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Optimization research on prefabricated concrete frame buildings based on the dynamic equation of eccentric structure and horizontal-torsional coupling

Publié en ligne: 15 Jul 2022
Volume & Edition: AHEAD OF PRINT
Pages: -
Reçu: 20 Apr 2022
Accepté: 17 Jun 2022
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Format
Magazine
eISSN
2444-8656
Première parution
01 Jan 2016
Périodicité
2 fois par an
Langues
Anglais
Introduction

The concept of building assembly originated from the Japanese construction industry in 1964, it is intended that through modern industrial production methods, in order to change the past residential production mode, achieve the purpose of improving construction efficiency, saving resources, protecting the environment, and promoting the modernization development process of the construction industry. From the concept, we can see that “building assembly” involves a wide range of aspects, it covers the design of the entire residential life cycle, the production of components, on-site construction and subsequent operations. Compared with the traditional design, construction and production, it pays more attention to the introduction of advanced technology and management methods. Thus we can see from this that, the most important thing in the implementation of building assembly is still the improvement of technology and management level [1].

Building houses through industrialization can be called prefabricated buildings. Industrial production methods are used to reduce energy consumption and material consumption, reduce costs, improve residential quality, and improve labor productivity in residential production. By promoting the standardization of design, the industrialization of component processing and the standardization of the entire construction process, the industrialization of residential construction is realized. The industrial chain of prefabricated building system includes the following three main steps: standardization and standardized design, production of factory components, and assembly construction according to the design plan [2].

High energy consumption, high material consumption and high pollution are the important defects of traditional residential production methods, that is, the “three highs” problems we often say. According to the statistics of the environmental protection department, about 30% of the production and use energy consumption is used for building production every year, and if measures are not taken in time, the proportion will be even higher in the future. With the development and progress of society, especially in the environment where the country vigorously advocates sustainable development, even key indicators such as GPD are no longer required, as an important part of the national economy, the construction industry needs to take corresponding measures to contribute to the rapid and sound development of the economy. In such a big environment, it is imperative to upgrade the building assembly in the real estate industry. It can greatly reduce the problems of high pollution, high material consumption and high energy consumption caused by residential production. At the same time, the introduction of advanced production technology and management experience can make use of less resources, bring a more scientific and comfortable life experience to the residents [3].

Wu, G. and others believe that the Residence Function Technique has always been the focus of research on building assembly in the United States, for example, NASA hopes to apply the advanced technology of spacecraft to the construction of residential buildings. The fundamental starting point of housing should be to meet human needs, so fundamentally speaking, the research on building assembly is to use modern housing production technology to meet the needs of households [4]. Li, J. et al. found that experts from the French Ministry of Housing, after reviewing many houses, a series of “construction systems” have been determined, which greatly reduces the specifications of components and simplifies construction and installation. It is worth noting that among the 25 types of housing proposed by the French jury, a considerable part of them are precast concrete systems, this also provides professional technical support for the author to study the key technologies of building assembly, represented by the concrete precast system [5]. Sun, J. and others believe that “assembled houses” have always been people's dreams, and people have long expected that houses can be built like building blocks, build it your own way. Australian architects have made this dream come true with the help of new cold-formed steel and “Rapid Wall” technology. It is believed that with the continuous overcoming of related technical problems, “assembled houses” will be more widely used [6]. Qing, Kang et al believe that there are many restrictive factors in the current stage of building assembly in China, this not only limits the comprehensive development of building assembly, but also limits the enthusiasm of the academic community for building assembly research. But fortunately, under such difficult circumstances, the development of building assembly in China has still achieved considerable results, especially at the technical level [7].

Model in this paper
Design of prefabricated concrete composite floor

Precast concrete composite floor is one of the most commonly used floor forms for prefabricated steel structure houses, and it is also the first research content in the floor system. It has good integrity, crack resistance, earthquake resistance and thermal insulation performance. The advantages of simplicity, shortened construction period, no need for formwork, material saving, and mechanized production make this floor system more widely researched and applied, and fully conforms to the development direction of the integration of prefabricated steel structure housing.

Precast concrete composite floor is an integral floor system formed by prefabricated base plate as formwork and pouring concrete on its surface. The prefabricated floor can be equipped with ordinary steel bars, steel strands, prestressed steel bars, etc. to improve the strength of the prefabricated floor. According to the structural requirements, the transverse distribution of steel bars is appropriately configured.

The prefabricated slab part of the prefabricated concrete composite floor slab is generally processed and produced in the factory according to the requirements of standardization and scale, and then transported to the construction site, where a layer of concrete is poured on the surface to make it an integral structure. This combination form has obvious advantages over other floor slab systems, especially in the case of very difficult formwork support in high-altitude working conditions. The floor slab and the steel beam are generally connected by shear connectors. For developing new connection forms and improving the bearing capacity of the components, the production in the factory is also more convenient and easy to complete, which reflects another advantage of this kind of floor slab in construction..

The normal span of the laminated floor is 4–6m, and the maximum is 9m. Laminated slabs can be designed as two-way slabs or one-way slabs. For boards supported on four sides, when the ratio of the short side to the long side is less than 2 or between 2 and 3, it shall be calculated according to the two-way board; when the ratio of the short side to the long side is greater than 3, it shall be calculated according to the one-way board. Computation [8].

In the process of parallel splicing of one-way slabs, additional reinforcement bars that are perpendicular to the slab joints should be arranged at the joints. The diameter of the additional reinforcement bars should be greater than 6mm, the spacing should be less than 250mm, and the cross-sectional area is larger than the area of the reinforcement bars in this direction in the prefabricated slab; The anchorage length of the post-cast concrete superimposed layer extending into both sides should be greater than 15d (d is the diameter of the additional steel bar) [9].

Design of prefabricated concrete composite beams
Calculation of the bearing capacity of the composite beam

The design value of the bearing capacity of the composite beam is calculated according to formula (1): Vu=0.07fcAcI+0.10fcAK+165Asdfcfy {V_u} = 0.07\,{f_c}{A_c}I + 0.10\,{f_c}{A_K} + 165\,{A_{sd}}\,\sqrt {{f_c}{f_y}} Where:

AcI - the cross-sectional area of the post-poured concrete laminated layer of the end section of the laminated beam;

fc - Design value of compressive strength of precast concrete axial center;

fy - the design value of the tensile strength of the steel bar vertically passing through the joint surface;

Ak - The sum of the root cross-sectional area of each keyway is calculated according to the root cross-section of the post-cast keyway and the root cross-section of the prefabricated keyway, and the smaller value of the two is taken;

Asd - the area of all reinforcements perpendicular to the joint, including the longitudinal reinforcement in the stack.

Selection of composite beam section

The prefabricated part and the cast-in-place part of the composite beam can adopt the plane interface and the bottom interface. When a plane interface is used, the thickness of the cast-in-place part of the main beam is generally not less than 150mm, and the secondary beam is generally not less than 120mm; When using a concave interface, the depth of the notch is generally not less than 50mm, and the thickness of the edge of the notch is not less than 60mm.

The stirrup setting form of the superimposed beam

The root of the composite beam is a shear sensitive area, and the requirements for structural shear resistance are high, the design of stirrups can take the following two forms.

When the seismic grade is Class I or Class II, the reinforced area of the beam end stirrups of the superimposed frame beams should be in the form of integral closed stirrups; When combined closed stirrups are used, the stirrups above the open stirrups of the prefabricated part of the superimposed beam should be made into 135. Hook; For non-seismic design, the length of the straight section at the end of the hook should not be less than 5d (d is the same below the diameter of the steel bar), at present, there are few buildings with non-seismic design, and this design form is not commonly used; In seismic design, the length of the straight section should not be less than l0d [10].

Connection of composite beams

When the composite beam is required by design, it can take the form of butt connection. When the composite beams are butted, there should be enough operating space between the two prefabricated beams, the joints of longitudinal reinforcement can be in the form of mechanical connection, sleeve grouting connection or welded connection. The stirrups in the post-cast section should be encrypted.

Design of prefabricated columns

The design of the prefabricated column is relatively simple, it belongs to a single component, and there is no overlapping problem. Only the upper and lower end requirements of the column need to be considered in terms of construction for prefabricated construction.

Prefabricated columns should be designed according to the current national standards and requirements of the “Code for Design of Concrete Structures” GB 50010. In addition, the following points should be paid attention to in the process of prefabricated construction: First, when connecting the longitudinally stressed steel bars of the columns through sleeve grouting, the length of the reinforced area of the column stirrups should be greater than the sum of the length of the longitudinally stressed steel bar connection area and 500mm; the distance between the first stirrup at the upper end of the sleeve and the top of the sleeve should be less than 50mm; the second is that the diameter and width of the rectangular column section should be greater than The width of the beam in the same direction is 1.5 times and greater than 400mm; the third is that the diameter of the longitudinal reinforcement of the column should be greater than 20mm.

Eccentric structure horizontal torsion coupled dynamic equation

At present, in the seismic codes of various countries, for irregular plane and vertical irregular structures, generally, the equivalent static method or the torsional accident combined vibration type decomposition response spectrum method is used, conduct seismic response analysis, according to the combination principle of SRS S method and CQC method, in order to obtain the torsional earthquake response of the eccentric structure under the action of the horizontal earthquake, these are the analysis methods in the elastic stage; And for the elastic-plastic dynamic analysis of the eccentric structure, it is difficult to start from both theoretical and experimental aspects, and the work in this area is still limited to relatively superficial content.

For the upper eccentric structure model, according to the results of a long-term study. Generally, two models are used for correlation analysis: Tandem particle system and tandem rigid plate system. The series of mass points is equivalent to concentrating the mass of each floor to one point, and each particle has two degrees of freedom in the horizontal direction; the series of rigid plates, considering the eccentricity of the structural floor, simplify each floor as a rigid piece model, then each rigid piece includes three degrees of freedom, namely two horizontal translations and twists around the vertical axis.

Calculate the plane layout of the model, the moment of inertia of the upper eccentric structure: Jc=mr2 {J_c} = m \cdot {r^2} r-mass radius of gyration relative to cm; m-superstructure mass.

The translational stiffness in the X direction is: Kx=i=1nKxi {K_x} = \sum\limits_{i = 1}^n {{K_{xi}}}

The floor torsional stiffness at the center of mass is: Kθ=j=1mKyjyj2+j=1mKxjxi2 {K_\theta } = \sum\limits_{j = 1}^m {{K_{yj}}y_j^2 + \sum\limits_{j = 1}^m {{K_{xj}}} x_i^2}

Eccentricity: es=i=1nKxiyi/i=1nKxi {e_s} = \sum\limits_{i = 1}^n {{K_{xi}}{y_i}/\sum\limits_{i = 1}^n {{K_{xi}}} }

Among them: Kxi Kyj, the lateral stiffness of the member in the direction of Y and X, xi, yi, the distance from the member to the center of mass.

Case analysis of prefabricated construction projects

Project name Weihai Wanghaiyuan Middle School Project, located on the east side of the school in Huancui District, Weihai City is Tashan Middle Road, on the south side is Jiaozhou Road, on the west side is Planning Unified South Road, and on the north side is Chengyang Road. The construction unit is the Education Bureau of Huancui District, Weihai City, and it will be delivered to Weihai Wanghaiyuan Middle School for use after completion and acceptance. This project was designed by Weihai Architectural Design Institute Co., Ltd., and general contracted by Weihai Construction Group Co., Ltd. The author personally organized the construction of this project as the project leader.

The Weihai Wanghaiyuan Middle School project includes the comprehensive teaching building in the south area and the arts and sports center in the north area, with a total construction area of 44,500m2. Among them, the South District Comprehensive Teaching Building has 2 underground floors and 4 floors above ground, with a construction area of 29755m2; The North District Art Center has 1 underground floor and 5 floors above ground, with a construction area of 14745m2.

The structure type of this project is prefabricated concrete frame structure, and the main prefabricated components are concrete laminated floor slabs. Among them, four construction sections use prefabricated laminated floor slabs, with a total laminated area of 5600m2. The laminated board was designed by Haishi Tongwei Construction Technology Co., Ltd. and confirmed by Weihai Architectural Design Institute Co., Ltd.

The prefabricated laminated panels in this project are all one-way panels. The maximum weight of a single laminated board is 1.20T, and the concrete strength grade is C30. The construction method of the laminated floor slab is as follows: The thickness of the prefabricated laminated board is 60mm, and the thickness of the upper cast-in-place slab is 70mm. C30 concrete = soil pouring is used, the prefabricated board is produced by a manufacturer with professional construction qualifications.

Component stacking area layout

Prefabricated components, all kinds of materials and equipment will enter the site according to the construction sequence, and they will be sorted and stacked, the stacking area of the on-site laminated board is mainly stacked on both sides of the temporary road on the south side and in the middle patio for centralized stacking. There are many types of laminated boards in this project, and the number reaches 86, on-site sorting is more troublesome, we have contacted the supplier in advance, during the production process, the trucks are loaded into the yard in the order of the hoisting direction, and the stacking area in the yard is stacked in order according to the order of hoisting.

The approach route of the vehicles transporting prefabricated laminated panels needs to be fully hardened, and the vehicles will be lifted and unloaded by tower cranes near the component stacking area, warning lines and warning signs are set up in the hoisting area. The prefabricated components are placed in the prefabricated stacking area, and the stacking area is 7cm thick C15 concrete hardened. The prefabricated components shall be horizontally layered, typed and numbered, and the stacking height of each stack shall not exceed 6 layers, considering the effect of concentrated load, the bottom one of the dunnage is long, and the layers should be leveled and compacted. The stacking spacing of the laminated plates is not less than 50cm, which is convenient for people to pass, and ensures that they will not collide with each other and cause damage during the hoisting process [11].

Construction plan
Pay off and install independent steel support system

The bottom support system of the composite slab of the residential building of this project is a fastener steel pipe support system, which is composed of a steel pipe frame, a wooden square bracket, and a top wire, the scaffolding is erected in accordance with the formwork support plan, the beam side is supported with a 400-wide formwork handover area, and the spacing between the wooden squares in the middle is 500mm.

According to the floor control line and the plan layout of the support frame, the on-site surveyor will set out the position of the floor wall column and the frame body layout, and then erect the frame body.

In this project, steel pipe scaffolding is used under the laminated board, in order to ensure the safety of the support and the safety of the hoisting workers, the full-floor support is erected with the cast-in-place roof. In this project, the span of the laminated board is 3100mm, the vertical and horizontal spacing of the poles is lm, and the step distance of the scaffolding is 1600mm.

The construction personnel use the horizontal ink line instrument and the steel tape measure to pass the height of the top wire at the top of the support frame, adjust the height of the vertical pole up and down, so that the top elevation of the steel pipe keel is equal to the bottom elevation of the designed laminated plate. The steel pipes used should be straight and without visible bending, after the support is completed, the elevation of the top of the bracket should be measured at each position of the bracket to ensure that it is consistent with the design elevation of the bottom of the prefabricated slab.

According to the on-site floor control line and detailed design drawings, using steel tape measure, theodolite, horizontal ink line meter and other instruments, the position of the laminated board is bounced on the beam template to locate the position of the laminated board.

In order to ensure the accuracy of the hoisting of the laminated board, communicate with the laminated board manufacturer, during the production process of the laminated board, a control line that overlaps with the floor control line is left at the bottom of the laminated board, during the hoisting process of the laminated board, the ground control line is projected onto the top laminated board by a laser ink line instrument, and the positioning of the laminated board is completed as long as the two lines overlap.

Place the positioning line of the laminated board

Before installing the laminated floor, please pay attention to the following matters:

The laminated board extends into the beam by 10mm, and some floor formwork is supported on the side of the beam, the width of the formwork is 300, the position of the laminated board is set out on the formwork on the side of the beam, which is convenient for hoisting the laminated board floor. After this part of the formwork support is completed, the secondary elevation check is carried out immediately to ensure that the height of the formwork is consistent, so as to ensure that the elevation of the laminated board after hoisting is consistent.

Copy and lay out the line, copy the +1 meter horizontal line on the wall column steel bar, and make a clear mark, the bottom formwork of the laminated board is checked and accepted, and the elevation size is strictly controlled, in order to control the installation elevation and plane position of the laminated board, avoid secondary lifting to adjust the position.

When the laminated board is lifted, the bending moment caused by its own weight should be reduced as much as possible, and the prefabricated member lifting beam should be used for lifting, laminated board lifting slings are customized and provided by the laminated board manufacturer, in order to meet the needs of the hoisting of the laminated board, the hoisting of the laminated board adopts 4/6 lifting points to ensure uniform stress and ensure the stable hoisting of the components, the position of the lifting point shall be clearly marked on the approach stack, and the lifting shall be carried out in strict accordance with the marked lifting point.

Before hoisting, a trial hoisting should be carried out, and the suspension should be carried out at a distance of 50 cm from the ground to ensure that the laminated board is in a balanced state, and the stress of the hook and wire rope should be carefully checked, and finally hoisted to the top of the working layer [12]. The optimization results are shown in Table 1.

The genetic optimization results of the remaining prefabricated composite beams are as follows:

Name Size information D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 J1 J2 strength grading of concrete
Prefabricated folded version 3360mm*2800mm 50mm 9 9 12 9 8 175.6042 189.7462 C30
Prefabricated folded version2330mm*2280 mm 50mm 9 9 12 9 12 156.3652 186.0354 C30

After being in place, the installation of the laminated board must be carried out vertically from the top down, and it should be suspended at 200mm above the working layer. The construction personnel will align the edge of the laminated board with the placement position line on the formwork on the side of the beam, and can adjust the direction appropriately by holding the floor. In order to avoid the staggering of the beam steel bars and the reserved steel bars on the laminated board, pay attention not to be too fast when lowering, but to stop and lower it slowly, so as not to cause cracks on the board surface due to excessive impact force. When the wind is above level 5, hoisting is not allowed.

Professional manufacturers provide special slings, The slings should be specially designed, the specifications of the slings meet the requirements, the horizontal angle of the slings should not be less than 45 degrees, and should not be less than 60 degrees.

During the hoisting process of the laminated board, the construction shall be stopped within the falling radius of the crane, and the hoisting radius shall be surrounded by ribbons, and full-time safety personnel shall be arranged to supervise the station.

Laying and connection of water and electricity pipelines

After the hoisting of the laminated board is completed, the laying and connection of the water and electricity pipelines shall be carried out, in order to facilitate the construction, in the production stage of the laminated board, the corresponding wire boxes and reserved openings should be embedded in the prefabricated board according to the design drawings, in order to facilitate the connection of the wires and pipes on the laminated board, the octagonal wire box is used for the pre-embedded design of the wire box.

Before the pipeline laying, the installation department and the project technical department do a good job in the detailed design of the pipeline laying, minimize the phenomenon of pipeline fights, if the radiation pipeline cannot be constructed, it is necessary to cut off the self-contained ribs of the laminated plate, the technical personnel must communicate with the design unit, and do a good job in reinforcing the steel bars at the cut-off parts, and ensure the thickness of the protective layer of the upper steel bars. During the construction process, all parties must do a good job in protecting the finished product.

During the construction process, if the superimposed part of the line pipe installed in some parts exceeds the reinforced bar, the line pipe will first pass through the cast-in-place beam, avoid the junction part, and then connect the octagonal box.

Construction of upper reinforcement and concrete

When the superimposed floor concrete of this project is poured, it shall be poured in the order from the middle to the two sides. The optimization results are shown in Table 2 and Table 3.

Genetic optimization results of other prefabricated composite beams

Name Size information Force reinforcement Waist tendons stirrup Encryption area spacing Non-encrypted zone spacing strength grading of concrete
Wide Tall
Main beam: 6,030 mm (not connected to the secondary beam) 450mm 520mm 26 11 9 115.2215mm 215.5053mm C30
Main beam: 7,230mm (connected to the secondary beam) 450mm 520mm 26 11 9 55.0456mm 223.5623mm C30

Genetic optimization results of other prefabricated composite beams

Name Size information Force reinforcement Waist tendons stirrup Encryption area spacing Non-encrypted zone spacing strength grading of concrete
Wide Tall
Main beam: 6,030mm (not connected to the secondary beam) 450mm 520mm 25 12 9 112.9523mm 220.2647mm C30
Main beam is 1,700 mm 240mm 38mm 18 / 9 / 126.2514mm C30
Secondary beam: 1220mm 240mm 380mm 18 9 / 118.3571mm C30

At the connection between the superimposed floor and the surrounding cast-in-place concrete floor, the vibration should be strengthened when pouring concrete. After the concrete pouring of the floor is completed, the cable is closed, and the elevation of the wall and column is strictly controlled, which is not greater than 5mm of the structural elevation. The concrete pouring of the floor slab is uniformly distributed by the automobile pump, and it is arranged according to each flow section. Concrete surface layer curing is completed after pouring, and the content requirements for pouring and curing of the concrete construction plan on the ground are the same.

When the formwork and supports are removed, they should be removed evenly from the middle to both sides; After the compressive strength of the post-cast concrete of the superimposed floor slab meets the design requirements, the keel and the support of the next layer can be removed before the keel is removed, when there is no design requirement, the removal time requirements in the table below shall be met. After the upper concrete construction is completed, the lower formwork and supports can be removed.

Before the concrete is poured, the joint position of the upper laminated board should be treated. Communicate with the laminated board manufacturer, and leave a 50-wide tongue and groove on each side of the stubble position of the laminated board, after the concrete on the top of the laminated slab is poured, use special plastering mortar to plaster the surface, and hang glass fiber mesh cloth to prevent cracking.

Based on the concrete structure prefabricated building in the Weihai Wanghaiyuan Middle School project undertaken by Weihai Construction Group Co., Ltd., the application of prefabricated building related technologies in engineering is discussed. The building has carried out the secondary design of prefabricated components on the basis of traditional structural design, which opens up new ideas for the design of prefabricated buildings. In terms of construction, through comparative analysis, reasonable construction techniques have been adopted in the aspects of stacking, hoisting, reinforcing steel bars, concrete pouring and plate-to-plate connection, during construction, attention was paid to the details of key technologies. Through engineering practice, we have a clearer understanding of the design and construction of prefabricated buildings, and a deeper understanding of related technologies, and also verified the feasibility of related technologies in engineering [13].

Conclusion

The author's realization of design standardization is the premise and foundation of building assembly. The author carried out the structural design of the prefabricated composite slabs, composite beams, prefabricated columns, prefabricated shear walls and other components involved in the prefabricated concrete structure system, the structural design scheme is given, and the connection between the components is designed, the construction scheme of component connection is given. The design and comparative analysis of waterproof, sealing and other aspects have been carried out, and the whole prefabricated building design scheme has been formed, it laid the foundation for the promotion of prefabricated buildings. The transportation and assembly of the components are the decisive links in the quality of the prefabricated building, the technical details of the transportation, stacking, installation and other processes in the construction process are discussed in detail, the construction process of the installation and construction of different components is formulated, the key technical indicators are determined, and the mechanical check calculation method to ensure the quality of the components is given, which provides a guarantee for the construction quality.

All in all, the main reason for the slow development of prefabricated buildings in my country in recent years is its high construction cost, so reducing the construction cost of prefabricated buildings is the key to its forward development. Enterprises should strengthen management, establish and improve various modular standards and component product standards. Through these standards, it is a prefabricated construction of a unified assembly line factory production to reduce the prefabrication cost of construction. On the other hand, in engineering practice, it is necessary to continuously optimize the structural design of prefabricated buildings, improve construction technology, improve project quality and efficiency, reduce construction costs, and promote the continuous innovation and development of prefabricated buildings.

Genetic optimization results of other prefabricated composite beams

Name Size information Force reinforcement Waist tendons stirrup Encryption area spacing Non-encrypted zone spacing strength grading of concrete
Wide Tall
Main beam: 6,030mm (not connected to the secondary beam) 450mm 520mm 25 12 9 112.9523mm 220.2647mm C30
Main beam is 1,700 mm 240mm 38mm 18 / 9 / 126.2514mm C30
Secondary beam: 1220mm 240mm 380mm 18 9 / 118.3571mm C30

The genetic optimization results of the remaining prefabricated composite beams are as follows:

Name Size information D1 D2 D3 D4 D5 J1 J2 strength grading of concrete
Prefabricated folded version 3360mm*2800mm 50mm 9 9 12 9 8 175.6042 189.7462 C30
Prefabricated folded version2330mm*2280 mm 50mm 9 9 12 9 12 156.3652 186.0354 C30

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