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Volume 44 (2017): Edition 1 (June 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-7014
Première publication
16 Apr 2017
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 44 (2017): Edition 1 (June 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-7014
Première publication
16 Apr 2017
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

7 Articles

Review article

Accès libre

Analysis of the Transdanubian region of Hungary according to plant species diversity and floristic geoelement categories

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 1 - 10

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of floristic geoelements and plant biodiversity in the macroregions of Transdanubia. The core data source used for the analysis was the database of the Hungarian Flora Mapping Programme. The analysed data were summarized in tables and distribution maps. The percentage of continental elements was higher in dry areas, whereas the proportion of circumboreal elements was higher in humid and rainy parts of Transdanubia. According to the climatic zones, the highest value of continental geoelement group occurred in the forest-steppe zone. The plant species diversity and geoelements were analysed also on a lower scale, with Transdanubia specified into five macroregions. The highest diversity values were found in the Transdanubian Mountain and West-Transdanubian regions because of the climatic, topographic, and habitat diversity.

Mots clés

  • Borhidi’s climatic zones
  • climatic variables
  • floristic geoelement categories
  • macroregion
  • species diversity
  • Transdanubia
Accès libre

Contents of nutrients and arsenic in litterfall and surface humus in mature nudal beech stands subjected to different emission-immission loads

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 11 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to compare the litterfall and surface humus (Oo) quality in nudal beech stands with different emission-immission load from the Al smelter Žiar nad Hronom. The study was carried out in the Kremnické vrchy Mts (control stand, 18 km from the emission source) and the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (stressed stand, 1.5 km from the emission source), both in Central Slovakia. The contents of arsenic and nutrients (Cat, Mgt, Kt, Nat), with exception of calcium in the beech litterfall from the stressed stand were markedly higher (by 4.3%, 23.9%, 2.1% and 87.9%, respectively) compared to the samples taken from the control plot. On the contrary, the surface humus samples (with the exception of Na in the necrotic Oon subhorizon) from control plot were richer in nutrients. However, significant differences (p < 0.01) between the plots were observed for Ca content in the litterfall as well as in the surface humus. The concentrations of As in Oo samples from the stressed stand mainly increased with the organic horizon depth (mg kg-1): necrotic Oon 1.10 < fermentation Oof 3.1 < humification Ooh 55.6. The results showed, that As amounts detected in subhorizon Ooh and in beech litterfall from the stressed stand were higher than the limit values, thus indicating that the environment of the Žiar territory is exposed to persistent negative impacts of industrial activities.

Mots clés

  • arsenic
  • litterfall
  • mature beech forests
  • nutrients
  • surface humus
Accès libre

Salinity tolerance of Dodonaea viscosa L. inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: assessed based on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 20 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the potential of different strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to reduce the effects of salinity stress on the medicinal hopbush plant. The bacterium factor was applied at five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated by Pseudomonas putida, Azospirillum lipoferum + Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida, and Azospirillum lipoferum + Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida), and the salinity stress at six levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 dS m-1. The results revealed that Pseudomonas putida showed maximal germination percentage and rate at 20 dS m-1 (18.33% and 0.35 seed per day, respectively). The strongest effect among the treatments was obtained with the treatment combining the given 3 bacteria at 15 dS m-1 salinity stress. This treatment increased the root fresh and dry weights by 31% and 87.5%, respectively (compared to the control). Our results indicate that these bacteria applied on hopbush affected positively both its germination and root growth. The plant compatibility with the three bacteria was found good, and the treatments combining Pseudomonas putida with the other one or two bacteria discussed in this study can be applied in nurseries in order to restore and extend the area of hopbush forests and akin dry stands.

Mots clés

  • arid lands
  • germination characteristics
  • growth-promoting bacteria
  • hopbush
  • saline soils
Accès libre

Effect of lead and cadmium ions upon the pupariation and morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 28 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

Modelling the influence of different concentrations of lead and cadmium ions upon a laboratory culture of insects has not been adequately studied. In our research, we assessed the influence of cadmium and lead nitrates at different concentrations (10-2-10-9 М) upon the development of larvae, pupae and imagines of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We found an acceleration in the development of larvae and an increase in mass of puparia when lead ions were added to the food of the larvae, and decrease in the mass of puparia when cadmium ions were added. We registered nanism and malformation of the fly imagines in experiments with lead and cadmium in the food substrate. We observed that under the influence of the studied heavy metal ions there was a reduced motor activity of the fly larvae at all stages of development, a delay in formation of puparia and a delay in the emergence of imagines in comparison with the control group.

Mots clés

  • heavy metal pollution
  • larvae
  • morphological changes: nanism pupariation
Accès libre

Foliage biomass qualitative indices of selected forest forming tree species in Ukrainian Steppe

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 38 - 45

Résumé

Abstract

Our study objective was research on the assimilation component of aboveground biomass of trees and its correlation with mensurational indices of trees (age, diameter and height) in stands of the main forest forming species in the Ukrainian Northern Steppe zone - Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Black locust). The research was carried out in forest stands subordinated to the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. We used experimental data collected on sample plots established during years 2014-2016. The main research results prove that the foliage share in the tree greenery biomass structure had a wide range of values. For both investigated species, a positive correlation was found between the dry matter content in the tree foliage and the tree age, height and diameter. The foliage share in tree greenery biomass decreased with increasing mensurational index values. Correlation analysis revealed linear relationships between the mensurational indices and the discussed aboveground live biomass parameters. The closest correlation was observed between the stand age, mean stand diameter, mean stand height and dry matter content in the foliage.

Mots clés

  • allometry
  • Black locust
  • forestry
  • mensurational (biometric) parameters
  • Scots pine
Accès libre

Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 46 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC) and point of diminished availability (PDA). Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP) decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm) into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm). The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

Mots clés

  • available water
  • forest ecosystem
  • hydrolimits
  • soil moisture
  • water balance

Short communication

Accès libre

Morphological features of Camarosporium pini – the fungus associated to health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 54 - 57

Résumé

Abstract

The subject of this study is escalated occurrence of the pathogenic fungus Camarosporium pini in the needle tissue of symptomatic trees P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi growing in urbanized settings and parks. C. pini induces severe infections and initiates a blight and premature loss of second-year foliage in pine trees. The fungus was identified microscopically and on base of morphological keys. The affected needles displayed a distinct bluish-grey necrotic band in the centre. On the surface of infected needles, there were formed pycnidia producing brown, oval conidia with three transversal and one or two vertical walls. Disease symptoms, some important characteristics in pure culture, and distinctive morphological features of C. pini associated to the health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine are described and compared. Cumulative effects of these stressful biotic and various abiotic factors may explain the current situation concerning the decline in the P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi in Slovakia.

Mots clés

  • Camarosporium pini
  • Pinus nigra
  • P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi
7 Articles

Review article

Accès libre

Analysis of the Transdanubian region of Hungary according to plant species diversity and floristic geoelement categories

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 1 - 10

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the proportion of floristic geoelements and plant biodiversity in the macroregions of Transdanubia. The core data source used for the analysis was the database of the Hungarian Flora Mapping Programme. The analysed data were summarized in tables and distribution maps. The percentage of continental elements was higher in dry areas, whereas the proportion of circumboreal elements was higher in humid and rainy parts of Transdanubia. According to the climatic zones, the highest value of continental geoelement group occurred in the forest-steppe zone. The plant species diversity and geoelements were analysed also on a lower scale, with Transdanubia specified into five macroregions. The highest diversity values were found in the Transdanubian Mountain and West-Transdanubian regions because of the climatic, topographic, and habitat diversity.

Mots clés

  • Borhidi’s climatic zones
  • climatic variables
  • floristic geoelement categories
  • macroregion
  • species diversity
  • Transdanubia
Accès libre

Contents of nutrients and arsenic in litterfall and surface humus in mature nudal beech stands subjected to different emission-immission loads

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 11 - 19

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of the paper was to compare the litterfall and surface humus (Oo) quality in nudal beech stands with different emission-immission load from the Al smelter Žiar nad Hronom. The study was carried out in the Kremnické vrchy Mts (control stand, 18 km from the emission source) and the Štiavnické vrchy Mts (stressed stand, 1.5 km from the emission source), both in Central Slovakia. The contents of arsenic and nutrients (Cat, Mgt, Kt, Nat), with exception of calcium in the beech litterfall from the stressed stand were markedly higher (by 4.3%, 23.9%, 2.1% and 87.9%, respectively) compared to the samples taken from the control plot. On the contrary, the surface humus samples (with the exception of Na in the necrotic Oon subhorizon) from control plot were richer in nutrients. However, significant differences (p < 0.01) between the plots were observed for Ca content in the litterfall as well as in the surface humus. The concentrations of As in Oo samples from the stressed stand mainly increased with the organic horizon depth (mg kg-1): necrotic Oon 1.10 < fermentation Oof 3.1 < humification Ooh 55.6. The results showed, that As amounts detected in subhorizon Ooh and in beech litterfall from the stressed stand were higher than the limit values, thus indicating that the environment of the Žiar territory is exposed to persistent negative impacts of industrial activities.

Mots clés

  • arsenic
  • litterfall
  • mature beech forests
  • nutrients
  • surface humus
Accès libre

Salinity tolerance of Dodonaea viscosa L. inoculated with plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria: assessed based on seed germination and seedling growth characteristics

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 20 - 27

Résumé

Abstract

The study was conducted to evaluate the potential of different strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) to reduce the effects of salinity stress on the medicinal hopbush plant. The bacterium factor was applied at five levels (non-inoculated, inoculated by Pseudomonas putida, Azospirillum lipoferum + Pseudomonas putida, Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida, and Azospirillum lipoferum + Azotobacter chroococcum + Pseudomonas putida), and the salinity stress at six levels: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 50 dS m-1. The results revealed that Pseudomonas putida showed maximal germination percentage and rate at 20 dS m-1 (18.33% and 0.35 seed per day, respectively). The strongest effect among the treatments was obtained with the treatment combining the given 3 bacteria at 15 dS m-1 salinity stress. This treatment increased the root fresh and dry weights by 31% and 87.5%, respectively (compared to the control). Our results indicate that these bacteria applied on hopbush affected positively both its germination and root growth. The plant compatibility with the three bacteria was found good, and the treatments combining Pseudomonas putida with the other one or two bacteria discussed in this study can be applied in nurseries in order to restore and extend the area of hopbush forests and akin dry stands.

Mots clés

  • arid lands
  • germination characteristics
  • growth-promoting bacteria
  • hopbush
  • saline soils
Accès libre

Effect of lead and cadmium ions upon the pupariation and morphological changes in Calliphora vicina (Diptera, Calliphoridae)

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 28 - 37

Résumé

Abstract

Modelling the influence of different concentrations of lead and cadmium ions upon a laboratory culture of insects has not been adequately studied. In our research, we assessed the influence of cadmium and lead nitrates at different concentrations (10-2-10-9 М) upon the development of larvae, pupae and imagines of Calliphora vicina Robineau-Desvoidy, 1830 (Diptera: Calliphoridae). We found an acceleration in the development of larvae and an increase in mass of puparia when lead ions were added to the food of the larvae, and decrease in the mass of puparia when cadmium ions were added. We registered nanism and malformation of the fly imagines in experiments with lead and cadmium in the food substrate. We observed that under the influence of the studied heavy metal ions there was a reduced motor activity of the fly larvae at all stages of development, a delay in formation of puparia and a delay in the emergence of imagines in comparison with the control group.

Mots clés

  • heavy metal pollution
  • larvae
  • morphological changes: nanism pupariation
Accès libre

Foliage biomass qualitative indices of selected forest forming tree species in Ukrainian Steppe

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 38 - 45

Résumé

Abstract

Our study objective was research on the assimilation component of aboveground biomass of trees and its correlation with mensurational indices of trees (age, diameter and height) in stands of the main forest forming species in the Ukrainian Northern Steppe zone - Pinus sylvestris L. (Scots pine) and Robinia pseudoacacia L. (Black locust). The research was carried out in forest stands subordinated to the State Agency of Forest Resources of Ukraine. We used experimental data collected on sample plots established during years 2014-2016. The main research results prove that the foliage share in the tree greenery biomass structure had a wide range of values. For both investigated species, a positive correlation was found between the dry matter content in the tree foliage and the tree age, height and diameter. The foliage share in tree greenery biomass decreased with increasing mensurational index values. Correlation analysis revealed linear relationships between the mensurational indices and the discussed aboveground live biomass parameters. The closest correlation was observed between the stand age, mean stand diameter, mean stand height and dry matter content in the foliage.

Mots clés

  • allometry
  • Black locust
  • forestry
  • mensurational (biometric) parameters
  • Scots pine
Accès libre

Development of soil water regime under spruce stands

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 46 - 53

Résumé

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to analyse the water regime of soils under spruce ecosystems in relation to long-lasting humid and drought periods in the growing seasons 1991-2013. The dominant interval humidity in observing growing seasons is semiuvidic interval with soil moisture between hydro-limits maximal capillary capacity (MCC) and point of diminished availability (PDA). Gravitationally seepage concentrated from accumulated winter season, water from melting snow and existing atmospheric precipitation occurs in the soil only at the beginning of the growing season. The supplies of soil water are significantly decreasing in the warm climate and precipitant deficient days. The greatest danger from drought threatens Norway spruce during the summer months and it depends on the duration of dry days, water supply at the beginning of the dry days, air temperature and the intensity of evapotranspiration. In the surface layers of the soil, with the maximum occurrence of active roots, the water in semiarid interval area between hydro-limits PDA and wilting point (WP) decreases during the summer months. In the culminating phase occurs the drying to moisture state with capillary stationary and the insufficient supply of available water for the plants. Physiological weakening of Norway spruce caused by set of outlay components of the water balance is partially reduced by delivering of water by capillary action from deeper horizons. In extremely dry periods, soil moisture is decreasing also throughout the soil profile (0-100 cm) into the bottom third of the variation margin hydro-limits MCC-PDA in the category of capillary less moving and for plants of low supply of usable water (60-90 mm). The issue of deteriorated health state of spruce ecosystems is considered to be actual. Changes and developments of hydropedological conditions which interfere the mountain forests represent the increasing danger of the drought for the spruce.

Mots clés

  • available water
  • forest ecosystem
  • hydrolimits
  • soil moisture
  • water balance

Short communication

Accès libre

Morphological features of Camarosporium pini – the fungus associated to health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine

Publié en ligne: 30 Aug 2017
Pages: 54 - 57

Résumé

Abstract

The subject of this study is escalated occurrence of the pathogenic fungus Camarosporium pini in the needle tissue of symptomatic trees P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi growing in urbanized settings and parks. C. pini induces severe infections and initiates a blight and premature loss of second-year foliage in pine trees. The fungus was identified microscopically and on base of morphological keys. The affected needles displayed a distinct bluish-grey necrotic band in the centre. On the surface of infected needles, there were formed pycnidia producing brown, oval conidia with three transversal and one or two vertical walls. Disease symptoms, some important characteristics in pure culture, and distinctive morphological features of C. pini associated to the health state degradation in Austrian and Ponderosa pine are described and compared. Cumulative effects of these stressful biotic and various abiotic factors may explain the current situation concerning the decline in the P. nigra and P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi in Slovakia.

Mots clés

  • Camarosporium pini
  • Pinus nigra
  • P. ponderosa var. jeffreyi

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