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Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-7014
Première publication
16 Apr 2017
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 45 (2018): Edition 1 (May 2018)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-7014
Première publication
16 Apr 2017
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

6 Articles

Original Article

Accès libre

Deer game, a key factor affecting population of European yew in beech forests of the Veľká Fatra Mts, Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 1 - 7

Résumé

Abstract

Browsing and bark peeling by ungulates is known to affect biodiversity and may constitute the main driving factor of single tree population dynamics. In Slovakia, European yew (Taxus baccata L.) is a threatened species protected by law and present in many protected areas. In the study, we emphasize that protecting land and individual plants may not be sufficient for maintaining of yew populations, unless controlling over damage by deer game is also undertaken. Our results show that in beech forests of the Veľká Fatra Mts, browsing and bark peeling constitute the main negative factor affecting yew seedling-sapling ingrowth transition, and the mortality and vitality loss of adult yew trees. We argue that ungulates may have a larger effect on biodiversity conservation than currently realized.

Mots clés

  • biodiversity conservation
  • forest management
  • plant-animal interactions
  • protected tree species
Accès libre

The role of edaphic, vegetational and spatial factors in structuring soil animal communities in a floodplain forest of the Dnipro river

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 8 - 23

Résumé

Abstract

This paper examines the role of ecological factors, derived from principal component analysis performed on edaphic and vegetational dataset as well as spatial variables, in structuring the soil macrofauna community of the Dnipro floodplain within the ‘Dnipro-Orilsky’ Nature Reserve (Ukraine). The soil macrofauna was defined as invertebrates visible to the naked eye (macroscopic organisms). The test points formed a regular grid with a mesh size of 3 m with 7 × 15 dimensions. Thus, the total test point number was 105. At each point, soil-zoological samples of 0.25 × 0.25 m were taken for quantifying the soil macrofauna. The spatial structure was modeled by a set of independent spatial patterns obtained by means of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices analysis (PCNM-variables). Spatial PCNM-variables explain significantly more variations of the community (19.9%) than edaphic factors (4.1%) and vegetation factors (3.2%). Spatial and combined environmental and spatial effects were divided into three components: broad-scale component was characterized by periodicity of spatial variation with a wavelength of 24.0–44.5 m, medium-scale – 11.1–20 m, fine-scale – 6.6–11.0 m. For a broad-scale component, environmental factors of a vegetational nature are more important, for medium-scale, edaphic factors are more important, for fine-scale, both vegetation and edaphic are important. For litter-dwelling animals, the most characteristic spatial patterns are on the broad and medium-scale levels. For endogeic and anecic animals, the most significant variability is on the fine-scale level.

Mots clés

  • ecological groups
  • ecological niche
  • environmental factors
  • neutral diversity
  • spatial variation
Accès libre

The impact of some inorganic substances on change in body mass of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) larvae in a laboratory experiment

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 24 - 32

Résumé

Abstract

Addition of low concentrations of metal ions to the diet of saprophagous insects can impact on their metabolism over a short period of time, causing an increase or decrease in their body mass. This article presents a 14-day laboratory experiment evaluating the changes in the body mass of larval stage 3 of Tenebrio molitor (Linnaeus, 1758) induced by adding different inorganic substances (350 mg kg−1 of dry fodder) to the diet of the larvae. Following the addition of inorganic substances to the fodder, the most marked differences compared to the control were observed in the groups which consumed substrate with lead nitrate (the mass of the larvae increased on average by 102.6% compared to increase in mass in the control variant of the experiments), cobalt nitrate (by 96.9%), calcium chloride (by 89.1%) sodium triphosphate (by 86.0%), zinc chloride (by 83.5%). A nonsignificant effect (a tendency of increase in the body mass) on T. molitor larvae was caused by manganese sulfate (by 57.8%), aluminium nitrate (by 57.3%), iron oxide (by 51.5%), barium nitrate (by 47.9%), orthophosphoric acid (by 47.4%), manganese chloride (by 46.5%), calcium carbonate (by 27.7%), iron sulfate (by 24.2%) and ammonium heptamolybdate (by –7.5%). Therefore, 5 out of the 15 studied inorganic substances significantly stimulated the increase in the body weight of T. molitor larvae, and 7 manifested these capacities at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in body weight averaging 43–58% over the 14-day experiment). The obtained data indicate a necessity for further study on the impact of inorganic pollutants on different stages of insects.

Mots clés

  • body mass
  • heavy metal pollution
  • larvae
  • Tenebrionidae
Accès libre

Growth adaptability of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) to urban environment

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 33 - 45

Résumé

Abstract

Adaptability of Acer platanoides L. to deteriorating urban conditions was assessed through qualitative parameters describing crown destruction, assimilation organs efficiency, chlorophyll a content, and content of alochtonous elements in leaves. The adaptability assessment was based on comparison between study trees growing in an environmentally loaded town area and control trees in a historical rural park, both localities in Slovakia (Central Europe). The results of visual assessments performed in 2015 and 2016 showed higher crown and leaf quality (Qns) for the individuals growing in the rural park (Qns2015 = 0.44, Qns2016 = 0.43) compared to the individuals in urban conditions (Qns2015 = 1.44, Qns2016 = 1.56). The values of chlorophyll a content index (CCI) were higher in the trees growing in the rural park (CCI = 25.914) than in the urban environment (CCI = 16.290). The performance of assimilation organs was evaluated through the maximum fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm) and electron transport rate (ETR) at both sites. During the years 2015 and 2016, there were measured higher values in the rural park (Fv/Fm2015 = 0.828, Fv/Fm2016 = 0.820) than in the town (Fv/Fm2015 = 0.823, Fv/Fm2016 = 0.772). Higher ETR values were measured on trees in the urban area (ETR2015 = 47.345, ETR2016 = 65.284) and lower in the park area (ETR2015 = 36.832, ETR2016 = 59.495). The urban locality demonstrated higher contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Na and Ca elements in tree leaves compared to the rural park. The adaptability index (Ia) values indicate an average adaptability of the Norway maple to the urban environment (Ia2015 = 1.93, Ia2016 = 2.13) in comparison with a good adaptability in the rural park (Ia = 0.8–1.6).

Mots clés

  • adaptability
  • assessment
  • compared settlements
  • Norway maple
Accès libre

Soil heterogeneity after recultivation: ecological aspect

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 46 - 52

Résumé

Abstract

The study subject was the soil heterogeneity at a recultivation site Nikopol manganese-ore basin (Pokrov, Ukraine). The soils at the locality are sod lithogenic soils developed on gray-green clays. The study ran by applying soil penetration resistance indices. The penetration resistance was measured across a regular grid of 7 × 15 points (21 × 45 m). The distance between the measurement points was 3 m. The parameters were recorded at every 5 cm to a depth of 50 cm. The environmental parameters were determined by phytoindication. Geostatistical analysis showed the average level of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance. According to the features of the profile variation in penetration resistance with the depth, the measurement points have been divided into three clusters. The clusters formed morphologically homogeneous soil areas. These areas significantly differed in their soil acidity and in nitrogen content in soil.

Mots clés

  • geostatistics
  • phytoindication
  • recultivation
  • soil heterogeneity
  • soil penetration resistance
Accès libre

Identification and characterization of the fungus Dothiorella sarmentorum on necrotic shoots of declining ash in Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 53 - 57

Résumé

Abstract

Formerly, before the current Hymenoscyphus fraxineus epidemic, symptomatic ash twigs were habitually colonized by fungi occurring occasionally in the early stages of ash diseases. Some of these fungi are endophytes or facultative parasites. The segments of diseased shoots of the studied trees were collected from a seed orchard situated in southwest Slovakia. The frequently isolated fungus Dothiorella sarmentorum was identified microscopically and characterized with the aid of morphological keys. The disease symptoms comprise wood cankers, bud necrosis, and shoot and branch dieback displayed through bleached, necrotic or discoloured canes in infected trees. Despite the Dothiorella species has not yet been recognized to have significant economic consequences, the cumulative effects of various stressful biotic and abiotic factors may induce disorder and decline of ash trees in Slovakia.

Mots clés

  • fungus
  • morphological characteristics
6 Articles

Original Article

Accès libre

Deer game, a key factor affecting population of European yew in beech forests of the Veľká Fatra Mts, Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 1 - 7

Résumé

Abstract

Browsing and bark peeling by ungulates is known to affect biodiversity and may constitute the main driving factor of single tree population dynamics. In Slovakia, European yew (Taxus baccata L.) is a threatened species protected by law and present in many protected areas. In the study, we emphasize that protecting land and individual plants may not be sufficient for maintaining of yew populations, unless controlling over damage by deer game is also undertaken. Our results show that in beech forests of the Veľká Fatra Mts, browsing and bark peeling constitute the main negative factor affecting yew seedling-sapling ingrowth transition, and the mortality and vitality loss of adult yew trees. We argue that ungulates may have a larger effect on biodiversity conservation than currently realized.

Mots clés

  • biodiversity conservation
  • forest management
  • plant-animal interactions
  • protected tree species
Accès libre

The role of edaphic, vegetational and spatial factors in structuring soil animal communities in a floodplain forest of the Dnipro river

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 8 - 23

Résumé

Abstract

This paper examines the role of ecological factors, derived from principal component analysis performed on edaphic and vegetational dataset as well as spatial variables, in structuring the soil macrofauna community of the Dnipro floodplain within the ‘Dnipro-Orilsky’ Nature Reserve (Ukraine). The soil macrofauna was defined as invertebrates visible to the naked eye (macroscopic organisms). The test points formed a regular grid with a mesh size of 3 m with 7 × 15 dimensions. Thus, the total test point number was 105. At each point, soil-zoological samples of 0.25 × 0.25 m were taken for quantifying the soil macrofauna. The spatial structure was modeled by a set of independent spatial patterns obtained by means of principal coordinates of neighbor matrices analysis (PCNM-variables). Spatial PCNM-variables explain significantly more variations of the community (19.9%) than edaphic factors (4.1%) and vegetation factors (3.2%). Spatial and combined environmental and spatial effects were divided into three components: broad-scale component was characterized by periodicity of spatial variation with a wavelength of 24.0–44.5 m, medium-scale – 11.1–20 m, fine-scale – 6.6–11.0 m. For a broad-scale component, environmental factors of a vegetational nature are more important, for medium-scale, edaphic factors are more important, for fine-scale, both vegetation and edaphic are important. For litter-dwelling animals, the most characteristic spatial patterns are on the broad and medium-scale levels. For endogeic and anecic animals, the most significant variability is on the fine-scale level.

Mots clés

  • ecological groups
  • ecological niche
  • environmental factors
  • neutral diversity
  • spatial variation
Accès libre

The impact of some inorganic substances on change in body mass of Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera, Tenebrionidae) larvae in a laboratory experiment

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 24 - 32

Résumé

Abstract

Addition of low concentrations of metal ions to the diet of saprophagous insects can impact on their metabolism over a short period of time, causing an increase or decrease in their body mass. This article presents a 14-day laboratory experiment evaluating the changes in the body mass of larval stage 3 of Tenebrio molitor (Linnaeus, 1758) induced by adding different inorganic substances (350 mg kg−1 of dry fodder) to the diet of the larvae. Following the addition of inorganic substances to the fodder, the most marked differences compared to the control were observed in the groups which consumed substrate with lead nitrate (the mass of the larvae increased on average by 102.6% compared to increase in mass in the control variant of the experiments), cobalt nitrate (by 96.9%), calcium chloride (by 89.1%) sodium triphosphate (by 86.0%), zinc chloride (by 83.5%). A nonsignificant effect (a tendency of increase in the body mass) on T. molitor larvae was caused by manganese sulfate (by 57.8%), aluminium nitrate (by 57.3%), iron oxide (by 51.5%), barium nitrate (by 47.9%), orthophosphoric acid (by 47.4%), manganese chloride (by 46.5%), calcium carbonate (by 27.7%), iron sulfate (by 24.2%) and ammonium heptamolybdate (by –7.5%). Therefore, 5 out of the 15 studied inorganic substances significantly stimulated the increase in the body weight of T. molitor larvae, and 7 manifested these capacities at the level of tendency (stimulated an increase in body weight averaging 43–58% over the 14-day experiment). The obtained data indicate a necessity for further study on the impact of inorganic pollutants on different stages of insects.

Mots clés

  • body mass
  • heavy metal pollution
  • larvae
  • Tenebrionidae
Accès libre

Growth adaptability of Norway maple (Acer platanoides L.) to urban environment

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 33 - 45

Résumé

Abstract

Adaptability of Acer platanoides L. to deteriorating urban conditions was assessed through qualitative parameters describing crown destruction, assimilation organs efficiency, chlorophyll a content, and content of alochtonous elements in leaves. The adaptability assessment was based on comparison between study trees growing in an environmentally loaded town area and control trees in a historical rural park, both localities in Slovakia (Central Europe). The results of visual assessments performed in 2015 and 2016 showed higher crown and leaf quality (Qns) for the individuals growing in the rural park (Qns2015 = 0.44, Qns2016 = 0.43) compared to the individuals in urban conditions (Qns2015 = 1.44, Qns2016 = 1.56). The values of chlorophyll a content index (CCI) were higher in the trees growing in the rural park (CCI = 25.914) than in the urban environment (CCI = 16.290). The performance of assimilation organs was evaluated through the maximum fluorescence yield (Fv/Fm) and electron transport rate (ETR) at both sites. During the years 2015 and 2016, there were measured higher values in the rural park (Fv/Fm2015 = 0.828, Fv/Fm2016 = 0.820) than in the town (Fv/Fm2015 = 0.823, Fv/Fm2016 = 0.772). Higher ETR values were measured on trees in the urban area (ETR2015 = 47.345, ETR2016 = 65.284) and lower in the park area (ETR2015 = 36.832, ETR2016 = 59.495). The urban locality demonstrated higher contents of Cu, Zn, Fe, Pb, Na and Ca elements in tree leaves compared to the rural park. The adaptability index (Ia) values indicate an average adaptability of the Norway maple to the urban environment (Ia2015 = 1.93, Ia2016 = 2.13) in comparison with a good adaptability in the rural park (Ia = 0.8–1.6).

Mots clés

  • adaptability
  • assessment
  • compared settlements
  • Norway maple
Accès libre

Soil heterogeneity after recultivation: ecological aspect

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 46 - 52

Résumé

Abstract

The study subject was the soil heterogeneity at a recultivation site Nikopol manganese-ore basin (Pokrov, Ukraine). The soils at the locality are sod lithogenic soils developed on gray-green clays. The study ran by applying soil penetration resistance indices. The penetration resistance was measured across a regular grid of 7 × 15 points (21 × 45 m). The distance between the measurement points was 3 m. The parameters were recorded at every 5 cm to a depth of 50 cm. The environmental parameters were determined by phytoindication. Geostatistical analysis showed the average level of spatial dependence of soil penetration resistance. According to the features of the profile variation in penetration resistance with the depth, the measurement points have been divided into three clusters. The clusters formed morphologically homogeneous soil areas. These areas significantly differed in their soil acidity and in nitrogen content in soil.

Mots clés

  • geostatistics
  • phytoindication
  • recultivation
  • soil heterogeneity
  • soil penetration resistance
Accès libre

Identification and characterization of the fungus Dothiorella sarmentorum on necrotic shoots of declining ash in Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 19 Jun 2018
Pages: 53 - 57

Résumé

Abstract

Formerly, before the current Hymenoscyphus fraxineus epidemic, symptomatic ash twigs were habitually colonized by fungi occurring occasionally in the early stages of ash diseases. Some of these fungi are endophytes or facultative parasites. The segments of diseased shoots of the studied trees were collected from a seed orchard situated in southwest Slovakia. The frequently isolated fungus Dothiorella sarmentorum was identified microscopically and characterized with the aid of morphological keys. The disease symptoms comprise wood cankers, bud necrosis, and shoot and branch dieback displayed through bleached, necrotic or discoloured canes in infected trees. Despite the Dothiorella species has not yet been recognized to have significant economic consequences, the cumulative effects of various stressful biotic and abiotic factors may induce disorder and decline of ash trees in Slovakia.

Mots clés

  • fungus
  • morphological characteristics

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