- Détails du magazine
- Format
- Magazine
- eISSN
- 1335-8871
- Première publication
- 07 Mar 2008
- Période de publication
- 6 fois par an
- Langues
- Anglais

#### Chercher

Accès libre

#### The Importance of ECG Offset Correction for Premature Ventricular Contraction Origin Localization from Clinical Data

Pages: 202 - 208

#### Résumé

In this study, the inverse solution with a single dipole was computed to localize the premature ventricular contraction (PVC) origin from long term multiple leads ECG measurements on fourteen patients. The stability of the obtained results was studied with respect to the preprocessing of signals used as an input to the inverse solution and the complexity of the torso model. Two methods were used for the baseline drift removal. After an averaging of the heartbeats, the influence of the retention or elimination of the remaining offset at the beginning of the PVC signal was examined. The inverse computations were performed using both homogeneous and inhomogeneous patient-specific torso models. It was shown that the remaining offset in the averaged signals at the beginning of the PVC signal had the most significant impact on the stability of the resulting position within the ventricles. Its elimination stabilizes the location of the results, decreases the sensitivity to the torso model complexity and decreases the sensitivity to the primary baseline drift removal method. The additional offset correction decreased the mean distance between the results for all patients from 17-18 mm to 1-2 mm, regardless of the baseline drift removal method or the torso model complexity.

#### Mots clés

- Body surface potential mapping
- inverse solution
- ECG signal processing
- QRS beginning assessment
- signal offset

Accès libre

#### An Investigation of Design and Simulation of Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine Using QBlade

Pages: 253 - 260

#### Résumé

The wind turbine blade design is important in obtaining an effective wind turbine. In the field of wind energy, it is essential to understand the design and parameters affecting the blades of the wind turbine in order to obtain a successful design. However, most of the parameters are dependent on each other and this makes the design of wind turbines a challenging task. This research paper used the QBlade software to analyze and optimize the behavior of the small horizontal axis wind turbine. The software applies the Blade Element Momentum Theory (BEM) to study the wind turbine blades by calculating the drag and lift coefficients which were achieved by dividing the blades into 10 ascending segments. The twist angle and chord length of the blade are optimized to get the highest performance. Among the various airfoil types, the SG-6041 airfoil type was selected to build the blade structure. The calculated power coefficient was almost 0.4, which is considered high given that it was calculated under 10 m/s average wind speed and 1-meter length blade conditions. Where all the results are logical and reasonable, the software is proven to be reliable. The paper also evaluates the wind characteristics in different locations in Iraq in order to find the most optimal promising locations in Iraq.

#### Mots clés

- horizontal axis wind turbine
- power generation
- aerodynamic analysis
- QBlade
- wind data analysis

Accès libre

#### Dual-Energy Spectral Computed Tomography: Comparing True and Virtual Non Contrast Enhanced Images

Pages: 261 - 268

#### Résumé

Spectral computed tomography (CT) imaging is one of several image reconstruction techniques based on the use of dual-layer CT. The intensity and attenuation of the radiation are measured in relation to different wavelengths, and such a procedure results in complex three-dimensional (3D) imaging and (pseudo) color adjustment of the soft tissue. This paper compares true non-contrast (TNC) enhanced images with virtual non-contrast (VNC) enhanced ones. Virtual native images are acquired by means of spectral computed tomography, and it has been suggested that VNCs could potentially substitute real native images to reduce significantly the total radiation dose from multiphase spectral CT. A comparison was performed by defining certain parameters that represent the difference between the measured and the calculated values in the images. The parameters included the mean value and standard deviation of the computed tomography number, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). All of these items were analyzed via statistical tests using

#### Mots clés

- Biomedical data analysis
- CNR
- dual-layer
- SNR
- spectral computed tomography
- statistical analysis

Accès libre

#### A Drone as a Reflector Carrier in Laser Tracker Measurements

Pages: 269 - 274

#### Résumé

The paper presents the possibility of mechanizing laser tracker measurements using a drone. Performing measurements using a laser tracker requires touching the measured surface with a probe. Usually it is done manually, even if it requires, e.g., climbing a ladder. The drone was applied as a probe carrier for the laser tracker. To measure a point, the modified drone had to land near this point. Touching the measured surface with the probe was executed using a mobile arm fixed to the drone. This solution allows performing laser tracker measurements without the need of walking or climbing difficult to access surfaces. Two consecutive experiments were performed to verify if such an approach is equally accurate as the standard one (manual measurements). Additionally, the influence of airflow generated by the drones’ propellers on a laser wavelength and the accuracy of interferometric measurements were estimated. The research proves that it is possible to mechanize laser tracker measurements using a drone. Moreover, it is demonstrated that the operating drone does not influence the laser tracker accuracy.

#### Mots clés

- Laser tracker
- laser measurements
- interferometric measurement
- drone
- measurements mechanization

Accès libre

#### Distributed Fusion Estimation for the Measurements with Bounded Disturbances

Pages: 275 - 282

#### Résumé

The information fusion problem is studied for multi-sensor systems in the presence of bounded disturbances. In this paper, a distributed fusion estimation algorithm is proposed based on the set-membership theory, which obtains the overall estimates based on multi-ellipsoids intersection. A parameter adaptive adjustment scheme is derived to guarantee the performance of the algorithm. The feedback mechanism is also introduced to enhance the estimation procedure. Through theoretical analysis and simulation, the performance of the proposed algorithm is analyzed, and some interesting properties of the proposed algorithm are proved. Results show that the proposed algorithm improves the point estimation accuracy. Compared with the algorithm without feedback, the one with feedback has better local estimation. Meanwhile, the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm in improving state estimation accuracy has been proved by the simulation results.

#### Mots clés

- distributed fusion
- bounded disturbances
- set-membership estimation
- ellipsoidal state bounding

Accès libre

#### Research on Skeleton Data Compensation of Gymnastics based on Dynamic and Static Two-dimensional Regression using Kinect

Pages: 283 - 292

#### Résumé

The intelligent training and assessment of gymnastics movements require studying motion trajectory and reconstructing the character animation. Microsoft Kinect has been widely used due to its advantages of low price and high frame rate. However, its optical characteristics are inevitably affected by illumination and occlusion. It is necessary to reduce data noise via specific algorithms. Most of the existing research focuses on local motion but lacks consideration of the whole human skeleton. Based on the analysis of the spatial characteristics of gymnastics and the movement principle of the human body, this paper proposes a dynamic and static two-dimensional regression compensation algorithm. Firstly, the constraint characteristics of human skeleton motion were analyzed, and the maximum constraint table and Mesh Collider were established. Then, the dynamic acceleration of skeleton motion and the spatial characteristics of static limb motion were calculated based on the data of adjacent effective skeleton frames before and after the collision. Finally, using the least squares polynomial fitting to compensate and correct the lost skeleton coordinate data, it realizes the smoothness and rationality of human skeleton animation. The results of two experiments showed that the solution of the skeleton point solved the problem caused by data loss due to the Kinect optical occlusion. The data compensation time of an effective block skeleton point can reach 180 ms, with an average error of about 0.1 mm, which shows a better data compensation effect of motion data acquisition and animation reconstruction.

#### Mots clés

- Azure Kinect
- motion capture
- motion tracking
- motion compensation

Accès libre

#### ISO Linear Calibration and Measurement Uncertainty of the Result Obtained With the Calibrated Instrument

Pages: 293 - 307

#### Résumé

We address the problem of linear comparative calibration, a special case of linear calibration where both variables are measured with errors, and the analysis of the uncertainty of the measurement results obtained with the calibrated instrument. The concept is explained in detail using the calibration experiment of the pressure transducer and the subsequent analysis of the measurement uncertainties. In this context, the calibration and the measurements with the calibrated instrument are performed according to ISO Technical Specification 28037:2010 (here referred to as ISO linear calibration), based on the approximate linear calibration model and the application of the law of propagation of uncertainty (LPU) in this approximate model. Alternatively, estimates of the calibration line parameters, their standard uncertainties, the coverage intervals and the associated probability distributions are obtained using the Monte Carlo method (MCM) based on the law of propagation of distributions (LPD). Here we also obtain the probability distributions and the coverage interval for the quantities measured with the calibrated instrument. Furthermore, motivated by the model structure of this particular example, we conducted a simulation study that presents the empirical coverage probabilities of the ISO and MCM coverage intervals and investigates the influence of the sample size, i.e. the number of calibration points in the measurement range, and the different combinations of measurement uncertainties. The study generally confirms the good properties and validity of the ISO technical specification within the considered (limited) framework of experimental designs motivated by real-world application, with small uncertainties in relation to the measurement range. We also point out the potential weaknesses of this method that require increased user attention and emphasise the need for further research in this area.

#### Mots clés

- Linear comparative calibration
- ISO Technical Specification 28037:2010
- Monte Carlo method
- measurement uncertainty
- calibrated instrument
- empirical coverage probability