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Volume 49 (2022): Edition 2 (July 2022)

Volume 49 (2022): Edition 1 (January 2022)

Volume 48 (2021): Edition 2 (July 2021)

Volume 48 (2021): Edition 1 (May 2021)

Volume 47 (2020): Edition 2 (November 2020)
Special Edition: Invasive species in forest, agricultural and urban ecosystems

Volume 47 (2020): Edition 1 (May 2020)

Volume 46 (2019): Edition 2 (December 2019)

Volume 46 (2019): Edition 1 (May 2019)

Volume 45 (2018): Edition 2 (December 2018)

Volume 45 (2018): Edition 1 (May 2018)

Volume 44 (2017): Edition 2 (December 2017)

Volume 44 (2017): Edition 1 (June 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-7014
Première publication
16 Apr 2017
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

Volume 44 (2017): Edition 2 (December 2017)

Détails du magazine
Format
Magazine
eISSN
1338-7014
Première publication
16 Apr 2017
Période de publication
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais

Chercher

7 Articles
Accès libre

Effect of man-made disturbances on understory plant richness of oak forests in Iran

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 61 - 68

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of disturbance degree on the species richness and species diversity of oak forests in the Kurdistan Province (Iran). The study ran on three treatments: undisturbed, moderately disturbed, and highly disturbed. For each treatment, there were selected three forest patches with similar physiographic conditions and on each patch there were specified three 400 m2 plots for recording floristic data. The species’ name and the abundance of herbaceous species were recorded on 5 micro plots sized 1.5 × 1.5 m for each sample. Menhinick, Margalef, the number of species indices and also rarefaction, jackknife methods and species abundance distribution models were used to estimate the herbaceous species richness for the three treatments. The results showed that all the richness indices had the highest values for the undisturbed forests and the lowest values for the highly disturbed ones. Based on all models, undisturbed forests were showed more diverse than highly disturbed area. Generally the negative impact of human activities (wood cutting and grazing) on the herbaceous species richness was found much stronger in the highly disturbed forests and in moderately disturbed forests compared the undisturbed ones. With increasing destruction intensity, the herbaceous species richness in the oak forests decreased dramatically.

Mots clés

  • disturbance
  • diversity
  • oak forest
  • understory vegetation
Accès libre

Relationship between particular dendrobiometrical indicators of natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dendrocenoses in Central Balkan Range

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 69 - 77

Résumé

Abstract

In parallel studies, different regression models were tested to identify relationships between particular dendrobiometrical indicators on two sample plots representing forests dominated by the European beech in the Central Balkan Range (Bulgaria). The presence of incomplete multicollinearity was studied through correlation matrix for factor variables. To avoid multicollinear negative impact, step multiple regression was applied and adequate regression equations of the relationships under consideration were formulated. The results of statistical analysis confirmed that the link between the investigated indicators is strong and that the ’cloud‘ data show some ’sphericity‘ and distribution close to normal. In one of the sample plots, one major volume-forming factor – height does not participate in the obtained regression equation, so it is not possible to estimate its influence. By testing linear and several nonlinear regression dependencies and by mediating widely used statistical criterions for model selection, the optimal linear model of the considered link was chosen.

Mots clés

  • beech forests
  • height and length of tree crowns
  • mean diameter
  • stand parameters
Accès libre

Characteristics of physical properties in soil profiles under selected introduced trees in the Nature Reserve Arboretum Mlyňany, Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 78 - 86

Résumé

Abstract

The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.

Mots clés

  • acclimatization
  • compaction
  • introduced trees
  • soil aeration
  • soil moisture
  • soil porosity
Accès libre

Drought and frost tolerance in rhododendron collection of the Mlyňany Arboretum (Slovakia): a screening for future climate

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 87 - 95

Résumé

Abstract

Rhododendrons are jewels of the Mlyňany Arboretum, Institute of Forest Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IFE SAS). Blossoming in May, they attract thousands of visitors. But recently these woody plants have much suffered from climatic extremes such as summer droughts and winter frosts, associated with the advancing climate change. To assess the rhododendron collection’s stability, its drought and frost injury level were tested in field, in summer 2015 and winter 2017, respectively. The tested parameters were: leaf wilting and electrolyte leakage combined with shrub leaf area, insolation level and overall health state. We found that the drought effect was strong or very strong in only ca. 30% rhododendron species and ca. 10% rhododendron cultivars, and that around 60% shrubs showed no or only moderate symptoms of water deficit. The drought injury level was only associated with the genotype. The most tolerant / sensitive genotypes, commonly occurring in the park, were: R. catawbiense, R. ponticum, R. smirnowii, cv. ‘Boursault’, cv. ‘Cunningham’s White’ and cv. ‘Purpureum Elegans’ / R. fortunei and cv. ‘Tamarindos’. On the other hand, the most frequent response to frost in the observed rhododendron genotypes was moderate injury (28 and 37% for species and cultivars, respectively), nevertheless more than 18% species and almost 6% cultivars exhibited strong frost damage. Despite absence of significant differences in the factor-response between the species, we may suggest this decreasing sequence of the genotypes ordered according to their frost resistance: genotypes: cv. ‘Cunningham’s White’ > R. decorum > R. fortunei and cv. ‘Duke of York’ > R. smirnowii > cvs. ‘Purpureum Elegans’ and ‘Tamarindos’ > R. macrophyllum and cv. ‘Nova Zembla’ > R. catawbiense > R. ponticum. These results have been compared with similar works in rhododendron species/cultivars as well as suggested species drought/frost tolerance derived from climatic conditions in the area of their natural distribution.

Mots clés

  • climate change
  • cultivars
  • drought and frost tolerance
  • North-American
  • Pontic and Chinese native species
  • rhododendron
Accès libre

Immission-load-related dynamics of S-SO42− in precipitation and in lysimetric solutions penetrating through beech ecosystems

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 96 - 106

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a 23-year study of sulphate sulphur dynamics in beech ecosystems exposed to different immission loads. The amounts of S-SO42− in precipitation water entering the ecosystems were: the Kremnické vrchy Mts, a clear-cut area 519 kg ha−1 (24.7 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 476 kg ha−1 (22.7 kg ha−1 per year); the Štiavnické vrchy Mts an open place 401 kg ha−1 (24.6 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 324 kg ha−1 (19.1 kg ha−1 per year). The average SO42− concentrations in lysimetric solutions penetrating through surface humus to a depth of Cambisol 10 and 25 cm were increased as follows: in the Kremnické vrchy Mts from 12.71 to 16.17 mg l−1 and in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts from 18.73 to 28.80 mg l−1. The S-SO4−2 amounts penetrating the individual soil layers in the Kremnické vrchy Mts were as follows: in case of surface humus on clear-cut area 459 kg ha−1 (20.9 kg ha−1 per year), in beech forest 433 kg ha−1 (19.7 kg ha−1 per year); below 10 cm organo-mineral layer of the mentioned plots penetrated 169–171 kg ha−1 (7.7–7.8 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer 155–255 kg ha−1 (7.1−11.6 kg ha−1 per year) – a higher amount was found on clear-cut area with an episodic lateral flow of soil solutions. In beech forest of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts penetrated below surface humus 424 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (18.9 kg ha−1 per year), below 10 cm mineral layer 458 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (19.9 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer as much as 599 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (26.0 kg ha−1 per year). This fact was caused by frequent lateral flow of soil solutions. The results indicate that the assumption about lower immission load of the beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts is wrong, at least in the case of S-SO42−. The testing has revealed that the studied beech ecosystems differ very significantly in sulphur amounts penetrating under 0.10 m and 0.25 m. The inter-annual differences were insignificant.

Mots clés

  • beech ecosystems
  • immissions
  • lysimetric solutions
  • precipitation
  • sulphate sulphur
  • througfall
Accès libre

Energy production analysis of Common Reed – Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 107 - 113

Résumé

Abstract

Slovakia is acountry with limited natural resources, therefore its essential task is to search for new renewable sources of energy to reduce its dependence on imported fossil fuels. The results of research confirmed that the Common Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.) has considerable potential of phytomass production and energy storage (calorific value reached 17,448 J g−1 d.w.). Biomass production of Common Reed under natural conditions of the lower Liptov region reached 12.702 tons of a dry mater per hectare with the calculated energy storage of 221.622 GJ ha−1. The average biogas production was 351.31 l kg−1 of a dry matter of which the methane (CH4) content represents 185.21 l kg−1 (52.72%). With regards to the values of combustion heat, a calorific value and the production of methane it can also be noted that in case of Common Reed it is more profitable to focus on direct combustion of biomass than the production of biogas and methane.

Mots clés

  • Common Reed
  • growth and energy parameters
  • production
  • phytomass

Short Communication

Accès libre

Body volume in ground beetles (Carabidae) reflects biotope disturbance

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 114 - 120

Résumé

Abstract

Changes in body size of living organisms can indicate changes in environmental quality. The family Carabidae is frequently used as an indicator of environmental status. We collected ground beetles in 9 Slovakian localities (in the Veporské vrchy Mts and the Juhoslovenská kotlina Basin) of various levels of disturbance, and evaluated the volume of individuals. The lowest average body volumes of individual were found for an intensively grazed pasture (locality 5) and a nitrophilous waterside vegetation (locality 6) (1,298 mm3–4,648 mm3) with predominantly macropterous species. We have confirmed the significantly higher average biovolume value of individual Carabidae in less disturbed habitats: a Picea abies plantation (locality 1), a Carpathian oak-hornbeam forest (locality 4) and a Carpathian turkey oak forest (locality 7) (from 9,837 mm3 to 13,038 mm3), where apterous and brachypterous species dominated.

Mots clés

  • biovolume
  • Carabidae
  • indicator
  • Slovakia
7 Articles
Accès libre

Effect of man-made disturbances on understory plant richness of oak forests in Iran

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 61 - 68

Résumé

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the impacts of disturbance degree on the species richness and species diversity of oak forests in the Kurdistan Province (Iran). The study ran on three treatments: undisturbed, moderately disturbed, and highly disturbed. For each treatment, there were selected three forest patches with similar physiographic conditions and on each patch there were specified three 400 m2 plots for recording floristic data. The species’ name and the abundance of herbaceous species were recorded on 5 micro plots sized 1.5 × 1.5 m for each sample. Menhinick, Margalef, the number of species indices and also rarefaction, jackknife methods and species abundance distribution models were used to estimate the herbaceous species richness for the three treatments. The results showed that all the richness indices had the highest values for the undisturbed forests and the lowest values for the highly disturbed ones. Based on all models, undisturbed forests were showed more diverse than highly disturbed area. Generally the negative impact of human activities (wood cutting and grazing) on the herbaceous species richness was found much stronger in the highly disturbed forests and in moderately disturbed forests compared the undisturbed ones. With increasing destruction intensity, the herbaceous species richness in the oak forests decreased dramatically.

Mots clés

  • disturbance
  • diversity
  • oak forest
  • understory vegetation
Accès libre

Relationship between particular dendrobiometrical indicators of natural European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) dendrocenoses in Central Balkan Range

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 69 - 77

Résumé

Abstract

In parallel studies, different regression models were tested to identify relationships between particular dendrobiometrical indicators on two sample plots representing forests dominated by the European beech in the Central Balkan Range (Bulgaria). The presence of incomplete multicollinearity was studied through correlation matrix for factor variables. To avoid multicollinear negative impact, step multiple regression was applied and adequate regression equations of the relationships under consideration were formulated. The results of statistical analysis confirmed that the link between the investigated indicators is strong and that the ’cloud‘ data show some ’sphericity‘ and distribution close to normal. In one of the sample plots, one major volume-forming factor – height does not participate in the obtained regression equation, so it is not possible to estimate its influence. By testing linear and several nonlinear regression dependencies and by mediating widely used statistical criterions for model selection, the optimal linear model of the considered link was chosen.

Mots clés

  • beech forests
  • height and length of tree crowns
  • mean diameter
  • stand parameters
Accès libre

Characteristics of physical properties in soil profiles under selected introduced trees in the Nature Reserve Arboretum Mlyňany, Slovakia

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 78 - 86

Résumé

Abstract

The relationship between introduced trees roots and soils in which they grow is the most important factor influencing the adaptation, growth and health of these trees. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify which physical soil properties enhance or limit the vitality of the studied introduced trees in the Arboretum Mlyňany. Soil properties were studied in seven soil profiles under dense monocultures of Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Juniperus Chinensis, Thuja orientalis, Thuja plicata, Picea orientalis and Pinus nigra. The results showed that all stagnic horizons had exceeded the limit values of total porosity and bulk density, hence these horizons were compacted. Based on the soil and climatic requirements of the examined trees we conclude that the soil properties of their sites in arboretum are suitable for: Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, Liriodendron tulipifera, Thuja orientalis and Pinus nigra. Nevertheless, physical properties in profiles under Picea orientalis and Juniperus Chinensis do not permit rapid drainage of water, what is unfavourable for healthy development of these two species; while Thuja plicata demanding high moisture supply is grown on soil with high coarse porosity, a prerequisite of fast rainwater drainage. However, since none of the studied introduced trees had suffered from physiological disorders or diseases, they may be declared acclimatized well in the soil-climate conditions described in this study.

Mots clés

  • acclimatization
  • compaction
  • introduced trees
  • soil aeration
  • soil moisture
  • soil porosity
Accès libre

Drought and frost tolerance in rhododendron collection of the Mlyňany Arboretum (Slovakia): a screening for future climate

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 87 - 95

Résumé

Abstract

Rhododendrons are jewels of the Mlyňany Arboretum, Institute of Forest Ecology of the Slovak Academy of Sciences (IFE SAS). Blossoming in May, they attract thousands of visitors. But recently these woody plants have much suffered from climatic extremes such as summer droughts and winter frosts, associated with the advancing climate change. To assess the rhododendron collection’s stability, its drought and frost injury level were tested in field, in summer 2015 and winter 2017, respectively. The tested parameters were: leaf wilting and electrolyte leakage combined with shrub leaf area, insolation level and overall health state. We found that the drought effect was strong or very strong in only ca. 30% rhododendron species and ca. 10% rhododendron cultivars, and that around 60% shrubs showed no or only moderate symptoms of water deficit. The drought injury level was only associated with the genotype. The most tolerant / sensitive genotypes, commonly occurring in the park, were: R. catawbiense, R. ponticum, R. smirnowii, cv. ‘Boursault’, cv. ‘Cunningham’s White’ and cv. ‘Purpureum Elegans’ / R. fortunei and cv. ‘Tamarindos’. On the other hand, the most frequent response to frost in the observed rhododendron genotypes was moderate injury (28 and 37% for species and cultivars, respectively), nevertheless more than 18% species and almost 6% cultivars exhibited strong frost damage. Despite absence of significant differences in the factor-response between the species, we may suggest this decreasing sequence of the genotypes ordered according to their frost resistance: genotypes: cv. ‘Cunningham’s White’ > R. decorum > R. fortunei and cv. ‘Duke of York’ > R. smirnowii > cvs. ‘Purpureum Elegans’ and ‘Tamarindos’ > R. macrophyllum and cv. ‘Nova Zembla’ > R. catawbiense > R. ponticum. These results have been compared with similar works in rhododendron species/cultivars as well as suggested species drought/frost tolerance derived from climatic conditions in the area of their natural distribution.

Mots clés

  • climate change
  • cultivars
  • drought and frost tolerance
  • North-American
  • Pontic and Chinese native species
  • rhododendron
Accès libre

Immission-load-related dynamics of S-SO42− in precipitation and in lysimetric solutions penetrating through beech ecosystems

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 96 - 106

Résumé

Abstract

The paper presents the results of a 23-year study of sulphate sulphur dynamics in beech ecosystems exposed to different immission loads. The amounts of S-SO42− in precipitation water entering the ecosystems were: the Kremnické vrchy Mts, a clear-cut area 519 kg ha−1 (24.7 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 476 kg ha−1 (22.7 kg ha−1 per year); the Štiavnické vrchy Mts an open place 401 kg ha−1 (24.6 kg ha−1 per year), a beech forest 324 kg ha−1 (19.1 kg ha−1 per year). The average SO42− concentrations in lysimetric solutions penetrating through surface humus to a depth of Cambisol 10 and 25 cm were increased as follows: in the Kremnické vrchy Mts from 12.71 to 16.17 mg l−1 and in the Štiavnické vrchy Mts from 18.73 to 28.80 mg l−1. The S-SO4−2 amounts penetrating the individual soil layers in the Kremnické vrchy Mts were as follows: in case of surface humus on clear-cut area 459 kg ha−1 (20.9 kg ha−1 per year), in beech forest 433 kg ha−1 (19.7 kg ha−1 per year); below 10 cm organo-mineral layer of the mentioned plots penetrated 169–171 kg ha−1 (7.7–7.8 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer 155–255 kg ha−1 (7.1−11.6 kg ha−1 per year) – a higher amount was found on clear-cut area with an episodic lateral flow of soil solutions. In beech forest of the Štiavnické vrchy Mts penetrated below surface humus 424 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (18.9 kg ha−1 per year), below 10 cm mineral layer 458 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (19.9 kg ha−1 per year), and below 25 cm mineral layer as much as 599 kg ha−1 S-SO42− (26.0 kg ha−1 per year). This fact was caused by frequent lateral flow of soil solutions. The results indicate that the assumption about lower immission load of the beech ecosystem in the Kremnické vrchy Mts is wrong, at least in the case of S-SO42−. The testing has revealed that the studied beech ecosystems differ very significantly in sulphur amounts penetrating under 0.10 m and 0.25 m. The inter-annual differences were insignificant.

Mots clés

  • beech ecosystems
  • immissions
  • lysimetric solutions
  • precipitation
  • sulphate sulphur
  • througfall
Accès libre

Energy production analysis of Common Reed – Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 107 - 113

Résumé

Abstract

Slovakia is acountry with limited natural resources, therefore its essential task is to search for new renewable sources of energy to reduce its dependence on imported fossil fuels. The results of research confirmed that the Common Reed (Phragmites australis (Cav.) Trin.) has considerable potential of phytomass production and energy storage (calorific value reached 17,448 J g−1 d.w.). Biomass production of Common Reed under natural conditions of the lower Liptov region reached 12.702 tons of a dry mater per hectare with the calculated energy storage of 221.622 GJ ha−1. The average biogas production was 351.31 l kg−1 of a dry matter of which the methane (CH4) content represents 185.21 l kg−1 (52.72%). With regards to the values of combustion heat, a calorific value and the production of methane it can also be noted that in case of Common Reed it is more profitable to focus on direct combustion of biomass than the production of biogas and methane.

Mots clés

  • Common Reed
  • growth and energy parameters
  • production
  • phytomass

Short Communication

Accès libre

Body volume in ground beetles (Carabidae) reflects biotope disturbance

Publié en ligne: 10 Feb 2018
Pages: 114 - 120

Résumé

Abstract

Changes in body size of living organisms can indicate changes in environmental quality. The family Carabidae is frequently used as an indicator of environmental status. We collected ground beetles in 9 Slovakian localities (in the Veporské vrchy Mts and the Juhoslovenská kotlina Basin) of various levels of disturbance, and evaluated the volume of individuals. The lowest average body volumes of individual were found for an intensively grazed pasture (locality 5) and a nitrophilous waterside vegetation (locality 6) (1,298 mm3–4,648 mm3) with predominantly macropterous species. We have confirmed the significantly higher average biovolume value of individual Carabidae in less disturbed habitats: a Picea abies plantation (locality 1), a Carpathian oak-hornbeam forest (locality 4) and a Carpathian turkey oak forest (locality 7) (from 9,837 mm3 to 13,038 mm3), where apterous and brachypterous species dominated.

Mots clés

  • biovolume
  • Carabidae
  • indicator
  • Slovakia

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