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Special Edición: Underground Infrastructure of Urban Areas

Volumen 43 (2021): Edición 1 (April 2021)

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Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2083-831X
ISSN
0137-6365
Publicado por primera vez
09 Nov 2012
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

Volumen 36 (2014): Edición 2 (June 2014)

Detalles de la revista
Formato
Revista
eISSN
2083-831X
ISSN
0137-6365
Publicado por primera vez
09 Nov 2012
Periodo de publicación
4 veces al año
Idiomas
Inglés

Buscar

8 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 3 - 8

Resumen

Abstract

Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

Palabras clave

  • vibrocompaction
  • CPTU
  • sands
  • soil behaviour type
Acceso abierto

A Nanoscale Simulation Study of Elastic Properties of Gaspeite

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 9 - 16

Resumen

Abstract

The study of structural and mechanical properties of carbonate rock is an interesting subject in engineering and its different applications. In this paper, the crystal structure of gaspeite (NiCO3) is investigated by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations based on energy minimization technique using an interatomic interaction potential.

At first, we focus on the structural properties of gaspeite mineral. And then, the elastic properties are calculated, including the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, the S- and P-wave velocities. In the next part of this paper, the pressure effect will be studied on the structural and elastic properties of NiCO3 at high pressure.

Palabras clave

  • carbonate rock
  • gaspeite
  • molecular dynamic
  • elastic properties
  • pressure effect
Acceso abierto

Key Aspects of the Proper Formulation of the Model in Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Mining Exploitation on Buildings

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 17 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

Numerical modelling is an important tool used to analyse various aspects of the impact of underground mining on existing and planned buildings. The interaction between the building and the soil is a complex matter and in many cases a numerical simulation is the only way of making calculations which will take into consideration the co–existence of a number of factors which have a significant influence on the solution. The complexity of the matter also makes it a difficult task to elaborate a proper mathematical model – it requires both a thorough knowledge of geologic conditions of the subsoil and the structural characteristics of the building.

This paper discusses the most important problems related to the construction of a mathematical model of a building-mining subsoil system. These problems have been collected on the basis of many years of experience the authors have in observing the surveying and tensometric deformations of the rock–mass and buildings as well as in mathematical and numerical modelling of the observed processes.

Palabras clave

  • numerical modelling
  • building
  • subsoil
  • mining
  • impact of mining exploitation on buildings
Acceso abierto

Two Scales, Hybrid Model for Soils, Involving Artificial Neural Network and Finite Element Procedure

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 29 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

A hybrid ANN-FE solution is presented as a result of two level analysis of soils: a level of a laboratory sample and a level of engineering geotechnical problem. Engineering properties of soils (sands) are represented directly in the form of ANN (this is in contrast with our former paper where ANN approximated constitutive relationships). Initially the ANN is trained with Duncan formula (Duncan and Chang [2]), then it is re-trained (calibrated) with some available experimental data, specific for the soil considered. The obtained approximation of the constitutive parameters is used directly in finite element method at the level of a single element at the scale of the laboratory sample to check the correct representation of the laboratory test. Then, the finite element that was successfully tested at the level of laboratory sample is used at the macro level to solve engineering problems involving the soil for which it was calibrated.

Palabras clave

  • soil model
  • neural network
  • Finite Element Method
  • hybrid FE-ANN model
Acceso abierto

State of Strength in Massive Concrete Structure Subjected to Non-Mechanical Loads

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 37 - 43

Resumen

Abstract

The paper deals with an impact of non–mechanical loads on the state of strength in massive concrete hydraulic structures. An example of hydroelectric plant subjected to the effect of water temperature annual fluctuation is considered. Numerical analysis of transient thermal–elasticity problem was performed. After determining the temperature distributions within the domain, the Duhamel-Neumann set of constitutive equations was employed to evaluate fields of mechanical quantities: displacement, strain and stress. The failure criterion proposed by Pietruszczak was adopted in assessing whether the load induces exceeding of strength of concrete within the structure volume. The primary finding is that the temperature effect can lead to damage of concrete in draft tubes and spirals, especially in winter months.

Palabras clave

  • non-mechanical load
  • massive concrete structure
  • hydro power plant
  • temperature impact
Acceso abierto

Static Load Tests, Short Series Interpretation

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 45 - 49

Resumen

Abstract

Statistic load test is the most commonly used method for estimation of the bearing capacity of piles. From the test we obtain the series a values: load-settlement, Q–s curve. In practice, it is extremely difficult to reach the critical load of the pile when the settlement turns out of control. The existing methods that allow bearing capacity to be calculated give the value which is very often 1/10 of the critical load. The question arises if it is possible based upon short series of load, i.e., 0–0.4 critical load, to predict the critical value of the load, with accuracy which is sufficient for practical calculation. The paper presents a method how to calculate the critical load based upon short series of load in the static load tests.

Palabras clave

  • soil mechanics
  • static load tests
  • piles
Acceso abierto

Dynamics Coefficient for Two-Phase Soil Model

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 51 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

The paper investigates a description of energy dissipation within saturated soils-diffusion of pore-water. Soils are assumed to be two-phase poro-elastic materials, the grain skeleton of which exhibits no irreversible behavior or structural hysteretic damping. Description of motion and deformation of soil is introduced as a system of equations consisting of governing dynamic consolidation equations based on Biot theory. Selected constitutive and kinematic relations for small strains and rotation are used. This paper derives a closed form of analytical solution that characterizes the energy dissipation during steady-state vibrations of nearly and fully saturated poro-elastic columns. Moreover, the paper examines the influence of various physical factors on the fundamental period, maximum amplitude and the fraction of critical damping of the Biot column. Also the so-called dynamic coefficient which shows amplification or attenuation of dynamic response is considered.

Palabras clave

  • dynamic consolidation
  • Biot theory
  • dynamics
  • two-phase soil model
Acceso abierto

Effect of Variation of Temperature Field on the Process of Thermal Consolidation of Tailings Pond “Zelazny Most”

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 57 - 65

Resumen

Abstract

The following study presents numerical calculations for establishing an impact of temperature changes on the process of distortion of bi–phase medium. The Biot consolidation equations with Kelvin–Voigt rheological skeleton were used for that purpose. The process was exemplified by thermal consolidation of post floatation dump “–elazny Most”. We analyzed the behavior of the landfill under the action of its own weight, forces of floating filtration and temperature gradient. Values of certain effective parameters of model were obtained during laboratory tests on material obtained from the landfill. The remaining data for mediums with similar characteristics were taken from literature. The results obtained from the stress state in the landfill allow the magnitude of plasticity potential to be specified based on known strength criteria. Change in the value sign of the plasticity potential clearly testifies to the emergence of an area of plasticity of material from landfill, however, this does not indicate the loss of stability of this hydrotechnical structure.

Palabras clave

  • thermal consolidation
  • poroelasticity theory
  • rheology
  • Kelvin-Voigt body
  • the theory of Biot
8 Artículos
Acceso abierto

Deep Compaction Control of Sandy Soils

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 3 - 8

Resumen

Abstract

Vibroflotation, vibratory compaction, micro-blasting or heavy tamping are typical improvement methods for the cohesionless deposits of high thickness. The complex mechanism of deep soil compaction is related to void ratio decrease with grain rearrangements, lateral stress increase, prestressing effect of certain number of load cycles, water pressure dissipation, aging and other effects. Calibration chamber based interpretation of CPTU/DMT can be used to take into account vertical and horizontal stress and void ratio effects. Some examples of interpretation of soundings in pre-treated and compacted sands are given. Some acceptance criteria for compaction control are discussed. The improvement factors are analysed including the normalised approach based on the soil behaviour type index.

Palabras clave

  • vibrocompaction
  • CPTU
  • sands
  • soil behaviour type
Acceso abierto

A Nanoscale Simulation Study of Elastic Properties of Gaspeite

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 9 - 16

Resumen

Abstract

The study of structural and mechanical properties of carbonate rock is an interesting subject in engineering and its different applications. In this paper, the crystal structure of gaspeite (NiCO3) is investigated by carrying out molecular dynamics simulations based on energy minimization technique using an interatomic interaction potential.

At first, we focus on the structural properties of gaspeite mineral. And then, the elastic properties are calculated, including the elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, the S- and P-wave velocities. In the next part of this paper, the pressure effect will be studied on the structural and elastic properties of NiCO3 at high pressure.

Palabras clave

  • carbonate rock
  • gaspeite
  • molecular dynamic
  • elastic properties
  • pressure effect
Acceso abierto

Key Aspects of the Proper Formulation of the Model in Numerical Analysis of the Influence of Mining Exploitation on Buildings

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 17 - 28

Resumen

Abstract

Numerical modelling is an important tool used to analyse various aspects of the impact of underground mining on existing and planned buildings. The interaction between the building and the soil is a complex matter and in many cases a numerical simulation is the only way of making calculations which will take into consideration the co–existence of a number of factors which have a significant influence on the solution. The complexity of the matter also makes it a difficult task to elaborate a proper mathematical model – it requires both a thorough knowledge of geologic conditions of the subsoil and the structural characteristics of the building.

This paper discusses the most important problems related to the construction of a mathematical model of a building-mining subsoil system. These problems have been collected on the basis of many years of experience the authors have in observing the surveying and tensometric deformations of the rock–mass and buildings as well as in mathematical and numerical modelling of the observed processes.

Palabras clave

  • numerical modelling
  • building
  • subsoil
  • mining
  • impact of mining exploitation on buildings
Acceso abierto

Two Scales, Hybrid Model for Soils, Involving Artificial Neural Network and Finite Element Procedure

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 29 - 36

Resumen

Abstract

A hybrid ANN-FE solution is presented as a result of two level analysis of soils: a level of a laboratory sample and a level of engineering geotechnical problem. Engineering properties of soils (sands) are represented directly in the form of ANN (this is in contrast with our former paper where ANN approximated constitutive relationships). Initially the ANN is trained with Duncan formula (Duncan and Chang [2]), then it is re-trained (calibrated) with some available experimental data, specific for the soil considered. The obtained approximation of the constitutive parameters is used directly in finite element method at the level of a single element at the scale of the laboratory sample to check the correct representation of the laboratory test. Then, the finite element that was successfully tested at the level of laboratory sample is used at the macro level to solve engineering problems involving the soil for which it was calibrated.

Palabras clave

  • soil model
  • neural network
  • Finite Element Method
  • hybrid FE-ANN model
Acceso abierto

State of Strength in Massive Concrete Structure Subjected to Non-Mechanical Loads

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 37 - 43

Resumen

Abstract

The paper deals with an impact of non–mechanical loads on the state of strength in massive concrete hydraulic structures. An example of hydroelectric plant subjected to the effect of water temperature annual fluctuation is considered. Numerical analysis of transient thermal–elasticity problem was performed. After determining the temperature distributions within the domain, the Duhamel-Neumann set of constitutive equations was employed to evaluate fields of mechanical quantities: displacement, strain and stress. The failure criterion proposed by Pietruszczak was adopted in assessing whether the load induces exceeding of strength of concrete within the structure volume. The primary finding is that the temperature effect can lead to damage of concrete in draft tubes and spirals, especially in winter months.

Palabras clave

  • non-mechanical load
  • massive concrete structure
  • hydro power plant
  • temperature impact
Acceso abierto

Static Load Tests, Short Series Interpretation

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 45 - 49

Resumen

Abstract

Statistic load test is the most commonly used method for estimation of the bearing capacity of piles. From the test we obtain the series a values: load-settlement, Q–s curve. In practice, it is extremely difficult to reach the critical load of the pile when the settlement turns out of control. The existing methods that allow bearing capacity to be calculated give the value which is very often 1/10 of the critical load. The question arises if it is possible based upon short series of load, i.e., 0–0.4 critical load, to predict the critical value of the load, with accuracy which is sufficient for practical calculation. The paper presents a method how to calculate the critical load based upon short series of load in the static load tests.

Palabras clave

  • soil mechanics
  • static load tests
  • piles
Acceso abierto

Dynamics Coefficient for Two-Phase Soil Model

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 51 - 56

Resumen

Abstract

The paper investigates a description of energy dissipation within saturated soils-diffusion of pore-water. Soils are assumed to be two-phase poro-elastic materials, the grain skeleton of which exhibits no irreversible behavior or structural hysteretic damping. Description of motion and deformation of soil is introduced as a system of equations consisting of governing dynamic consolidation equations based on Biot theory. Selected constitutive and kinematic relations for small strains and rotation are used. This paper derives a closed form of analytical solution that characterizes the energy dissipation during steady-state vibrations of nearly and fully saturated poro-elastic columns. Moreover, the paper examines the influence of various physical factors on the fundamental period, maximum amplitude and the fraction of critical damping of the Biot column. Also the so-called dynamic coefficient which shows amplification or attenuation of dynamic response is considered.

Palabras clave

  • dynamic consolidation
  • Biot theory
  • dynamics
  • two-phase soil model
Acceso abierto

Effect of Variation of Temperature Field on the Process of Thermal Consolidation of Tailings Pond “Zelazny Most”

Publicado en línea: 28 Feb 2015
Páginas: 57 - 65

Resumen

Abstract

The following study presents numerical calculations for establishing an impact of temperature changes on the process of distortion of bi–phase medium. The Biot consolidation equations with Kelvin–Voigt rheological skeleton were used for that purpose. The process was exemplified by thermal consolidation of post floatation dump “–elazny Most”. We analyzed the behavior of the landfill under the action of its own weight, forces of floating filtration and temperature gradient. Values of certain effective parameters of model were obtained during laboratory tests on material obtained from the landfill. The remaining data for mediums with similar characteristics were taken from literature. The results obtained from the stress state in the landfill allow the magnitude of plasticity potential to be specified based on known strength criteria. Change in the value sign of the plasticity potential clearly testifies to the emergence of an area of plasticity of material from landfill, however, this does not indicate the loss of stability of this hydrotechnical structure.

Palabras clave

  • thermal consolidation
  • poroelasticity theory
  • rheology
  • Kelvin-Voigt body
  • the theory of Biot

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