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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1335-8871
Première publication
07 Mar 2008
Période de publication
6 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 17 (2017): Edition 6 (December 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1335-8871
Première publication
07 Mar 2008
Période de publication
6 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles
Accès libre

Spectral Analysis of Pressure, Noise and Vibration Velocity Measurement in Cavitation

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 250 - 256

Résumé

Abstract

The article deals with experimental investigation of water cavitation in the convergent-divergent nozzle of rectangular cross-section. In practice, a quick and simple determination of cavitation is essential, especially if it is basic cavitation or cavitation generated additionally by the air being sucked. Air influences the formation, development and size of the cavity area in hydraulic elements. Removal or reduction of the cavity area is possible by structural changes of the element. In case of the cavitation with the suction air, it is necessary to find the source of the air and seal it. The pressure gradient, the flow, the oxygen content in the tank, and hence the air dissolved in the water, the air flow rate, the noise intensity and the vibration velocity on the nozzle wall were measured on laboratory equipment. From the selected measurements the frequency spectrum of the variation of the water flow of the cavity with cavitation without air saturation and with air saturation was compared and evaluated.

Mots clés

  • Cavitation
  • noise
  • vibration
  • spectral analysis
  • CFD
Accès libre

Two Methods of Automatic Evaluation of Speech Signal Enhancement Recorded in the Open-Air MRI Environment

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 257 - 263

Résumé

Abstract

The paper focuses on two methods of evaluation of successfulness of speech signal enhancement recorded in the open-air magnetic resonance imager during phonation for the 3D human vocal tract modeling. The first approach enables to obtain a comparison based on statistical analysis by ANOVA and hypothesis tests. The second method is based on classification by Gaussian mixture models (GMM). The performed experiments have confirmed that the proposed ANOVA and GMM classifiers for automatic evaluation of the speech quality are functional and produce fully comparable results with the standard evaluation based on the listening test method.

Mots clés

  • Acoustic noise suppression
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • speech processing
  • statistical analysis
Accès libre

Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 264 - 268

Résumé

Abstract

Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

Mots clés

  • Pitch evaluation
  • nano-grating standard
  • line edge roughness
  • atomic force microscope
Accès libre

Verification of the Indicating Measuring Instruments Taking into Account their Instrumental Measurement Uncertainty

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 269 - 272

Résumé

Abstract

The specific features of the measuring instruments verification based on the results of their calibration are considered. It is noted that, in contrast to the verification procedure used in the legal metrology, the verification procedure for calibrated measuring instruments has to take into account the uncertainty of measurements into account. In this regard, a large number of measuring instruments, considered as those that are in compliance after verification in the legal metrology, turns out to be not in compliance after calibration. In this case, it is necessary to evaluate the probability of compliance of indicating measuring instruments. The procedure of compliance probability determination on the basis of the Monte Carlo method is considered. An example of calibration of a Vernier caliper is given.

Mots clés

  • Probability of compliance
  • uncertainty of measurement
  • calibration
  • verification
  • uncertainty budget
  • maximum permissible error
Accès libre

The Enhancement of 3D Scans Depth Resolution Obtained by Confocal Scanning of Porous Materials

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 273 - 281

Résumé

Abstract

The 3D reconstruction of simple structured materials using a confocal microscope is widely used in many different areas including civil engineering. Nonetheless, scans of porous materials such as concrete or cement paste are highly problematic. The well-known problem of these scans is low depth resolution in comparison to the horizontal and vertical resolution. The degradation of the image depth resolution is caused by systematic errors and especially by different random events. Our method is focused on the elimination of such random events, mainly the additive noise. We use an averaging method based on the Lindeberg-Lévy theorem that improves the final depth resolution to a level comparable with horizontal and vertical resolution. Moreover, using the least square method, we also precisely determine the limit value of a depth resolution. Therefore, we can continuously evaluate the difference between current resolution and the optimal one. This substantially simplifies the scanning process because the operator can easily determine the required number of scans.

Mots clés

  • Noise reduction
  • porous materials
  • confocal microscope
  • 3D scans
  • 3D reconstruction
Accès libre

Alternative Methods for Estimating Plane Parameters Based on a Point Cloud

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 282 - 289

Résumé

Abstract

Non-contact measurement techniques carried out using triangulation optical sensors are increasingly popular in measurements with the use of industrial robots directly on production lines. The result of such measurements is often a cloud of measurement points that is characterized by considerable measuring noise, presence of a number of points that differ from the reference model, and excessive errors that must be eliminated from the analysis. To obtain vector information points contained in the cloud that describe reference models, the data obtained during a measurement should be subjected to appropriate processing operations. The present paperwork presents an analysis of suitability of methods known as RANdom Sample Consensus (RANSAC), Monte Carlo Method (MCM), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the extraction of the reference model. The effectiveness of the tested methods is illustrated by examples of measurement of the height of an object and the angle of a plane, which were made on the basis of experiments carried out at workshop conditions.

Mots clés

  • Robotic inspection
  • plane detection
  • Particle Swarm Optimization
  • RANSAC
  • Monte Carlo Method
6 Articles
Accès libre

Spectral Analysis of Pressure, Noise and Vibration Velocity Measurement in Cavitation

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 250 - 256

Résumé

Abstract

The article deals with experimental investigation of water cavitation in the convergent-divergent nozzle of rectangular cross-section. In practice, a quick and simple determination of cavitation is essential, especially if it is basic cavitation or cavitation generated additionally by the air being sucked. Air influences the formation, development and size of the cavity area in hydraulic elements. Removal or reduction of the cavity area is possible by structural changes of the element. In case of the cavitation with the suction air, it is necessary to find the source of the air and seal it. The pressure gradient, the flow, the oxygen content in the tank, and hence the air dissolved in the water, the air flow rate, the noise intensity and the vibration velocity on the nozzle wall were measured on laboratory equipment. From the selected measurements the frequency spectrum of the variation of the water flow of the cavity with cavitation without air saturation and with air saturation was compared and evaluated.

Mots clés

  • Cavitation
  • noise
  • vibration
  • spectral analysis
  • CFD
Accès libre

Two Methods of Automatic Evaluation of Speech Signal Enhancement Recorded in the Open-Air MRI Environment

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 257 - 263

Résumé

Abstract

The paper focuses on two methods of evaluation of successfulness of speech signal enhancement recorded in the open-air magnetic resonance imager during phonation for the 3D human vocal tract modeling. The first approach enables to obtain a comparison based on statistical analysis by ANOVA and hypothesis tests. The second method is based on classification by Gaussian mixture models (GMM). The performed experiments have confirmed that the proposed ANOVA and GMM classifiers for automatic evaluation of the speech quality are functional and produce fully comparable results with the standard evaluation based on the listening test method.

Mots clés

  • Acoustic noise suppression
  • magnetic resonance imaging
  • speech processing
  • statistical analysis
Accès libre

Optimization of Nano-Grating Pitch Evaluation Method Based on Line Edge Roughness Analysis

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 264 - 268

Résumé

Abstract

Pitch uncertainty and line edge roughness are among the critical quality attributes of a pitch standard and normally the analyses of these two parameters are separate. The analysis of self-traceable Cr atom lithography nano-gratings shows a positive relevance and sensitivity between LER and evaluated standard deviation of pitch. Therefore, LER can be used as an aided pre-evaluation parameter for the pitch calculation method, such as the gravity center method or the zero-crossing points method. The optimization of the nano-grating evaluation method helps to obtain the accurate pitch value with fewer measurements and provide a comprehensive characterization of pitch standards.

Mots clés

  • Pitch evaluation
  • nano-grating standard
  • line edge roughness
  • atomic force microscope
Accès libre

Verification of the Indicating Measuring Instruments Taking into Account their Instrumental Measurement Uncertainty

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 269 - 272

Résumé

Abstract

The specific features of the measuring instruments verification based on the results of their calibration are considered. It is noted that, in contrast to the verification procedure used in the legal metrology, the verification procedure for calibrated measuring instruments has to take into account the uncertainty of measurements into account. In this regard, a large number of measuring instruments, considered as those that are in compliance after verification in the legal metrology, turns out to be not in compliance after calibration. In this case, it is necessary to evaluate the probability of compliance of indicating measuring instruments. The procedure of compliance probability determination on the basis of the Monte Carlo method is considered. An example of calibration of a Vernier caliper is given.

Mots clés

  • Probability of compliance
  • uncertainty of measurement
  • calibration
  • verification
  • uncertainty budget
  • maximum permissible error
Accès libre

The Enhancement of 3D Scans Depth Resolution Obtained by Confocal Scanning of Porous Materials

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 273 - 281

Résumé

Abstract

The 3D reconstruction of simple structured materials using a confocal microscope is widely used in many different areas including civil engineering. Nonetheless, scans of porous materials such as concrete or cement paste are highly problematic. The well-known problem of these scans is low depth resolution in comparison to the horizontal and vertical resolution. The degradation of the image depth resolution is caused by systematic errors and especially by different random events. Our method is focused on the elimination of such random events, mainly the additive noise. We use an averaging method based on the Lindeberg-Lévy theorem that improves the final depth resolution to a level comparable with horizontal and vertical resolution. Moreover, using the least square method, we also precisely determine the limit value of a depth resolution. Therefore, we can continuously evaluate the difference between current resolution and the optimal one. This substantially simplifies the scanning process because the operator can easily determine the required number of scans.

Mots clés

  • Noise reduction
  • porous materials
  • confocal microscope
  • 3D scans
  • 3D reconstruction
Accès libre

Alternative Methods for Estimating Plane Parameters Based on a Point Cloud

Publié en ligne: 22 Nov 2017
Pages: 282 - 289

Résumé

Abstract

Non-contact measurement techniques carried out using triangulation optical sensors are increasingly popular in measurements with the use of industrial robots directly on production lines. The result of such measurements is often a cloud of measurement points that is characterized by considerable measuring noise, presence of a number of points that differ from the reference model, and excessive errors that must be eliminated from the analysis. To obtain vector information points contained in the cloud that describe reference models, the data obtained during a measurement should be subjected to appropriate processing operations. The present paperwork presents an analysis of suitability of methods known as RANdom Sample Consensus (RANSAC), Monte Carlo Method (MCM), and Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) for the extraction of the reference model. The effectiveness of the tested methods is illustrated by examples of measurement of the height of an object and the angle of a plane, which were made on the basis of experiments carried out at workshop conditions.

Mots clés

  • Robotic inspection
  • plane detection
  • Particle Swarm Optimization
  • RANSAC
  • Monte Carlo Method

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