneless chilled heart of rump were used; all the values of each package were measured five times. Meat and juice weight, vacuum value, numbers of microbes, yeasts and moulds, pH of meat and juice were determined. Some organoleptic characteristics of meat and juice such as taste, aroma, colour, consistency and clearness of both of juice and broth after boiling were evaluated using Czech technical standards (ČSN). The vacuum value of the first package was 90 kPa; the number of the microbes was increasing adequately to time in all the packages. In the course of the entire shelf life period all the samples fulfilled the allowed limits so the meat was suitable for human consumption. During the tested period neither monitored pathogen microflora nor yeasts and moulds were present; pH of all samples was influenced by storage in the vacuum. Meat stored for 5 months showed changes in odour and presence of coliforms. Commencing spoilage of this sample rendered the meat not suitable for human consumption.

Keywords

  • Vacuum packed beef
  • microbiological changes
  • organoleptic changes
  • pH and beef ripening.
Open Access

Vermicompost Application and Growth Patterns of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 134 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

Lettuce is the most important leaf vegetable grown in Argentina mainly in the green belts. This species requires 90 to 100 kg ha-1 nitrogen, which can be supplied by synthetic chemical fertilizers or organic supplements. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the application of vermicompost on the growth parameters of lettuce in two commercial types: leaf lettuce (cv Brisa) and butterhead (cv Daguan). Seedlings were produced in plastic trays and were transplanted when two leaves were completed expanded 30 days after sowing after that management was similar to a commercial one. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. During cultivation and at harvest measurements of fresh and dry weight, leaf number and area, nitrate and reducing sugar concentrations were made. Calculations for yield were performed. At harvest, vermicompost addition affected nitrate content in leaf lettuce (cv Brisa) increasing its concentration. Yield was not affected by vermicompost application.

Keywords

  • lettuce
  • organic supplement
  • vermicompost
  • leaf crops.
Open Access

Preliminary Study of Diversity of Plukenetia volubilis Based on the Morphological and Genetic Characteristics

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 140 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to make an initial step in clarification of morphological diversity of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.), a traditional oilseed crop, together with use of ISSR primers for a preliminary assessment of genetic variability in the species. Quantitave and qualitative morphological data together with leaf samples for twenty plant individuals of sacha inchi from five distinct populations were gathered in three different communities neighbouring the city of Pucallpa in Peru. Morphological data were processed into PCA analysis graph while for DNA analysis the method of fingerprinting processed into PCO graph and dendrogram was used. Visible morphological dissimilarities in the plant appearance were confirmed and observable differences in phenotypical characteristics among different types of associated cultivations were recorded. For genetic variability twelve from eighteen ISSR primers used and tested in the study could be used directly for further molecular pursuit on this species. Dendrogram with six main clusters was created and thus confirmed polymorphism as allogamy plants shows. Obtained results contributed to the identification of suitable method for further assessment of genetic variability within this species. New horizons for the focus of further research and improvements in onward development and genetic conservation of sacha inchi cultivation were identified, thus linking the observation of morphological features with DNA analysis proved as effective.

Keywords

  • diversity
  • ISSR markers
  • morphological characters
  • Peruvian Amazon
  • Plukenetia volubilis
  • sacha inchi.
Open Access

In vitro Conservation of Smallanthus sonchifolius under Slow-Growth Conditions

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 147 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to optimize in vitro storage of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) under slow-growth conditions. Mediumterm conservation was tested on ½ MS supplemented with mannitol and sorbitol (1-3%), BAP (5 mg l-1), or MS and ½ MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Within 60 days, height of plants, number of nodes, number of roots and their length were measured in all of these treatments. The results revealed that there was a decline in plant growth along with the increase in the concentrations of mannitol (1.88, 1.49 and 1.07 cm for 10, 20 and 30 g l-1 mannitol) and sorbitol (3.66, 3.19 and 1.74 cm for 10, 20 and 30 g l-1 sorbitol), and along with the decrease of nutrient concentration in the cultivation medium (4.74 and 2.24 cm for MS and ½ MS medium). The survival of explants was found to be minimal at the highest concentrations of osmotic regulators (70% in mannitol and 50% in sorbitol) and on the medium supplemented with BAP (60%), while maximal on MS medium, ½ MS medium and on ½ MS medium with addition of 10 g l-1 mannitol (in all cases 100%). On full-strength MS medium and medium with addition of BAP plant growth was rapid, suggesting that these media could be rather used for multiplication of yacon. On the basis of our results it can be concluded, that for medium-term conservation of yacon can be satisfactory used ½ MS medium and media supplemented by 10 or 20 g l-1 mannitol or sorbitol.

Keywords

  • Germplasm
  • medium-term preservation
  • yacon
  • cultivation medium
  • 6-benzylaminopurine
  • mannitol
  • sorbitol.
Open Access

Monitoring of Composting Practices in Selected Rural Areas Near Pucallpa City, Peru

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 151 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

Soils in surroundings of Pucallpa are in general of a low quality for agriculture. One of the promising strategies how to improve soil fertility in this location is implementation of composting technology. This was therefore the aim of our study. Selected farmers have received composting bins within a frame of Czech project “Sustainable Management of NaturalResources in the Peruvian Amazon”. We evaluated the suitability of this low-technology and low-cost composting method in the area under study. The research activities were based on field work with local farmers from villages near Pucallpa city with the intent to analyse organic waste generation and composition, its recycling and reuse, and the overall willingness to manage the composting process. The field operations were carried out along with laboratory analyses. Generally this composting method was well adopted and can be considered as an appropriate instrument for improving soil management in the studied area

Keywords

  • Organic waste management
  • composting
  • farmers
  • Pucallpa.
Open Access

Moldovan Tomato Market Analysis through Use of the Agricultural Marketing Information System

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 157 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

The vegetable production is one of the few agricultural profit-generating sectors based on cash crop growing and marketing. Its tomato sector of the Republic of Moldova has a huge potential to become an important income generator within the national economy. It is obvious that the success of this sector development depends on an efficient marketing system and access to information sources in Moldovan rural areas. The lack of information on tomato markets is a major problem for the Moldovan tomato producers thereby limiting their ability to profitably access new markets. The situation is particularly acute for farmers who reside in rural areas where the information flow is much slower and less reliable once it reaches the farmer. Most of producers and processors lack even basic information on fundamental issues like the market demand on product quantities and quality parameters, towards which markets they should address and what distribution channels choose. Usually they do not know who and where their competitors are and how to compete with them.

The paper reports the Moldovan tomato market analysis that was done using the Agricultural Marketing Information System (AMIS). The AMIS is a support tool for agricultural (including tomato) and food product market assessment and access to the information on commodity markets by main producers, production inputs and marketing services in the Republic of Moldova.

Keywords

  • The Republic of Moldova
  • Agricultural Marketing Information System
  • tomato market
  • market trends
  • database.
Open Access

The Impact Assessment of Water Resource Management on Farms in the Ping Watershed, Northern Thailand

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 166 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

The irrational use of water in agriculture is often responsible for several problems concerning the depletion of water resources. Water resources sustainability has crucial for the existence of farming system which is dependent on the cropping pattern practices. This paper concerns the studies of existing water resource management and determines factors affecting decision making about water use and management within different farming systems. In these cases, a multi-criteria decision making model (MCDM) has been determined that aims at allocating efficient water and land resources to farms in the Ping watershed area in northern Thailand by optimizing a set of important socio-economic objectives which depend on sustainable agricultural (rural) development. The solution was found by using two analytical steps as follows: single objective optimization and compromise programming.

These resources include: land, labour, capital, fertilizer, pesticides and irrigation water. Existing cropping pattern included the inseason rice, off season-rice, vegetables (chili, pak choi, cauliflower, long bean, cabbage), soybean and sweet corn. Under the model cropping pattern conditions the in-season rice was produced for the household consumption and specially found in irrigated areas with storage dam. The model recommended that the suitable cropping pattern of the in-season rice followed by chili and long bean increased the gross margin two times. The amount of water used for the irrigation decreased by 6.84 percent from original 1,198,904 m3 at the existing cropping pattern to 1,116,902 m3 at the model cropping pattern.

However, in the case of the irrigated areas with water gates the model showed that the suitable cropping pattern was not different from the existing ones. However, the recommended model cropping pattern as the suitable cropping pattern consisting of the inseason rice followed by vegetables, sugar cane and perennial crops such as longan increased the gross margin three times while the water use increased only by 2.25 percent from the existing cropping pattern (from 1,374,655 m3 to 1,405,582 m3 at the model cropping pattern).

In the case of the rainfed areas the model cropping pattern recommended to grow the in-season rice, tobacco and longan on farm which increased the gross margin six times. However, the water using increased slightly from the existing on-farm water consumption (101,601.2 m3) up to 680,869 m3 as linked to the model cropping pattern.

Keywords

  • water resource management
  • multi-criteria decision making
  • water using
  • cropping pattern
  • farming system
Open Access

Book Review

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 173 - 174

Abstract

Open Access

Letters to the editor

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 175 - 177

Abstract

0 Articles
Open Access

Feed Intake, Digestibility and Live Weight Change of Lambs Fed Finger Millet (Eleusine coracana) Straw Supplemented With Atella, Noug Seed (Guizotia abyssinica) Cake and Their Mixtures

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 105 - 111

Abstract

Abstract

Feed intake, digestibility and body weight change of lambs fed finger millet (Eleusine coracana) straw basal diet supplemented with atella (traditional brewery residue), noug seed (Guizotia abyssinica) cake and mixtures of atella and noug seedcake (NSC) was studied using twenty five yearling male lambs of Ethiopian Highland sheep breed with average initial body weight (BW) of 16.4 ± 1.1 kg (Mean ± SD). The lambs were grouped into five blocks of five animals, and fed with finger millet straw alone (T1), finger millet straw + atella (T2), finger millet straw + mixture of 70% atella: 30% NSC (T3), finger millet straw + mixture of 30% atella: 70% NSC (T4), and finger millet straw + NSC (T5). The supplements were offered at the rate of 300 g/d during the feeding and digestibility trials of 90 and 7 days, respectively. Daily feed intake and body weight change of lambs was measured. Supplementation of atella, NSC and their mixtures increased (P < 0.05) the intakes of dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) of the total feed. The intake of finger millet straw (393 g/d) DM for lambs in T1 was higher (P < 0.001) as compared to finger millet straw intake by lambs in T4 (353.5 g/d) and T5 (337.8 g/d). Lambs in T5 had the highest (P < 0.05) CP intake of 101 g/d followed by T4, T3 and T2 with 91, 84 and 73 g/d, respectively. The digestibility of DM, OM and CP, as well as the daily BW gain was higher (P < 0.05) for supplemented than for the control (-23.3 g/d). It was concluded that supplementation of lambs with atella alone resulted in lower (P < 0.05) daily BW gain of 51 g/d as compared to BW gain of 63 g/d and 60 g/d as a result of supplementation with a mixture of 30% atella: 70% NSC and sole NSC.

Keywords

  • Body weight gain
  • lambs
  • digestibility
  • Eleucine coracana straw
  • feed intake
  • Guizotia abyssinica.
Open Access

Haematological Response of Broiler Finishers Fed Differently Processed Taro Cocoyam Colocasia esculenta (L) Schott

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 112 - 116

Abstract

Abstract

The study was carried out to investigate the effect of differently processed taro cocoyam (Colocasia esculenta) on haematological indices of broiler finishers. For the study, 126 day-old chicks were used. The birds were fed broiler starter diet for pre-experimental period of two weeks, after which they were randomly grouped into six treatments and each treatment had 3 replicates with 7 birds per replicate. The control diet was maize-based while the other treatments contained raw unpeeled, raw peeled, boiled unpeeled, boiled peeled sun-dried taro cocoyam and peels in complete replacement of maize. The experiment lasted 8 weeks. The results of the study showed no significant difference across the treatments for packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) and lymphocyte. The mean value of red blood cell (RBC) counts for birds on raw peeled taro cocoyam diet (2.7 × 106μl-1) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than those on control diet (1.9 × 106μl-1). White blood cell (WBC) counts slightly varied across the treatments. There was no significant difference in total protein across the treatments. Birds on control diet had the highest numerical mean value of 4.3g/dl. In terms of cholesterol, birds on peels had the least mean value of 62.5g/dl which was significantly (P < 0.05) different from those on control diet (105.5g/dl). Birds on boiled unpeeled taro cocoyam had the least mean value of 142.1g/dl for glucose level which significantly (P < 0.05) differed from those on control diet (170.7g/ dl). Taro cocoyam is thus a recommended alternative energy source for poultry.

Keywords

  • Broilers
  • energy
  • feeding trial
  • haematology
  • nutrition
  • processed
  • serum metabolites
  • taro cocoyam.
Open Access

Growth Performance and Milk Yield in Sahelian × Anglo-Nubian Goats Following Crossbreeding in the Semi-Arid Zone of Mali

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 117 - 125

Abstract

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of crossbreeding Sahelian Goats (SG) with Anglo-Nubian (AN) bucks on growth performance of kids and milk production of does during the pre-weaning period. Forty four suckled and hand-milked does were randomized and divided into two groups [Sahelian goat (SG; n = 22) and Anglo-Nubian × Sahelian goat (ANSG; n = 22)] and ninety kids of three breeds were allocated to three groups [(SG; n = 30), (ANSG; n = 30) and backcross breeds kids (AN (ANSG); n = 30)]. The does and their offspring were kept in a pen in which they stayed indoor for 45 days before they were allowed to outdoor system as the weather was suitable. Every category received a nutritional supplementation depending on the annual season (rainy, dry cold and dry hot season). The body weight gain of the kids and the average daily milk yield of the does were recorded weekly from parturition to 100 days of age.

The birth weight and live weight of kids were significantly affected by the breed type (P ≤ 0.001). The body weights of kids were greater in AN (ANSG), and ANSG group (P ≤ 0.001), compared to SG at all ages. The growth performance was the greatest in AN (ANSG) kids until 30 days (113.70 ± 15.79 g) and until 100 days, 91.23 ± 8.12 g (P ≤ 0.001). Moderate correlation was found between overall kids birth weight and live-body weight at 60 days of age (r = 0.52). Similarly, daily milk yield was highly affected by breed type (P ≤ 0.001) throughout the observation period, while the effect of sex on daily milk production was not significant. The total milk yield at 100 days has increased of 103% in ANSG over SG. Results of this study indicate that crossbreeding Sahelian Goat with Anglo-Nubian goat breed improved their growth rate and milk production.

Keywords

  • Pure Sahelian Goat
  • Anglo-Nubian
  • crossbreeding
  • growth
  • milk yield.
Open Access

Selected Microbiological and Organoleptic Changes in Vacuum Packed Imported Beef

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 126 - 133

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to determine selected microbiological and organoleptic changes of vacuum packed cooled beef imported from Argentina as one of the few South American countries which export beef to Europe. The changes were studied during its common shelf life (4 months) and 1 month thereafter in case of longer storage. The storage temperature was -1 °C to +2 °C. Four packages of boneless chilled heart of rump were used; all the values of each package were measured five times. Meat and juice weight, vacuum value, numbers of microbes, yeasts and moulds, pH of meat and juice were determined. Some organoleptic characteristics of meat and juice such as taste, aroma, colour, consistency and clearness of both of juice and broth after boiling were evaluated using Czech technical standards (ČSN). The vacuum value of the first package was 90 kPa; the number of the microbes was increasing adequately to time in all the packages. In the course of the entire shelf life period all the samples fulfilled the allowed limits so the meat was suitable for human consumption. During the tested period neither monitored pathogen microflora nor yeasts and moulds were present; pH of all samples was influenced by storage in the vacuum. Meat stored for 5 months showed changes in odour and presence of coliforms. Commencing spoilage of this sample rendered the meat not suitable for human consumption.

Keywords

  • Vacuum packed beef
  • microbiological changes
  • organoleptic changes
  • pH and beef ripening.
Open Access

Vermicompost Application and Growth Patterns of Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.)

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 134 - 139

Abstract

Abstract

Lettuce is the most important leaf vegetable grown in Argentina mainly in the green belts. This species requires 90 to 100 kg ha-1 nitrogen, which can be supplied by synthetic chemical fertilizers or organic supplements. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the application of vermicompost on the growth parameters of lettuce in two commercial types: leaf lettuce (cv Brisa) and butterhead (cv Daguan). Seedlings were produced in plastic trays and were transplanted when two leaves were completed expanded 30 days after sowing after that management was similar to a commercial one. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. During cultivation and at harvest measurements of fresh and dry weight, leaf number and area, nitrate and reducing sugar concentrations were made. Calculations for yield were performed. At harvest, vermicompost addition affected nitrate content in leaf lettuce (cv Brisa) increasing its concentration. Yield was not affected by vermicompost application.

Keywords

  • lettuce
  • organic supplement
  • vermicompost
  • leaf crops.
Open Access

Preliminary Study of Diversity of Plukenetia volubilis Based on the Morphological and Genetic Characteristics

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 140 - 146

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this study was to make an initial step in clarification of morphological diversity of sacha inchi (Plukenetia volubilis L.), a traditional oilseed crop, together with use of ISSR primers for a preliminary assessment of genetic variability in the species. Quantitave and qualitative morphological data together with leaf samples for twenty plant individuals of sacha inchi from five distinct populations were gathered in three different communities neighbouring the city of Pucallpa in Peru. Morphological data were processed into PCA analysis graph while for DNA analysis the method of fingerprinting processed into PCO graph and dendrogram was used. Visible morphological dissimilarities in the plant appearance were confirmed and observable differences in phenotypical characteristics among different types of associated cultivations were recorded. For genetic variability twelve from eighteen ISSR primers used and tested in the study could be used directly for further molecular pursuit on this species. Dendrogram with six main clusters was created and thus confirmed polymorphism as allogamy plants shows. Obtained results contributed to the identification of suitable method for further assessment of genetic variability within this species. New horizons for the focus of further research and improvements in onward development and genetic conservation of sacha inchi cultivation were identified, thus linking the observation of morphological features with DNA analysis proved as effective.

Keywords

  • diversity
  • ISSR markers
  • morphological characters
  • Peruvian Amazon
  • Plukenetia volubilis
  • sacha inchi.
Open Access

In vitro Conservation of Smallanthus sonchifolius under Slow-Growth Conditions

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 147 - 150

Abstract

Abstract

The aim of this work was to optimize in vitro storage of yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) under slow-growth conditions. Mediumterm conservation was tested on ½ MS supplemented with mannitol and sorbitol (1-3%), BAP (5 mg l-1), or MS and ½ MS medium free of plant growth regulators. Within 60 days, height of plants, number of nodes, number of roots and their length were measured in all of these treatments. The results revealed that there was a decline in plant growth along with the increase in the concentrations of mannitol (1.88, 1.49 and 1.07 cm for 10, 20 and 30 g l-1 mannitol) and sorbitol (3.66, 3.19 and 1.74 cm for 10, 20 and 30 g l-1 sorbitol), and along with the decrease of nutrient concentration in the cultivation medium (4.74 and 2.24 cm for MS and ½ MS medium). The survival of explants was found to be minimal at the highest concentrations of osmotic regulators (70% in mannitol and 50% in sorbitol) and on the medium supplemented with BAP (60%), while maximal on MS medium, ½ MS medium and on ½ MS medium with addition of 10 g l-1 mannitol (in all cases 100%). On full-strength MS medium and medium with addition of BAP plant growth was rapid, suggesting that these media could be rather used for multiplication of yacon. On the basis of our results it can be concluded, that for medium-term conservation of yacon can be satisfactory used ½ MS medium and media supplemented by 10 or 20 g l-1 mannitol or sorbitol.

Keywords

  • Germplasm
  • medium-term preservation
  • yacon
  • cultivation medium
  • 6-benzylaminopurine
  • mannitol
  • sorbitol.
Open Access

Monitoring of Composting Practices in Selected Rural Areas Near Pucallpa City, Peru

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 151 - 156

Abstract

Abstract

Soils in surroundings of Pucallpa are in general of a low quality for agriculture. One of the promising strategies how to improve soil fertility in this location is implementation of composting technology. This was therefore the aim of our study. Selected farmers have received composting bins within a frame of Czech project “Sustainable Management of NaturalResources in the Peruvian Amazon”. We evaluated the suitability of this low-technology and low-cost composting method in the area under study. The research activities were based on field work with local farmers from villages near Pucallpa city with the intent to analyse organic waste generation and composition, its recycling and reuse, and the overall willingness to manage the composting process. The field operations were carried out along with laboratory analyses. Generally this composting method was well adopted and can be considered as an appropriate instrument for improving soil management in the studied area

Keywords

  • Organic waste management
  • composting
  • farmers
  • Pucallpa.
Open Access

Moldovan Tomato Market Analysis through Use of the Agricultural Marketing Information System

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 157 - 165

Abstract

Abstract

The vegetable production is one of the few agricultural profit-generating sectors based on cash crop growing and marketing. Its tomato sector of the Republic of Moldova has a huge potential to become an important income generator within the national economy. It is obvious that the success of this sector development depends on an efficient marketing system and access to information sources in Moldovan rural areas. The lack of information on tomato markets is a major problem for the Moldovan tomato producers thereby limiting their ability to profitably access new markets. The situation is particularly acute for farmers who reside in rural areas where the information flow is much slower and less reliable once it reaches the farmer. Most of producers and processors lack even basic information on fundamental issues like the market demand on product quantities and quality parameters, towards which markets they should address and what distribution channels choose. Usually they do not know who and where their competitors are and how to compete with them.

The paper reports the Moldovan tomato market analysis that was done using the Agricultural Marketing Information System (AMIS). The AMIS is a support tool for agricultural (including tomato) and food product market assessment and access to the information on commodity markets by main producers, production inputs and marketing services in the Republic of Moldova.

Keywords

  • The Republic of Moldova
  • Agricultural Marketing Information System
  • tomato market
  • market trends
  • database.
Open Access

The Impact Assessment of Water Resource Management on Farms in the Ping Watershed, Northern Thailand

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 166 - 172

Abstract

Abstract

The irrational use of water in agriculture is often responsible for several problems concerning the depletion of water resources. Water resources sustainability has crucial for the existence of farming system which is dependent on the cropping pattern practices. This paper concerns the studies of existing water resource management and determines factors affecting decision making about water use and management within different farming systems. In these cases, a multi-criteria decision making model (MCDM) has been determined that aims at allocating efficient water and land resources to farms in the Ping watershed area in northern Thailand by optimizing a set of important socio-economic objectives which depend on sustainable agricultural (rural) development. The solution was found by using two analytical steps as follows: single objective optimization and compromise programming.

These resources include: land, labour, capital, fertilizer, pesticides and irrigation water. Existing cropping pattern included the inseason rice, off season-rice, vegetables (chili, pak choi, cauliflower, long bean, cabbage), soybean and sweet corn. Under the model cropping pattern conditions the in-season rice was produced for the household consumption and specially found in irrigated areas with storage dam. The model recommended that the suitable cropping pattern of the in-season rice followed by chili and long bean increased the gross margin two times. The amount of water used for the irrigation decreased by 6.84 percent from original 1,198,904 m3 at the existing cropping pattern to 1,116,902 m3 at the model cropping pattern.

However, in the case of the irrigated areas with water gates the model showed that the suitable cropping pattern was not different from the existing ones. However, the recommended model cropping pattern as the suitable cropping pattern consisting of the inseason rice followed by vegetables, sugar cane and perennial crops such as longan increased the gross margin three times while the water use increased only by 2.25 percent from the existing cropping pattern (from 1,374,655 m3 to 1,405,582 m3 at the model cropping pattern).

In the case of the rainfed areas the model cropping pattern recommended to grow the in-season rice, tobacco and longan on farm which increased the gross margin six times. However, the water using increased slightly from the existing on-farm water consumption (101,601.2 m3) up to 680,869 m3 as linked to the model cropping pattern.

Keywords

  • water resource management
  • multi-criteria decision making
  • water using
  • cropping pattern
  • farming system
Open Access

Book Review

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 173 - 174

Abstract

Open Access

Letters to the editor

Published Online: 01 Nov 2012
Page range: 175 - 177

Abstract