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Heavy-mineral analysis as a tool in earth-scientific research

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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2080-6574
Première publication
24 Dec 2009
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 23 (2017): Edition 3 (December 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2080-6574
Première publication
24 Dec 2009
Période de publication
3 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

9 Articles
Accès libre

From carbonate platform to euxinic sea – the collapse of an Early/Middle Devonian reef, Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 143 - 161

Résumé

Abstract

The Santa Lucía Formation represents the major phase in Devonian reef development of the Cantabrian Zone (Cantabrian Mountains, northwest Spain). In the present study the transition from the carbonate platform deposits of the Santa Lucía Formation to the overlying euxinic basinal deposits of the Huergas Formation is described. These transitional strata are connected to the Basal Choteč Event and represent a condensed sedimentation of micritic dark-grey and black limestones with an upward increase of dark shale intercalations with iron mineralisation surfaces and storm-induced brachiopod coquinas. The transitional beds are grouped into a new unit, the Cabornera Bed, which consists of limestone, limestone-shale and shale facies associations, representing a sediment-starved euxinic offshore area just below the storm wave base. Four stages in reef decline can be recognised: a reef stage, an oxygen-depleted, nutrient-rich stage, a siliciclastic-influx stage and a pelagic-siliciclastic stage. Additional geochemical and geophysical investigations are needed to verify the results presented herein.

Mots clés

  • Anoxia
  • Basal Choteč Event
  • Cantabria
  • carbon isotopes
  • Eifelian
  • Emsian
Accès libre

The origin of upper Precambrian diamictites, northern Norway: a case study applicable to diamictites in general

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 163 - 181

Résumé

Abstract

Upper Precambrian diamictites in Varangerfjorden (northern Norway) have been examined for evidence of origin, whether glaciogenic, gravity flow or polygenetic. Studies of geomorphology, sedimentology and surface microtextures on quartz sand grains are integrated to provide multiple pieces of evidence for the geological agents responsible for the origin of the diamictites. The documented sedimentary and erosional structures, formerly interpreted in a glaciogenic context (e.g., diamict structure, pavements and striations) have been reanalysed. Field and laboratory data demonstrate that, contrary to conclusions reached in many earlier studies, the diamictites and adjacent deposits did not originate from glaciogenic processes. Evidence from macrostructures may occasionally be equivocal or can be interpreted as representing reworked, glacially derived material. Evidence from surface microtextures, from outcrops which are believed to exhibit the most unequivocal signs for glaciation, display no imprint at all of glaciogenic processes, and a multicyclical origin of the deposits can be demonstrated. The geological context implies (and no geological data contradict this) an origin by gravity flows, possibly in a submarine fan environment. This reinterpretation of the diamictites in northern Norway may imply that the palaeoclimatological hypothesis of a deep frozen earth during parts of the Neoproterozoic has to be revised.

Mots clés

  • Surface microtexture
  • debris flow
  • diamictite
  • tillite
  • Bigganjargga
  • snowball Earth
Accès libre

Geochemistry and statistical analyses of porphyry system and epithermal veins at Hizehjan in northwestern Iran

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 183 - 200

Résumé

Abstract

Situated about 130 km northeast of Tabriz (northwest Iran), the Mazra’eh Shadi deposit is in the Arasbaran metallogenic belt (AAB). Intrusion of subvolcanic rocks, such as quartz monzodiorite-diorite porphyry, into Eocene volcanic and volcano-sedimentary units led to mineralisation and alteration. Mineralisation can be subdivided into a porphyry system and Au-bearing quartz veins within andesite and trachyandesite which is controlled by fault distribution. Rock samples from quartz veins show maximum values of Au (17100 ppb), Pb (21100 ppm), Ag (9.43ppm), Cu (611ppm) and Zn (333 ppm). Au is strongly correlated with Ag, Zn and Pb. In the Au-bearing quartz veins, factor group 1 indicates a strong correlation between Au, Pb, Ag, Zn and W. Factor group 2 indicates a correlation between Cu, Te, Sb and Zn, while factor group 3 comprises Mo and As. Based on Spearman correlation coefficients, Sb and Te can be very good indicator minerals for Au, Ag and Pb epithermal mineralisation in the study area. The zoning pattern shows clearly that base metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn and Mo, occur at the deepest levels, whereas Au and Ag are found at higher elevations than base metals in boreholes in northern Mazra’eh Shadi. This observation contrasts with the typical zoning pattern caused by boiling in epithermal veins. At Mazra’eh Shadi, quartz veins containing co-existing liquid-rich and vapour-rich inclusions, as strong evidence of boiling during hydrothermal evolution, have relatively high Au grades (up to 813 ppb). In the quartz veins, Au is strongly correlated with Ag, and these elements are in the same group with Fe and S. Mineralisation of Au and Ag is a result of pyrite precipitation, boiling of hydrothermal fluids and a pH decrease.

Mots clés

  • Mazra’eh Shadi-Hizehjan
  • quartz monzodiorite
  • Spearman correlation
  • boiling
Accès libre

Hydrogeological investigations of river bed clogging at a river bank filtration site along the River Warta, Poland

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 201 - 214

Résumé

Abstract

River bank filtration (RBF) is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland) during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements), analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.

Mots clés

  • cone of depression
  • dynamic water level changes
  • groundwater resources
Accès libre

Tournaisian and Viséan Lophophyllum of Gorskiy (1932) from the Kirghiz Steppe and a possible ancestor of a new Bashkirian rugose coral genus from the Donets Basin (Ukraine)

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 215 - 221

Résumé

Abstract

All specimens assigned by Gorskiy (1932) to the genus Lophophyllum Milne Edwards and Haime, 1850 are revised, redescribed and reillustrated. The corallite identified by him as a second, specifically indeterminate species of Lophophyllum is here questionably included in Amygdalophyllum Dun and Benson, 1920. For the reminding specimens two new, unnamed genera are suggested. ”Lophophyllum” subtortuosum Gorskiy, 1932 belongs to a new, non-dissepimented genus of an unknown family. A possible relationship between gen. nov. 1, sp. nov. 1 and the new Bashkirian genus from the Donets Basin (Ukraine) is proposed.

Mots clés

  • Kyrgyzstan
  • “Lophophyllum”
  • Rugosa
  • Lower Carboniferous
  • revision
Accès libre

Book reviews. Origin of Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 223 - 224

Résumé

Accès libre

Book reviews. Appreciating Physical Landscapes: Three Hundred Years of Geotourism

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 225 - 226

Résumé

Accès libre

Book reviews. Volcanoes of Europe (Second edition)

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 227 - 228

Résumé

Accès libre

Thanks to the journal’s reviewers

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 229 - 229

Résumé

9 Articles
Accès libre

From carbonate platform to euxinic sea – the collapse of an Early/Middle Devonian reef, Cantabrian Mountains (Spain)

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 143 - 161

Résumé

Abstract

The Santa Lucía Formation represents the major phase in Devonian reef development of the Cantabrian Zone (Cantabrian Mountains, northwest Spain). In the present study the transition from the carbonate platform deposits of the Santa Lucía Formation to the overlying euxinic basinal deposits of the Huergas Formation is described. These transitional strata are connected to the Basal Choteč Event and represent a condensed sedimentation of micritic dark-grey and black limestones with an upward increase of dark shale intercalations with iron mineralisation surfaces and storm-induced brachiopod coquinas. The transitional beds are grouped into a new unit, the Cabornera Bed, which consists of limestone, limestone-shale and shale facies associations, representing a sediment-starved euxinic offshore area just below the storm wave base. Four stages in reef decline can be recognised: a reef stage, an oxygen-depleted, nutrient-rich stage, a siliciclastic-influx stage and a pelagic-siliciclastic stage. Additional geochemical and geophysical investigations are needed to verify the results presented herein.

Mots clés

  • Anoxia
  • Basal Choteč Event
  • Cantabria
  • carbon isotopes
  • Eifelian
  • Emsian
Accès libre

The origin of upper Precambrian diamictites, northern Norway: a case study applicable to diamictites in general

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 163 - 181

Résumé

Abstract

Upper Precambrian diamictites in Varangerfjorden (northern Norway) have been examined for evidence of origin, whether glaciogenic, gravity flow or polygenetic. Studies of geomorphology, sedimentology and surface microtextures on quartz sand grains are integrated to provide multiple pieces of evidence for the geological agents responsible for the origin of the diamictites. The documented sedimentary and erosional structures, formerly interpreted in a glaciogenic context (e.g., diamict structure, pavements and striations) have been reanalysed. Field and laboratory data demonstrate that, contrary to conclusions reached in many earlier studies, the diamictites and adjacent deposits did not originate from glaciogenic processes. Evidence from macrostructures may occasionally be equivocal or can be interpreted as representing reworked, glacially derived material. Evidence from surface microtextures, from outcrops which are believed to exhibit the most unequivocal signs for glaciation, display no imprint at all of glaciogenic processes, and a multicyclical origin of the deposits can be demonstrated. The geological context implies (and no geological data contradict this) an origin by gravity flows, possibly in a submarine fan environment. This reinterpretation of the diamictites in northern Norway may imply that the palaeoclimatological hypothesis of a deep frozen earth during parts of the Neoproterozoic has to be revised.

Mots clés

  • Surface microtexture
  • debris flow
  • diamictite
  • tillite
  • Bigganjargga
  • snowball Earth
Accès libre

Geochemistry and statistical analyses of porphyry system and epithermal veins at Hizehjan in northwestern Iran

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 183 - 200

Résumé

Abstract

Situated about 130 km northeast of Tabriz (northwest Iran), the Mazra’eh Shadi deposit is in the Arasbaran metallogenic belt (AAB). Intrusion of subvolcanic rocks, such as quartz monzodiorite-diorite porphyry, into Eocene volcanic and volcano-sedimentary units led to mineralisation and alteration. Mineralisation can be subdivided into a porphyry system and Au-bearing quartz veins within andesite and trachyandesite which is controlled by fault distribution. Rock samples from quartz veins show maximum values of Au (17100 ppb), Pb (21100 ppm), Ag (9.43ppm), Cu (611ppm) and Zn (333 ppm). Au is strongly correlated with Ag, Zn and Pb. In the Au-bearing quartz veins, factor group 1 indicates a strong correlation between Au, Pb, Ag, Zn and W. Factor group 2 indicates a correlation between Cu, Te, Sb and Zn, while factor group 3 comprises Mo and As. Based on Spearman correlation coefficients, Sb and Te can be very good indicator minerals for Au, Ag and Pb epithermal mineralisation in the study area. The zoning pattern shows clearly that base metals, such as Cu, Pb, Zn and Mo, occur at the deepest levels, whereas Au and Ag are found at higher elevations than base metals in boreholes in northern Mazra’eh Shadi. This observation contrasts with the typical zoning pattern caused by boiling in epithermal veins. At Mazra’eh Shadi, quartz veins containing co-existing liquid-rich and vapour-rich inclusions, as strong evidence of boiling during hydrothermal evolution, have relatively high Au grades (up to 813 ppb). In the quartz veins, Au is strongly correlated with Ag, and these elements are in the same group with Fe and S. Mineralisation of Au and Ag is a result of pyrite precipitation, boiling of hydrothermal fluids and a pH decrease.

Mots clés

  • Mazra’eh Shadi-Hizehjan
  • quartz monzodiorite
  • Spearman correlation
  • boiling
Accès libre

Hydrogeological investigations of river bed clogging at a river bank filtration site along the River Warta, Poland

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 201 - 214

Résumé

Abstract

River bank filtration (RBF) is a system that enriches groundwater resources by induced infiltration of river water to an aquifer. Problematic during operation of RBF systems is the deterioration of infiltration effectiveness caused by river bed clogging. This situation was observed in the Krajkowo well field which supplies fresh water to the city of Poznań (Poland) during and after the long hydrological drought between the years 1989 and 1992. The present note discusses results of specific hydrogeological research which included drilling of a net of boreholes to a depth of 10 m below river bottom (for sediment sampling as well as for hydrogeological measurements), analyses of grain size distribution and relative density studies. The results obtained have allowed the recognition of the origin of the clogging processes, as well as the documentation of the clogged parts of the river bottom designated for unclogging activities.

Mots clés

  • cone of depression
  • dynamic water level changes
  • groundwater resources
Accès libre

Tournaisian and Viséan Lophophyllum of Gorskiy (1932) from the Kirghiz Steppe and a possible ancestor of a new Bashkirian rugose coral genus from the Donets Basin (Ukraine)

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 215 - 221

Résumé

Abstract

All specimens assigned by Gorskiy (1932) to the genus Lophophyllum Milne Edwards and Haime, 1850 are revised, redescribed and reillustrated. The corallite identified by him as a second, specifically indeterminate species of Lophophyllum is here questionably included in Amygdalophyllum Dun and Benson, 1920. For the reminding specimens two new, unnamed genera are suggested. ”Lophophyllum” subtortuosum Gorskiy, 1932 belongs to a new, non-dissepimented genus of an unknown family. A possible relationship between gen. nov. 1, sp. nov. 1 and the new Bashkirian genus from the Donets Basin (Ukraine) is proposed.

Mots clés

  • Kyrgyzstan
  • “Lophophyllum”
  • Rugosa
  • Lower Carboniferous
  • revision
Accès libre

Book reviews. Origin of Carbonate Sedimentary Rocks

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 223 - 224

Résumé

Accès libre

Book reviews. Appreciating Physical Landscapes: Three Hundred Years of Geotourism

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 225 - 226

Résumé

Accès libre

Book reviews. Volcanoes of Europe (Second edition)

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 227 - 228

Résumé

Accès libre

Thanks to the journal’s reviewers

Publié en ligne: 23 Jan 2018
Pages: 229 - 229

Résumé

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