Journal & Issues

Volume 12 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)

Volume 11 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Volume 10 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2639-6416
First Published
01 Apr 2004
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

Volume 11 (2020): Issue 1 (January 2020)

Journal Details
Format
Journal
eISSN
2639-6416
First Published
01 Apr 2004
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English

Search

8 Articles
Open Access

MISSION TO MARS: RADIATION SAFETY OR RADIATION DISASTER? SPACE TRANSIT AND MARS RADIATION EXPOSURE RISKS – THE POTENTIAL SHIELDING EFFECT OF AN INTRAVEHICULAR GRAPHENE SPACE SUIT AND A STORM SHELTER DURING SPACE TRAVEL

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

The purpose of this research was to employ radiobiological as well as physics principles to investigate materials for an intravehicular spacesuit and a “storm shelter” that might minimize radiation exposure to astronauts during a mission to Mars.

Methods

NASA’s OLTARIS space radiation modelling tool was used to investigate thirty-two potential shielding materials. Radiation exposure was estimated during a return transit to Mars of 360 days duration. We assessed each shielding material by its ability to decrease effective radiation dose received by a computerized phantom during the constant galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and a single solar particle event (SPE). For the “storm shelter” a large liquid fuel tank was modelled adjacent to the phantom during a SPE.

Results

At standard conditions, graphene appeared to be a promising shielding material when comparing other materials including polyethylene and lithium. The shielding efficacy became comparable to polyethylene but inferior to lithium when materials were normalised to 10g/cm2, 20g/cm2 and 30g/cm2. The graphene around the phantom reduced effective dose from GCR compared with an unshielded transit by 34% (162mSv/yr vs 213.3mSv/yr). A “storm shelter” using a liquid fuel tank was positioned to create a barrier adjacent to the astronauts. The liquid barrier reduced effective dose by 98.8% (44mSv vs 3614mSv). Other mitigation strategies were deduced and divided into launch, transit and habitation considerations.

Conclusion

A graphene based intravehicular suit could decrease astronaut exposure to harmful radiation during transit to Mars. A storm shelter using fuel as a barrier also decreased radiation dose during a solar particle event.

Open Access

CHALLENGES IN ANAESTHESIA DURING SPACE EXPLORATION MISSIONS

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

NASA and private spacefaring companies plan to send exploration missions to mars within the next two decades. The environment of space, duration of the mission, distance from earth, and limited available resources present significant challenges for the provision of health care. It has been estimated that at least one medical emergency is likely to occur during such a mission, which may necessitate surgical treatment, and therefore anaesthesia. The provision of safe anaesthesia faces challenges arising from physiological adaptations to space, difficulty achieving and maintaining personnel expertise, possible pharmacological changes in anaesthetic agents used, limited consumable shelf-life and provision of intravenous fluids and blood products. In this review article we discuss these challenges in the context of a hypothetical case.

Open Access

THE PLACE OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING IN PILOT SELECTION

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 4

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

Pilot training has always been a relatively expensive undertaking. So attempts to control these costs by predicting the likelihood of success or failure is a constant that is almost as old as aviation itself. Incorporation of Psychometric testing was made to pilot selection in the years between the first and second world wars. Despite the many changes that have occurred in this area, psychometric testing continues to feature in modern systems of pilot aptitude testing. This paper reviews some of the history of psychometric testing in pilot selection.

Open Access

THE ELEVATED RISK OF MELANOMA AMONG PILOTS – COULD UVA BE IMPLICATED?

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 5

Abstract

ABSTRACT

A number of studies indicate that pilots have approximately double the risk of developing melanoma compared to the general population. It is not clear which aetiological factors underpin this increase in risk. Possibilities include leisure time sun exposure, cosmic radiation, circadian rhythm disruption and UV exposures in the cockpit. This brief review presents some of the key research on exposures of interest, with a focus on UV radiation. It highlights the need for further research assessing UVA levels within the cockpit of flying aircraft, given the possibility that glass windscreens may not be particularly effective at blocking UVA.

Open Access

SQNLDR (Doctor) Lana Jennifer Lynnelle Davies

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

Open Access

DANGERS OF DEFIBRILLATION IN FLIGHT

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 4

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

Defibrillation is a critical aspect of advanced life support, but the inherent risks in the procedure are increased when used during an aeromedical retrieval. The dangers of defibrillation in flight can be divided in to fire, electrical, avionic interference and physical carriage and packaging. A limited body of evidence exists concerning defibrillation in flight, in part, due to under-reporting. Changes in incident reporting, increased team based simulation training and awareness of the dangers of defibrillation should allow aeromedical teams to defibrillate patients safely and expediently.

Open Access

EDITORIAL

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

Open Access

FLYING HOURS OF AUSTRALIAN COMMERCIAL PILOTS AND RISK OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

To compare occupational flying hours (a surrogate for occupational exposure to radiation) of commercial pilots subsequently diagnosed with melanoma, with those without melanoma.

Methods

Nested case-control study of de-identified male commercial pilots in Australia 2011-2016, ascertained through the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA). Cases were pilots diagnosed with melanoma 2011-2016; controls were randomly-selected pilots age-matched 1:2 with invasive cases. Total flying hours and hours flown in the last 6 months in 2011, date of birth and state of residence were also obtained. We estimated the association between total flying hours (in tertile groups), and melanoma by odds ratios adjusted for age and state (ORsadj; 95% confidence intervals (CIs)).

Results

During 2011-2016, 51 pilots developed invasive melanoma and 63, in situ (mean ages 47 and 49 years, respectively). Their median cumulative flying hours in 2011 were 6,108 and 6,900 respectively, compared with 7,500 for 102 control pilots (mean age 48.6). Risk of invasive melanoma did not increase per 1000 total hours flown (ORadj=1.00) nor did risk increase in pilots with highest vs lowest total flying hours (ORadj=1.18, 95% CI 0.44-3.15). Total flying hours were inversely associated with invasive melanoma development in pilots aged < 50 (ORadj=0.37, not significant), and not associated with melanoma on exposed sites. Recent flying hours were not associated with melanoma. Results were unchanged with inclusion of in situ cases.

Conclusion

Risk of melanoma in Australian commercial pilots is unrelated to cumulative or recent occupational exposure to radiation as indicated by total and recent flying hours.

8 Articles
Open Access

MISSION TO MARS: RADIATION SAFETY OR RADIATION DISASTER? SPACE TRANSIT AND MARS RADIATION EXPOSURE RISKS – THE POTENTIAL SHIELDING EFFECT OF AN INTRAVEHICULAR GRAPHENE SPACE SUIT AND A STORM SHELTER DURING SPACE TRAVEL

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 9

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

The purpose of this research was to employ radiobiological as well as physics principles to investigate materials for an intravehicular spacesuit and a “storm shelter” that might minimize radiation exposure to astronauts during a mission to Mars.

Methods

NASA’s OLTARIS space radiation modelling tool was used to investigate thirty-two potential shielding materials. Radiation exposure was estimated during a return transit to Mars of 360 days duration. We assessed each shielding material by its ability to decrease effective radiation dose received by a computerized phantom during the constant galactic cosmic radiation (GCR) and a single solar particle event (SPE). For the “storm shelter” a large liquid fuel tank was modelled adjacent to the phantom during a SPE.

Results

At standard conditions, graphene appeared to be a promising shielding material when comparing other materials including polyethylene and lithium. The shielding efficacy became comparable to polyethylene but inferior to lithium when materials were normalised to 10g/cm2, 20g/cm2 and 30g/cm2. The graphene around the phantom reduced effective dose from GCR compared with an unshielded transit by 34% (162mSv/yr vs 213.3mSv/yr). A “storm shelter” using a liquid fuel tank was positioned to create a barrier adjacent to the astronauts. The liquid barrier reduced effective dose by 98.8% (44mSv vs 3614mSv). Other mitigation strategies were deduced and divided into launch, transit and habitation considerations.

Conclusion

A graphene based intravehicular suit could decrease astronaut exposure to harmful radiation during transit to Mars. A storm shelter using fuel as a barrier also decreased radiation dose during a solar particle event.

Open Access

CHALLENGES IN ANAESTHESIA DURING SPACE EXPLORATION MISSIONS

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 10

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

NASA and private spacefaring companies plan to send exploration missions to mars within the next two decades. The environment of space, duration of the mission, distance from earth, and limited available resources present significant challenges for the provision of health care. It has been estimated that at least one medical emergency is likely to occur during such a mission, which may necessitate surgical treatment, and therefore anaesthesia. The provision of safe anaesthesia faces challenges arising from physiological adaptations to space, difficulty achieving and maintaining personnel expertise, possible pharmacological changes in anaesthetic agents used, limited consumable shelf-life and provision of intravenous fluids and blood products. In this review article we discuss these challenges in the context of a hypothetical case.

Open Access

THE PLACE OF PSYCHOMETRIC TESTING IN PILOT SELECTION

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 4

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

Pilot training has always been a relatively expensive undertaking. So attempts to control these costs by predicting the likelihood of success or failure is a constant that is almost as old as aviation itself. Incorporation of Psychometric testing was made to pilot selection in the years between the first and second world wars. Despite the many changes that have occurred in this area, psychometric testing continues to feature in modern systems of pilot aptitude testing. This paper reviews some of the history of psychometric testing in pilot selection.

Open Access

THE ELEVATED RISK OF MELANOMA AMONG PILOTS – COULD UVA BE IMPLICATED?

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 5

Abstract

ABSTRACT

A number of studies indicate that pilots have approximately double the risk of developing melanoma compared to the general population. It is not clear which aetiological factors underpin this increase in risk. Possibilities include leisure time sun exposure, cosmic radiation, circadian rhythm disruption and UV exposures in the cockpit. This brief review presents some of the key research on exposures of interest, with a focus on UV radiation. It highlights the need for further research assessing UVA levels within the cockpit of flying aircraft, given the possibility that glass windscreens may not be particularly effective at blocking UVA.

Open Access

SQNLDR (Doctor) Lana Jennifer Lynnelle Davies

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

Open Access

DANGERS OF DEFIBRILLATION IN FLIGHT

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 4

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

Defibrillation is a critical aspect of advanced life support, but the inherent risks in the procedure are increased when used during an aeromedical retrieval. The dangers of defibrillation in flight can be divided in to fire, electrical, avionic interference and physical carriage and packaging. A limited body of evidence exists concerning defibrillation in flight, in part, due to under-reporting. Changes in incident reporting, increased team based simulation training and awareness of the dangers of defibrillation should allow aeromedical teams to defibrillate patients safely and expediently.

Open Access

EDITORIAL

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 1

Abstract

Open Access

FLYING HOURS OF AUSTRALIAN COMMERCIAL PILOTS AND RISK OF CUTANEOUS MELANOMA

Published Online: 30 Jan 2020
Page range: 1 - 7

Abstract

ABSTRACTAim

To compare occupational flying hours (a surrogate for occupational exposure to radiation) of commercial pilots subsequently diagnosed with melanoma, with those without melanoma.

Methods

Nested case-control study of de-identified male commercial pilots in Australia 2011-2016, ascertained through the Civil Aviation Safety Authority (CASA). Cases were pilots diagnosed with melanoma 2011-2016; controls were randomly-selected pilots age-matched 1:2 with invasive cases. Total flying hours and hours flown in the last 6 months in 2011, date of birth and state of residence were also obtained. We estimated the association between total flying hours (in tertile groups), and melanoma by odds ratios adjusted for age and state (ORsadj; 95% confidence intervals (CIs)).

Results

During 2011-2016, 51 pilots developed invasive melanoma and 63, in situ (mean ages 47 and 49 years, respectively). Their median cumulative flying hours in 2011 were 6,108 and 6,900 respectively, compared with 7,500 for 102 control pilots (mean age 48.6). Risk of invasive melanoma did not increase per 1000 total hours flown (ORadj=1.00) nor did risk increase in pilots with highest vs lowest total flying hours (ORadj=1.18, 95% CI 0.44-3.15). Total flying hours were inversely associated with invasive melanoma development in pilots aged < 50 (ORadj=0.37, not significant), and not associated with melanoma on exposed sites. Recent flying hours were not associated with melanoma. Results were unchanged with inclusion of in situ cases.

Conclusion

Risk of melanoma in Australian commercial pilots is unrelated to cumulative or recent occupational exposure to radiation as indicated by total and recent flying hours.

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