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Green building considering image processing technology combined with CFD numerical simulation

Publié en ligne: 15 Jul 2022
Volume & Edition: AHEAD OF PRINT
Pages: -
Reçu: 14 Apr 2022
Accepté: 19 Jun 2022
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License
Format
Magazine
eISSN
2444-8656
Première parution
01 Jan 2016
Périodicité
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Introduction

With the continuous development of economic globalization and the continuous conflict between human activities and the natural environment, the human living environment is deteriorating day by day. This allows us to re-examine the relationship between human living environment and natural environment. Ecological intelligent green building is put forward under the background of comprehensively promoting the concept of sustainable development of green and low-carbon building, which urges people to start to reflect on whether they can solve the building's demand for natural resources from the root based on an ideal life [1]. Lin J and others said that the most basic concept of green building is to maximize the use of resources, save resources and protect resources on the premise that human beings can live a healthy and comfortable life. Nowadays, construction, industry and transportation are the three main sources of energy consumption, and China is a large infrastructure country. In order to reduce building energy consumption, green buildings have developed rapidly [2]. Therefore, it is very necessary to optimize the ventilation design of green buildings through a series of scientific means. CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) is an interdisciplinary subject combining modern fluid mechanics, numerical mathematics and computer science. It can optimize the ventilation design of green buildings and greatly reduce building energy consumption. Haghighinia A and others believe that green building refers to a building that provides human beings with a healthy and comfortable space for work, residence and activities, while realizing the most efficient use of energy and the lowest impact on the environment. Green building is also known as ecological building and sustainable development building [3]. In the field of architectural economics, green building measures have brought social benefits, environmental protection benefits and economic benefits, and reduced the risk of construction projects. In the field of planning, green building first emphasizes the identification of the ecological characteristics and development positioning of the site, so as to make full use of the resources and energy of the site, reduce the impact of unreasonable construction activities on the environment, and make the building and the environment live in harmony. In the design field, the green building adopts the building integrated design method and abides by the environmental design criteria, takes the building as a complete system, and comprehensively considers the factors such as the spacing, orientation, shape, structural system and envelope of the building [4]. In the field of construction, the goal of green building is to reduce the serious impact on the environment. By adopting green construction methods with environmental awareness, the construction process of green buildings can significantly reduce the interference to the surrounding environment, reduce the amount of landfill waste and the amount of natural resources consumed in the construction process, and minimize the adverse impact of buildings on indoor air quality. In the field of operation and maintenance, the technology and method of green building can ensure the realization of building planning and design objectives through reasonable environmental goal setting and intelligent system control. Adopt a scientific and applicable consumption mode to ensure the safe and clean operation of the building equipment system, reduce the energy consumption of the system, ensure the indoor air quality and thermal, acoustic and optical environment, reduce the generation of pollutants during operation, and improve the overall operation efficiency of the building. Therefore, green building follows the principle of sustainable development, takes high and new technology as the leading factor, and comprehensively embodies the basic concept of “saving energy, saving resources, protecting the environment and people-oriented” through scientific overall design for all links of the whole life of the building. Create a building environment with high efficiency, low consumption, no waste, no pollution, health, comfort and ecological balance, and improve the function, efficiency and comfort level of the building. Mazaheri A R and others said that digital image processing technology came into being in the last century, which means converting image signals into digital signals and processing them on computers. At present, it is used in many fields. For example, it is widely used in aerospace, industrial production, military, public security, medicine, culture and art. It is a promising new technology, which is of great significance to promote the development of technology [5]. Kim Y K and others believe that the wide application of digital image processing technology has many advantages, such as good reproducibility. There is a difference between digital image processing and analog image processing, which means that even if the image is stored, transmitted, copied and converted, the image quality will not be very poor. It can best reproduce the original image. Now, especially the accuracy of image processing, it should have high accuracy [6]. For the current technological development, the digital image is converted into a two-dimensional array of arbitrary size, which plays a direct role in the digitization ability of the equipment in the scanner. The gray level of each pixel can be quantified to 16 bits or more.

Method
Basic method of CFD numerical simulation

There are three common methods to measure the wind environment of buildings: field measurement, wind tunnel experiment and CFD numerical simulation. With the rapid development of computer performance, numerical simulation method is widely used in the measurement of wind environment. As shown in Figure 1. Firstly, the finite volume method is used to obtain the calculation grid, generate the calculation points, determine the boundary conditions of the object, establish the discrete equation, and then repeat the test until the solution converges, and finally display and output the calculation results [7]. This is the numerical simulation of CFD.

Figure 1

Solution process of CFD numerical simulation

Then, the natural ventilation optimization design of green buildings based on CFD simulation. Firstly, the wind environment of the basic site is obtained by inputting the surrounding environment of the site terrain and conducting CFD simulation experiments. This is the design basis of the overall layout, and then repeatedly carry out CFD simulation and optimization to obtain the indoor and outdoor wind environment, and then design the building shape and enclosure interface, improve the relationship between the building itself and the foundation, surrounding buildings, wind direction and building layout, make full use of natural resources, obtain better natural ventilation conditions and reduce the impact of adverse wind environment. Under unstable atmospheric conditions, the flow of air near the surface is affected by the friction of topographic relief and buildings, so that the average wind speed forms a vertical velocity profile. The closer it is to the surface, the smaller the wind speed is. Generally speaking, the distribution of pollutants in the surface layer is more affected by the so-called vertical wind direction or logarithmic dispersion index [8]. A balanced boundary layer is usually specified at the inlet, with a distance of at least 5 times the height of the highest building. The average velocity distribution is usually obtained from the logarithm curve of windward terrain with corresponding roughness Z0 or from the wind tunnel simulation section. The wind speed at the reference height can be determined by using the information provided by nearby meteorological stations. In the process of setting inlet boundary conditions, the exponential law of Formula 1 is used as the expression of wind speed profile: U(Z)=Us(ZZs)α U\left( Z \right) = {U_s}{\left( {{Z \over {{Z_s}}}} \right)^\alpha } Where: US is the average wind speed at the reference height ZS; α is the ground roughness index. The reference height ZS is generally 10 meters high. When Z is greater than a certain height Zh, the value of ground roughness index α is different under different ground conditions.

In the boundary behind the obstacle, open boundary conditions are used, which are generally outflow or static pressure boundary conditions. Under the outlet boundary condition, the derivative of all variables is zero, which corresponds to a fully developed flow. For LES model, convective outflow boundary conditions shall be used. The gradient of all variables is zero as the outflow boundary condition. The outlet boundary shall be placed where the impact on the building can be ignored. Therefore, the outlet boundary is usually set as free outflow. It is considered that the flow on the outflow surface has been fully developed and the flow has returned to the normal flow without building obstruction, so its outlet pressure is set as atmospheric pressure [9]. The section at the outlet is taken at the place without backflow, and the pressure outlet boundary condition is adopted. The setting of top and side boundary conditions is very important to maintain the equilibrium boundary layer distribution. It is generally considered that the boundary layer is affected by constant shear stress. This is because the top and left and right sides are far enough away from the building, and the air flow is hardly affected by the building, which can be considered as a free sliding surface. The flow velocity along the top of the turbulence domain is usually calculated at the specified position and at the top of the turbulence domain. For the setting of left and right boundary conditions, when the flow direction is parallel to the side boundary, in order to make the velocity component of the parallel flow in the normal direction of the boundary zero, the symmetrical boundary is usually used in CFD commercial software. Symmetric boundary conditions strengthen a parallel flow by forcing the normal velocity component to zero, and specify that the derivatives of all other variables are zero. If the size of the calculation domain is large enough, the side and top boundary conditions have no great influence on the calculation results around the target building. Using the non stick wall state (usually the velocity component and tangential velocity gradient are zero) and a large calculation domain will make the calculation more stable. For the building wall and underlying surface, the standard kɛ model usually selected is only applicable to the complete turbulent region at a certain distance from the wall. Near the solid wall, the influence of laminar viscosity is strengthened, so the standard kɛ model must be modified. In order to reduce the calculation cost, the wall function is an alternative method for calculating the wall shear stress [10]. Through the wall function method, the wall shear stress is calculated by the assumption of logarithmic velocity distribution between the first calculation node and the wall in the normal direction of the wall. In addition to smooth walls, rough walls will also be encountered in the simulation of building wind environment, and the wall function method can also be used. For the case without considering the roughness, the exponential relationship is used to correct the influence of roughness; For the geometric reproduction of the actual building, the boundary conditions suitable for the actual ground conditions should be adopted; For smooth walls, the law of logarithm shall be applied. The flow of wind outside buildings generally belongs to incompressible, low-speed turbulence. The selection of turbulence model is one of the important work of wind environment simulation. Generally, CFD software is equipped with a variety of turbulence models, including algebraic model, one equation model, two equation model, Reynolds stress turbulence model, etc. some even include large eddy simulation.

For engineering applications, the most widely used is the two equation kɛ model, which is suitable for large Reynolds number, low rotation and weak buoyancy flow, with low calculation cost, small fluctuation and high accuracy in numerical calculation. However, the standard kɛ model is too dissipative, so there are many modified kɛ models, such as RNG kɛ model and realizable kɛ model [11]. The calculated value of RNG kɛ turbulence model is larger in the corner area of bluff body flow, but the wind speed ratio distribution in the whole calculation area and the calculated value in the leeward negative pressure area are close to the experimental value. Compared with the wind tunnel test value, the numerical calculation value of RNG kɛ turbulence model is larger in the corner separation area of the building, and the leeward negative pressure area is in good agreement, which is generally good. When the calculation accuracy is not high and only focus on the flow field at the height of 1.5m, the standard kɛ model can be used. For strongly swirling flow, buoyant flow, near wall flow and other obviously isotropic flows, the adaptability of the two equation kɛ model is poor. The anisotropic turbulence model can be used, which considers the rapid changes of bending, vortex, pressure and tension. For complex flows, the solution accuracy is higher, but the calculation workload is greatly increased. At present, anisotropic turbulence model is rarely used in engineering upwind environment simulation, and the practicability of anisotropic turbulence model needs to be further tested in practice.

Green design method based on CFD

Conceptual design is the stage of conceiving the whole design scheme, so there are often many different design schemes at the beginning of this stage. Conceptual design determines the basic framework of the design in the next stage. The conceptual design stage is the most innovative part of the whole design process, which basically determines the spatial function distribution of the whole building, the design method and construction method of structural equipment and so on [12]. Conceptual design involves the refinement of architectural scheme. Its architectural volume and appearance determine the location and site orientation of the building, as well as its structure and indoor environmental quality.

Conceptual design almost completely relies on the knowledge and experience of architects in conventional design. After the scheme is formed, it is handed over to other members of the design team for refinement and analysis. If the construction objectives are not met after analysis, the scheme needs to be changed again according to the feedback. After forming an alternative scheme, analyze it again. After the scheme is finally formed, it takes a lot of time to deepen the design and draw the construction drawings. This can be clearly seen from Figure 2. In the traditional design, the payment schedule proposed by the architectural designer is generally 15% in the conceptual design stage, 30% in the design deepening stage, and 55% in the construction drawing and detailed drawing stage. It also reflects that designers spend most of their time and energy on drawing in traditional design. In the green building design based on CFD, due to the parametric design of CFD technology, the model scheme formed by conceptual design can automatically draw construction drawings, detailed drawings and other drawings according to the requirements and drawing standards. The time spent by designers on drawing making is saved, so that designers have more time and energy to spend on scheme design. In addition, the application of CFD technology has also changed the traditional design mode in the conceptual design stage. Since the scheme formed in the conceptual design stage will directly affect the performance and energy consumption of the building, in the conceptual design stage of green building based on CFD, in addition to architects, structural engineers, equipment engineers, constructors, operators and other building related parties participate in the whole process [13]. We all worked together in an all-round way around a green goal. In the conceptual design stage, we divided the tasks through joint discussion. For example, the green building standard requires that the buildings do not produce light pollution to the surrounding buildings, and the wind speed in the pedestrian area around the buildings is less than 5m / S. Although these green requirements can also be adjusted through other technical means in the later deepening design, sometimes the improper design such as site selection in the conceptual design stage will make it difficult to make up through technical means in the later stage. In the conceptual design stage, the first step is to establish a mechanism of common consultation. Secondly, it studies and formulates specific architectural design objectives based on the needs of owners and green buildings. After the goal is formulated, all participants cooperate to complete the formulation of the conceptual design scheme according to the division of labor. In the whole process of formulating the scheme, the discussion and communication among all participants are based on the 3D model of CFD, which saves the detailed information description of each discipline for the building. Therefore, all parties can easily process the information through the processing of the model. For example, in the equipment discipline, first export the scheme model to the file format recognized by the energy-saving analysis software through the interface, and then the analysis results can be obtained quickly through the analysis software. According to the results, the designers propose to adjust the architectural design, improve the thermal resistance value of building materials and other feedback information. The supplier's plan system is discussed regularly. After several rounds of such information feedback and scheme discussion, the conceptual scheme will be formulated soon. And because the scheme is the result of multi-party discussion and analysis, there will be few changes in the later deepening design and construction stage.

Figure 2

Relationship between cost change and current design stage

Results and analysis

Before analyzing the building performance of the project, the first thing to do is to fully understand the climate environment around the project. The most influential factor on building energy efficiency design is climate. The city where the analysis site is located has a severe cold climate. Therefore, it is necessary to clarify the basic requirements of the climate zoning of the project on the building at the early stage of the station building design of the project. Figure 3 shows the meteorological data information of the main indoor areas of the city, including solar radiation, wind direction, temperature, etc. the acquisition and analysis of these data can help architectural designers understand the basic conditions of solar radiation, wind direction, humidity and so on, and provide intuitive and accurate data navigation for designers to choose various passive strategies to improve users' thermal comfort [14].

Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter

Through the integration of the building and the surrounding environment, combined with the local meteorological characteristics, several passive energy-saving strategies are analyzed and optimized, and finally the best range of human thermal comfort is obtained, which has a good reference value for improving human comfort. Strive for a better wind, light and thermal environment for the building, so as to reduce the unnecessary energy consumption cost caused by the adoption of passive energy-saving measures. The human body has obvious response to the changes of air humidity, relative humidity, air velocity and average radiation temperature. Through the automatic calculation of these four indexes by software, the most comfortable area of the human body can be formed in the humidity map. The city's highest temperature in summer occurs in July, while the lowest temperature in winter occurs in January. The temperature difference is large and the air is dry. The sampling points in winter and summer hardly fall into the comfort area, so it is necessary to adopt a variety of passive and active strategies to expand the range of human comfort. The orientation and shape of buildings have a great impact on the two indicators of wind environment and sunshine. In order to obtain sufficient and good sunshine and reduce the use of air conditioning and heating equipment, the strong and cold north wind in winter should be avoided in the building ventilation design, and the warm and humid South wind in summer should be introduced indoors, which greatly reduces the waste of resources and is conducive to the sustainable development of the building; The purpose of determining the ideal orientation of the building in all architectural design is to develop strengths and avoid weaknesses, prolong the opportunity to obtain sunshine in winter and avoid excessive sunlight in summer. On the basis of considering sunshine, the determination of building orientation should also take into account the dominant wind direction in winter and the dominant wind direction in summer, because if the main facade and long side of the building form an acute angle or perpendicular to the dominant wind direction in winter, the building will be more exposed to the cold wind, resulting in increased energy consumption and increased cost due to the enhancement of building structural nodes. On the contrary, if the main facade or long side of the building is at an acute angle or perpendicular to the dominant wind direction in summer, the building will obtain better ventilation effect. The reality is that in order to form the most suitable living environment indoors, the air in all indoor areas must flow, and the orientation can not be determined through simple wind environment simulation. It is also necessary to consider subjective factors such as sunshine analysis and human comfort. Building light environment analysis is divided into two parts: outdoor light environment analysis and indoor light environment analysis. The outdoor light environment focuses on the study of the building as a whole. Due to the influence of orientation and spacing, it is blocked by the surrounding buildings or causes light blocking to the surrounding buildings. It focuses on determining the sunshine spacing to ensure that all buildings meet the minimum sunshine duration requirements on the winter solstice or cold days; The indoor light environment analysis focuses on the study of the building space layout. On the basis of the initially determined best orientation, the rooms with different zoning orientations block the light of other rooms, and study the reasonable distribution of rooms with strong and weak light demand [15]. CFD technology can meet the needs of outdoor light environment analysis. According to the solar track changes of the building's geographical location in different seasons and months, the building shadow range can be obtained, and the light shielding of the shadow to adjacent buildings can be intuitively reflected through the model, which greatly optimizes the selection of building spacing and the auxiliary building design process. The material statistical summary table is sorted out from the material list, and it can be calculated that the research project meets the evaluation requirements of green building with the utilization rate of recyclable materials of no less than 10%, reaching 13.82%. The statistical process of energy consumption analysis also fully shows the advantages of convenient extraction and easy statistics of building material information, reflecting the unique statistical and display function. The area where the project is located is hot in summer and cold in winter. In summer, it is necessary to prevent solar radiation and ventilate and dissipate heat, while in winter, it is just the opposite. Therefore, there are more strict requirements for building energy conservation, and the shape coefficient shall be controlled at a reasonable level. According to the concept of volume and the total area in CFD, the corresponding calculation is completed automatically. With the support of this function, CFD can control the specific surface area of the conceptual scheme in the scheme stage of architectural design, select the scheme with more reasonable indicators for in-depth refinement, and avoid unnecessary design ideas, which will affect the design progress and quality. According to the above methods, the shape coefficient of the buildings in the selected scheme of the project is 0.24, which is less than the shape coefficient of the reference project of 0.26, and meets the relevant evaluation standards of the green building evaluation standards. The determination of architectural form cannot be based solely on the preferences of designers or the requirements of Party A, and multiple factors need to be comprehensively considered. In the form selection, the regular and non publicized performance style is one aspect of catering to the green building design. However, while meeting the use needs and aesthetic elements, the energy-saving norms in different regions have different requirements for the building form design, which directly affect the building energy consumption. The CFD language of the architectural form can be expressed by the architectural form coefficient. If the beauty of the form cannot be described in words, and it is impossible for each designer involved in affecting the form to achieve unanimous recognition, it is better to let the data speak and use the minimum form coefficient to determine the choice of the final architectural form. According to the research, the building energy consumption will increase by 2.5% when the shape coefficient s increases by 0.01. Choosing a smaller shape coefficient is to choose a more energy-saving design orientation. In conclusion, under the limitation of various evaluation factors of building green, CFD technology can give corresponding technical parameters as a reference for auxiliary design, which is a very persuasive index in the design process.

Conclusion

With the continuous development and improvement of China's construction industry system and the strong praise of CFD by the state and local governments, CFD technology has increasingly become the focus of the construction industry; Similarly, in the construction industry, the increasingly prominent problems of building energy consumption and ecological environment have also promoted the great development of green buildings. It can be seen that both CFD technology and green building are the mainstream and general trend of the current development of China's construction industry. CFD technology creates a feasible technical platform and tool for the evaluation of green buildings, and the green building evaluation runs through the whole life cycle of buildings and is also the management object of CFD technology for building creation and construction operation. They just learn from each other and complement each other. By summarizing the basic theory of CFD technology and the evaluation standard of green building, this paper analyzes the author's practice of using CFD technology to design projects that meet the green building standard, discusses the possibility of CFD technology in green building, and boldly summarizes the integration strategy of CFD in green building design and green index evaluation. This paper systematically summarizes the design strategy of CFD technology in green building design, and puts forward the design principles of energy conservation, low carbon, environmental protection, passive, active complementation and overall optimization; Strengthen the connection between building and environment, obtain parameter analysis, ensure indoor environmental quality and optimize the allocation of energy; And build a CFD design team, formulate model and component specifications, meet the CFD plan of green building evaluation standards, and conduct a comprehensive and collaborative design process led by the architecture specialty. Integrate the advantages of CFD into the evaluation of green building design to provide a more reasonable, effective, scientific and realistic design method, clarify the complex situation of multi-professional, multi-platform and multi-technology integration, so that CFD technology has a larger extension and a deeper connotation. Make green buildings have a basis to rely on, achieve mutual benefit and win-win, and promote each other.

Figure 1

Solution process of CFD numerical simulation
Solution process of CFD numerical simulation

Figure 2

Relationship between cost change and current design stage
Relationship between cost change and current design stage

Figure 3

Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter
Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter

Figure 3

Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter
Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter

Figure 3

Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter
Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter

Figure 3

Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter
Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter

Figure 3

Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter
Maximum radiation exposure in summer and winter

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