Zeitschriften und Ausgaben

Volumen 17 (2022): Heft 1 (June 2022)

Volumen 16 (2021): Heft 2 (December 2021)

Volumen 16 (2021): Heft 1 (July 2021)

Volumen 15 (2020): Heft 2 (December 2020)

Volumen 15 (2020): Heft 1 (July 2020)

Volumen 14 (2019): Heft 2 (December 2019)

Volumen 14 (2019): Heft 1 (July 2019)

Volumen 13 (2018): Heft 1 (December 2018)

Volumen 12 (2017): Heft 2 (December 2017)

Volumen 12 (2017): Heft 1 (June 2017)

Volumen 11 (2015): Heft 2 (December 2015)

Volumen 11 (2015): Heft 1 (December 2015)

Volumen 10 (2014): Heft 1 (September 2014)

Volumen 9 (2013): Heft 2 (December 2013)

Volumen 9 (2013): Heft 1 (September 2013)

Volumen 8 (2012): Heft 2 (December 2012)

Volumen 8 (2011): Heft 1 (December 2011)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1857-8462
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jul 2005
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 12 (2017): Heft 1 (June 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1857-8462
Erstveröffentlichung
01 Jul 2005
Erscheinungsweise
2 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

14 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editorial Note

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 5 - 5

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 7 - 26

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof) of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement), a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • political parties
  • radical left
  • Albania
  • Kosovo
  • Vetëvendosje
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tracing Causal Mechanisms in Social Movement Research in Southeast Europe: The Cases of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia – Evidence from the “Bosnian Spring” and the “Citizens for Macedonia” Movements

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 27 - 51

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recent anti-governmental social movements in countries of former Yugoslavia have awakened the spirit of contention which had been dormant for almost two decades. The overwhelming economic deprivation, accompanied by the massive violation of basic human rights of the citizens, urged the challengers to take the streets.

This paper is focused on comparison of two movements, the “Citizens for Macedonia” movement in the Republic of Macedonia and the “Bosnian Spring” in Bosnia and Herzegovina, highlighting the role and influence of movements on the (non)occurrence of policy outputs which articulated claims put forward by social movement organizations (SMOs) as well as other movement actors in the two respective countries. The analysis will be conducted taking into consideration specific social movement related variables like forms/types of claims-making and repertoires of action, as well as wider political process factors such as repression by state actors, and the attitude of allies and opponents of the movements (political parties, mainstream media, general political system characteristics, international community etc.).

Regarding the methodological approach, we will apply a mixed comparative research design, with variation both on side of the independent and the dependent variables. Since the outcomes of the movements are already tangible, we will also apply elements of process tracing methodology (PTM), reconstructing the events as much as possible. My primary data collection tools encompass in-depth interviews (approximately 10 per country) with four specific categories of interviewees (SMO representatives, activists, policymakers and key informants) as well as thorough document analysis referring to the policy outputs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social movements
  • policy outputs
  • mechanisms
  • “Citizens for Macedonia”
  • “Bosnian Spring”
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Enhancing Learning Through Reflection– A Case Study of SEEU

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 53 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Learning through reflection is one of the most interesting experiences that students might have. It is considered a very good tool for self-assessing learning. It is believed that “teachers who promote reflective classrooms ensure that students are fully engaged in the process of making meaning” (Costa and Kallick, 2008, para.5).

Dewey (1991) was among the first researchers who based his work and research on the positive roles that reflection plays in fostering self-reflection and critical thinking. He has defined it as an active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief. Reflections give students opportunities to think and reflect about their learning and note down the obstacles they might face during this process.

The present study aims to investigate the impact of journal writing in promoting critical-thinking skills, and its impact on enhancing learning. The study uses two instruments, a student refection journal and an interview. Also, Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives developed in 2000 was used in the third phase of the study. This Taxonomy contains Three Systems: the Self-system, the Metacognitive system and the Cognitive system.

The overall study results show that reflection journals help students to become more independent learners, reflect on their learning experiences and identify the most useful learning strategies. Most importantly, all study participants hold positive attitudes towards reflection and they consider it as a valuable tool which can increase learning.

Keyword

  • reflection
  • University
  • self-assessment
  • learning
  • critical thinking
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Resolving Marital Conflicts

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 69 - 80

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

In accordance with the model of behavior in conflict situations, spouses also chose the styles for resolving them. Spouses who perceive (consider) that they communicate openly unlike spouses who do not practice open communication, use the competition as a model of behavior in conflict situations and support rivalry as a style for conflict resolution. The choice of rivalry style as a style for resolving marital conflicts, among our respondents appears as a reflection of expressed wish for having an open fight for the realization of their interests, especially when it comes to the limitation of their rights by their spouses, failure to fulfill the emotional needs (lack of love, care, attention, understanding).

But, the duration of the marital relationship as a dimension does not affect the use of certain styles for resolving marital conflicts among our respondents.

Schlüsselwörter

  • marital conflict
  • communication
  • duration of marriage
  • styles of conflict resolution
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Global Derivatives Market

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 81 - 93

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

When used to hedge risks, derivative instruments transfer the risks from the hedgers, who are unwilling to bear the risks, to parties better able or more willing to bear them. In this regard, derivatives help allocate risks efficiently between different individuals and groups in the economy. Investors can also use derivatives to speculate and to engage in arbitrage activity. Speculators are traders who want to take a position in the market; they are betting that the price of the underlying asset or commodity will move in a particular direction over the life of the contract.

In addition to risk management, derivatives play a very useful economic role in price discovery and arbitrage. Financial derivatives trading are based on leverage techniques, earning enormous profits with small amount of money.

Schlüsselwörter

  • financial derivatives
  • leverage
  • risk management
  • hedge
  • speculation
  • organized exchange
  • over-the counter market
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ukraine’s Geopolitical Position: Between East and West

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 95 - 111

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper analyses Ukraine’s geopolitical position and argues that Ukraine is slowly gravitating towards West. The paper gives a small hint of approximation process of Ukraine within EU and NATO, and argues how this approximation process is opposed by Russia, who wants Ukraine back to its influence. Occupation off Crimea by Russia violated international order, opening way to unstructured international ties out traditional UN bodies. The Ukraine’s destiny is unclear, Dnieper River may divide country in two, and the West faces biggest security and political threat after WWII.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

How the Triangle of Bologna Quality Assurance, a National Legal Framework and Internal Quality Enhancement Supports Institutional Improvement

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Republic of Macedonia (RM) has been a part of the Bologna process since 2003. The Ministry of Education, law and policy makers and higher education institutions have actively engaged with its main concepts. In parallel with this, since the adoption of the law on higher education in 2008 and the reform of the Accreditation and Evaluation Board, there have been numerous changes and amendments culminating in the fast-tracked adoption of a new law at the beginning of 2015. Some of its solutions created a huge debate among the academic community, other intellectuals and students themselves, resulting in the postponement of that law and a kind of legal vacuum. In such turbulent circumstances, individual higher education institutions had to consider how and to what extent to adopt and develop relevant standards and guidelines, comply with the legal framework and promote good practice. The aim of this paper is to present how these three aspects, Bologna standards and guidelines for Quality Assurance (QA), a national legal framework and an institutional approach are being reflected, merged and implemented at a relatively young higher education institution. It questions the impact of these three elements on each other and how one institution’s drive for improvement is affected. This is done through a qualitative analysis of the three-fold perspectives. The conclusions and recommendations are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and region as they evaluate how international trends and good practice fit into the socio-economic and political conditions of RM and similar countries. At the same time, it can demonstrate how far institutional quality assurance and progress can be implemented and recognized in the country itself and by some international stakeholders. It can also prove that the South East European University (SEEU) is a national leader in this field as RM has no functioning QA evaluation system, while SEEU has managed to create a well structured and operating one, based on international and institutional experiences.

Schlüsselwörter

  • quality assurance
  • triangle
  • institutional progress
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Impact of Emotional Intelligence in the Context of Language Learning and Teaching

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 125 - 134

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Emotional intelligence, a set of skills which are considered as necessary in the context of interaction with other people, was defined by a number of authors, including Goleman (1996), Gardner and Mayer & Salovey. A number of studies investigated the impact of emotional intelligence on learning, teaching and education. The focus of this article is to explore the definition of emotional intelligence and the impact that emotional intelligence and affective factors have in the context of foreign language learning and teaching. The article also focuses on research conducted with a group of 23 students and their self assessment of emotional intelligence as well as their perceptions of the ways emotional intelligence has an impact on foreign language learning. The article attempts to provide recommendations of implementing activities and teaching practices in the context of foreign language learning and teaching aiming to foster emotional intelligence development.

Schlüsselwörter

  • emotional intelligence
  • learning
  • language learning
  • teaching practices
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Notary Service - Justice Services

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 135 - 147

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study is to explore the role and the importance of the notary service in the process of dejudicialization of the judicial-civil protection. In this context, this paper first of all attempts to examine the extent to which the issues from the traditional competence of the court (usually non-litigious) have been transferred to notary publics and the possibilities of further extension of this transfer. The judicial framework for the transfer of these issues from the court competences to that of notary publics has been decided by the Law on Non-Litigious Procedure (2008). In supporting this law, the notary publics undertook the realization of a series of activities in this field, namely in the field of inheritance. In this respect, the idea of this paper was to try to identify other judicial issues that could perhaps be entrusted to the notary publics in the future, by carrying out a judicial-political assessment of the public interest to transfer the resolution of certain issues to notary publics′ competences with the aim of facilitating the judicial circulation and increasing judicial security.

Schlüsselwörter

  • notary public
  • notary service
  • non-litigious procedure
  • dejudicialization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Joined and Responsible Parenting

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 149 - 165

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the contemporary family law, parents are obliged to arrange the joined implementation of the parenting rights either by their own will or through the help of their lawyers and/or mediators. This institute of mutual agreement is known as joined custody or joined implementation of the parenting right after the divorce of the marriage. This institute makes it possible for parents who live separately to arrange their custody rights in the most convenient way for the child. With a joined custody agreement, the parents accept the obligation to implement all the rights and duties that constitute the parenting right even in case of their separation. Through not dividing their rights from their obligations and with the aim of being closer to the needs of the child, the institute of joined custody helps avoid the feelings of hostility and disagreement in regard to the judicial decision which gives permanent custody to one of the parents. This institute is incorporated in the family law of many countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, UK, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Hungary, Czech Republic, USA and Australia). This article aims to emphasize the need to introduce in the family law of RM an explicit provision for joined and responsible custody after the divorce in order to achieve the best interest of the child. There is a joined initiative of parents who live separately from their children who request the amendment of the Family Law of RM in this direction.

Schlüsselwörter

  • joined custody
  • divorce
  • family law
  • child’s best interest
  • Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The International Humanitarian Response to the Refugee Crisis Along the Balkan Route in the View of Strategies of International Organizations

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 167 - 179

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis), it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.

With a comparative approach, the paper analyzes the response of the international organizations in terms of the strategies they have applied along the Balkan human corridor and their new innovative approaches used in terms of the coordination with the local authorities and governments of the Balkan route. Different to previous forms of humanitarian interventions and dynamics of the refugee crisis (dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1990s), the roles of the international organizations along the Balkan human corridor following the Syrian war of 2015 and 2016 have shaped many innovative dimensions, including firstly their advising orientation and support for refugees and local authorities (mainly through providing help on legal issues). Apart from humanitarian activities for delivering direct aid, the major intergovernmental organizations (most of them operating under the umbrella of the UN) following the implementation of border controls from very beginning of the refugee crisis have been focused in supporting the local authorities as well as on regulating the flow of migrants. The strategies of response by the international organizations in the latest case of the Balkan human corridor notably shifted from the classical humanitarian dimension of their reactions. These strategies have played as well an important role in advising, and especially in developing a partnership with the local authorities capacity building and legal support for both local institutions and refugees. However, through the comparative approaches the paper identifies that there are different models of management roles played by the specialized international organizations in various countries of the Balkan route and its frontiers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • international organizations
  • refugee crisis
  • Balkan refugee route
  • UN agencies
  • strategies
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inter-Ethnic Relations in Kosovo

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 181 - 196

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper aims to analyse the state of inter-ethnic relations in Kosovo between ethnic Albanians and ethnic Serbs, with special focus on the period after unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo in 2008. Inter-ethnic conflict in Kosovo has exclusively been over its territory since both Serbs and Albanians have made claims about history and ethno-demography to justify their alleged exclusive right to this ethnically mixed region. Consequently, inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have been rather problematic throughout the most of the 20th century. During this period Albanians in Kosovo have been subjected to discrimination, intimidation and even mass expulsion by Yugoslav/Serb authorities. In late 1990s, these relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have progressively worsened and finally escalated in an armed warfare in 1999.

Immediately after the war, Serbs in Kosovo were occasionally exposed to acts of inter-ethnic and retaliatory violence. Inter-ethnic relations between the two major ethnicities continued to be tense and fragile after independence of Kosovo in 2008. Dramatic changes of ethnic composition structure, atrocities and huge number of refugees due to the war, have left a legacy of deep mistrust and animosities between Albanians and Serbs in the newly created state. Consequently, Serbs in Kosovo have from the beginning refused to recognize Kosovo’s independence and have rigorously refused any governance by Kosovo authorities. Serbian community, especially in the North, claims stronger territorial autonomy, even separatism and unification with Serbia. The paper claims that in Kosovo inter-ethnic and interstate relations are basically the components of the same equation. Therefore, paper concludes that only overall improvement of relations between Kosovo and Serbia could contribute to overall relaxation of inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo. Unfortunately, the latest incidents between Kosovo and Serbia have increased the tensions between the two sides to alarming levels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Inter-ethnic Relations
  • Conflict
  • Kosovo
  • Albanians
  • Serbs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Applicable Law for Contracts in the Sporting Context

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 197 - 221

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of contractual relations in sport from the standpoint of the Croatian legislative system. Due to the complexity of the subject matter, the author considers only a small fragment of it - the significance and the role of sport in Croatian society and the law of contracts „as a cornerstone on which „sports law“ has been built and which is of primary importance in most areas where there is an interface between sport and the law, irrespective of whether the sport is being played at an elite level or at a more humble one“.

Bearing in mind the limited extent of this article, the autor tries to provide some clarifications and some guidance on how to deal with the designation and the determination of the applicable law for contracts in the sporting context. Considering that there are different legal regimes which may come into play with regard to the designation of the law applicable to contracts in the sporting context, the author first presents the determination of the applicable law according to the Rome I Regulation and then according to the Croatian Arbitration Act, Swiss Private International Law Act and the CAS Code of Sports-related Arbitration, as the most common in sports practice. Then, the author deals with contracts concluded with minor athletes and the determination of the law applicable to some preliminary questions.

Finally, the author presents her perception of the problems encountered and some suggestions for the improvement of the existing legal framework.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sports contracts
  • applicable law
  • CAS Code
  • Rome I Regulation
  • Croatia
14 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Editorial Note

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 5 - 5

Zusammenfassung

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Radical Left in Albania and Kosovo: Differences and Similarities

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 7 - 26

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main research question for this paper is: Are there radical left wing movements in Albania and Kosovo and what are their main traits? Through answering this question, we will explore the development (or lack thereof) of radical left wing movements. With radical left we intend movements that reject the underlying socio-economic structure of contemporary capitalism and its values and practices without opposing democracy. Through a thorough desk research and several interviews with experts and activists both in Albania and Kosovo, we look at the two case Political Opportunity Structures to study the emergence, the strategies, success or failures of the radical left. In Albania the radical left has been in decline since 1992, with only a recent revival from 2009 on. In Kosovo, the Lëvizja Vetëvendojse! (Self-Determination Movement), a civil movement transformed in a party, has succeeded in imposing its left agenda. Both cases employ a new rhetoric unrelated to the past communist regimes thus changing the perspective of political debate in both countries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • political parties
  • radical left
  • Albania
  • Kosovo
  • Vetëvendosje
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tracing Causal Mechanisms in Social Movement Research in Southeast Europe: The Cases of Bosnia and Herzegovina and Macedonia – Evidence from the “Bosnian Spring” and the “Citizens for Macedonia” Movements

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 27 - 51

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Recent anti-governmental social movements in countries of former Yugoslavia have awakened the spirit of contention which had been dormant for almost two decades. The overwhelming economic deprivation, accompanied by the massive violation of basic human rights of the citizens, urged the challengers to take the streets.

This paper is focused on comparison of two movements, the “Citizens for Macedonia” movement in the Republic of Macedonia and the “Bosnian Spring” in Bosnia and Herzegovina, highlighting the role and influence of movements on the (non)occurrence of policy outputs which articulated claims put forward by social movement organizations (SMOs) as well as other movement actors in the two respective countries. The analysis will be conducted taking into consideration specific social movement related variables like forms/types of claims-making and repertoires of action, as well as wider political process factors such as repression by state actors, and the attitude of allies and opponents of the movements (political parties, mainstream media, general political system characteristics, international community etc.).

Regarding the methodological approach, we will apply a mixed comparative research design, with variation both on side of the independent and the dependent variables. Since the outcomes of the movements are already tangible, we will also apply elements of process tracing methodology (PTM), reconstructing the events as much as possible. My primary data collection tools encompass in-depth interviews (approximately 10 per country) with four specific categories of interviewees (SMO representatives, activists, policymakers and key informants) as well as thorough document analysis referring to the policy outputs.

Schlüsselwörter

  • social movements
  • policy outputs
  • mechanisms
  • “Citizens for Macedonia”
  • “Bosnian Spring”
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Enhancing Learning Through Reflection– A Case Study of SEEU

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 53 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Learning through reflection is one of the most interesting experiences that students might have. It is considered a very good tool for self-assessing learning. It is believed that “teachers who promote reflective classrooms ensure that students are fully engaged in the process of making meaning” (Costa and Kallick, 2008, para.5).

Dewey (1991) was among the first researchers who based his work and research on the positive roles that reflection plays in fostering self-reflection and critical thinking. He has defined it as an active, persistent and careful consideration of any belief. Reflections give students opportunities to think and reflect about their learning and note down the obstacles they might face during this process.

The present study aims to investigate the impact of journal writing in promoting critical-thinking skills, and its impact on enhancing learning. The study uses two instruments, a student refection journal and an interview. Also, Marzano’s New Taxonomy of Educational Objectives developed in 2000 was used in the third phase of the study. This Taxonomy contains Three Systems: the Self-system, the Metacognitive system and the Cognitive system.

The overall study results show that reflection journals help students to become more independent learners, reflect on their learning experiences and identify the most useful learning strategies. Most importantly, all study participants hold positive attitudes towards reflection and they consider it as a valuable tool which can increase learning.

Keyword

  • reflection
  • University
  • self-assessment
  • learning
  • critical thinking
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Resolving Marital Conflicts

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 69 - 80

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Couple relations are characterized as relations of an intimate nature dominated by constant interaction or strong interdependence and mutual influence of intense feelings between spouses. In marriages where there is conflict, there are typical examples of interaction, which result in high proportion of negative communicative acts that affect the quality of marital relationships such as: loss of confidence, the emergence of frustration, feelings of anxiety, discomfort, leading to escalation of marital conflicts. Communication as a variable has a large impact on the resolution of marital conflicts. The obtained results of our research indicate that the choice of different strategies of behavior in conflict situations among our respondents primarily depend on: the degree of persistence in the pursuit of its own interests and level of cooperation in addressing the interests of others.

In accordance with the model of behavior in conflict situations, spouses also chose the styles for resolving them. Spouses who perceive (consider) that they communicate openly unlike spouses who do not practice open communication, use the competition as a model of behavior in conflict situations and support rivalry as a style for conflict resolution. The choice of rivalry style as a style for resolving marital conflicts, among our respondents appears as a reflection of expressed wish for having an open fight for the realization of their interests, especially when it comes to the limitation of their rights by their spouses, failure to fulfill the emotional needs (lack of love, care, attention, understanding).

But, the duration of the marital relationship as a dimension does not affect the use of certain styles for resolving marital conflicts among our respondents.

Schlüsselwörter

  • marital conflict
  • communication
  • duration of marriage
  • styles of conflict resolution
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Global Derivatives Market

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 81 - 93

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Globalization of financial markets led to the enormous growth of volume and diversification of financial transactions. Financial derivatives were the basic elements of this growth. Derivatives play a useful and important role in hedging and risk management, but they also pose several dangers to the stability of financial markets and thereby the overall economy. Derivatives are used to hedge and speculate the risk associated with commerce and finance.

When used to hedge risks, derivative instruments transfer the risks from the hedgers, who are unwilling to bear the risks, to parties better able or more willing to bear them. In this regard, derivatives help allocate risks efficiently between different individuals and groups in the economy. Investors can also use derivatives to speculate and to engage in arbitrage activity. Speculators are traders who want to take a position in the market; they are betting that the price of the underlying asset or commodity will move in a particular direction over the life of the contract.

In addition to risk management, derivatives play a very useful economic role in price discovery and arbitrage. Financial derivatives trading are based on leverage techniques, earning enormous profits with small amount of money.

Schlüsselwörter

  • financial derivatives
  • leverage
  • risk management
  • hedge
  • speculation
  • organized exchange
  • over-the counter market
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ukraine’s Geopolitical Position: Between East and West

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 95 - 111

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper analyses Ukraine’s geopolitical position and argues that Ukraine is slowly gravitating towards West. The paper gives a small hint of approximation process of Ukraine within EU and NATO, and argues how this approximation process is opposed by Russia, who wants Ukraine back to its influence. Occupation off Crimea by Russia violated international order, opening way to unstructured international ties out traditional UN bodies. The Ukraine’s destiny is unclear, Dnieper River may divide country in two, and the West faces biggest security and political threat after WWII.

Uneingeschränkter Zugang

How the Triangle of Bologna Quality Assurance, a National Legal Framework and Internal Quality Enhancement Supports Institutional Improvement

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 113 - 124

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Republic of Macedonia (RM) has been a part of the Bologna process since 2003. The Ministry of Education, law and policy makers and higher education institutions have actively engaged with its main concepts. In parallel with this, since the adoption of the law on higher education in 2008 and the reform of the Accreditation and Evaluation Board, there have been numerous changes and amendments culminating in the fast-tracked adoption of a new law at the beginning of 2015. Some of its solutions created a huge debate among the academic community, other intellectuals and students themselves, resulting in the postponement of that law and a kind of legal vacuum. In such turbulent circumstances, individual higher education institutions had to consider how and to what extent to adopt and develop relevant standards and guidelines, comply with the legal framework and promote good practice. The aim of this paper is to present how these three aspects, Bologna standards and guidelines for Quality Assurance (QA), a national legal framework and an institutional approach are being reflected, merged and implemented at a relatively young higher education institution. It questions the impact of these three elements on each other and how one institution’s drive for improvement is affected. This is done through a qualitative analysis of the three-fold perspectives. The conclusions and recommendations are expected to be of use to policy makers in the country and region as they evaluate how international trends and good practice fit into the socio-economic and political conditions of RM and similar countries. At the same time, it can demonstrate how far institutional quality assurance and progress can be implemented and recognized in the country itself and by some international stakeholders. It can also prove that the South East European University (SEEU) is a national leader in this field as RM has no functioning QA evaluation system, while SEEU has managed to create a well structured and operating one, based on international and institutional experiences.

Schlüsselwörter

  • quality assurance
  • triangle
  • institutional progress
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Impact of Emotional Intelligence in the Context of Language Learning and Teaching

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 125 - 134

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Emotional intelligence, a set of skills which are considered as necessary in the context of interaction with other people, was defined by a number of authors, including Goleman (1996), Gardner and Mayer & Salovey. A number of studies investigated the impact of emotional intelligence on learning, teaching and education. The focus of this article is to explore the definition of emotional intelligence and the impact that emotional intelligence and affective factors have in the context of foreign language learning and teaching. The article also focuses on research conducted with a group of 23 students and their self assessment of emotional intelligence as well as their perceptions of the ways emotional intelligence has an impact on foreign language learning. The article attempts to provide recommendations of implementing activities and teaching practices in the context of foreign language learning and teaching aiming to foster emotional intelligence development.

Schlüsselwörter

  • emotional intelligence
  • learning
  • language learning
  • teaching practices
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Notary Service - Justice Services

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 135 - 147

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study is to explore the role and the importance of the notary service in the process of dejudicialization of the judicial-civil protection. In this context, this paper first of all attempts to examine the extent to which the issues from the traditional competence of the court (usually non-litigious) have been transferred to notary publics and the possibilities of further extension of this transfer. The judicial framework for the transfer of these issues from the court competences to that of notary publics has been decided by the Law on Non-Litigious Procedure (2008). In supporting this law, the notary publics undertook the realization of a series of activities in this field, namely in the field of inheritance. In this respect, the idea of this paper was to try to identify other judicial issues that could perhaps be entrusted to the notary publics in the future, by carrying out a judicial-political assessment of the public interest to transfer the resolution of certain issues to notary publics′ competences with the aim of facilitating the judicial circulation and increasing judicial security.

Schlüsselwörter

  • notary public
  • notary service
  • non-litigious procedure
  • dejudicialization
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Joined and Responsible Parenting

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 149 - 165

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In the contemporary family law, parents are obliged to arrange the joined implementation of the parenting rights either by their own will or through the help of their lawyers and/or mediators. This institute of mutual agreement is known as joined custody or joined implementation of the parenting right after the divorce of the marriage. This institute makes it possible for parents who live separately to arrange their custody rights in the most convenient way for the child. With a joined custody agreement, the parents accept the obligation to implement all the rights and duties that constitute the parenting right even in case of their separation. Through not dividing their rights from their obligations and with the aim of being closer to the needs of the child, the institute of joined custody helps avoid the feelings of hostility and disagreement in regard to the judicial decision which gives permanent custody to one of the parents. This institute is incorporated in the family law of many countries (Sweden, Norway, Finland, Denmark, UK, France, Italy, Germany, Belgium, Switzerland, Hungary, Czech Republic, USA and Australia). This article aims to emphasize the need to introduce in the family law of RM an explicit provision for joined and responsible custody after the divorce in order to achieve the best interest of the child. There is a joined initiative of parents who live separately from their children who request the amendment of the Family Law of RM in this direction.

Schlüsselwörter

  • joined custody
  • divorce
  • family law
  • child’s best interest
  • Macedonia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The International Humanitarian Response to the Refugee Crisis Along the Balkan Route in the View of Strategies of International Organizations

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 167 - 179

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Being one of the largest movements of displaced people through European borders since World War Two, the Syrian refugee crisis of 2015 and 2016, tested the coordination of the states and international organizations, and as well as the strategies for response of the latter to such enormous fluxes of displaced people along the Balkan corridor. The quick on-time reaction of the specialized humanitarian international organizations made significant achievements by the international organizations in terms of humanitarian assistance for the refugees and support for the governments of the region. Their approach mainly sought to create a partnership with the governments of the Balkan route in handling the serious humanitarian challenges (with a different strategy compared to other experiences, mainly this time through providing assistance and protection to the refugees throughout the corridor of the refugee crisis), it showed how important is such coordination at the end, with an aim to avoid further human catastrophes along refugee routes, and to avoid major security repercussions for the countries of the region.

With a comparative approach, the paper analyzes the response of the international organizations in terms of the strategies they have applied along the Balkan human corridor and their new innovative approaches used in terms of the coordination with the local authorities and governments of the Balkan route. Different to previous forms of humanitarian interventions and dynamics of the refugee crisis (dissolution of Yugoslavia in 1990s), the roles of the international organizations along the Balkan human corridor following the Syrian war of 2015 and 2016 have shaped many innovative dimensions, including firstly their advising orientation and support for refugees and local authorities (mainly through providing help on legal issues). Apart from humanitarian activities for delivering direct aid, the major intergovernmental organizations (most of them operating under the umbrella of the UN) following the implementation of border controls from very beginning of the refugee crisis have been focused in supporting the local authorities as well as on regulating the flow of migrants. The strategies of response by the international organizations in the latest case of the Balkan human corridor notably shifted from the classical humanitarian dimension of their reactions. These strategies have played as well an important role in advising, and especially in developing a partnership with the local authorities capacity building and legal support for both local institutions and refugees. However, through the comparative approaches the paper identifies that there are different models of management roles played by the specialized international organizations in various countries of the Balkan route and its frontiers.

Schlüsselwörter

  • international organizations
  • refugee crisis
  • Balkan refugee route
  • UN agencies
  • strategies
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inter-Ethnic Relations in Kosovo

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 181 - 196

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The paper aims to analyse the state of inter-ethnic relations in Kosovo between ethnic Albanians and ethnic Serbs, with special focus on the period after unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo in 2008. Inter-ethnic conflict in Kosovo has exclusively been over its territory since both Serbs and Albanians have made claims about history and ethno-demography to justify their alleged exclusive right to this ethnically mixed region. Consequently, inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have been rather problematic throughout the most of the 20th century. During this period Albanians in Kosovo have been subjected to discrimination, intimidation and even mass expulsion by Yugoslav/Serb authorities. In late 1990s, these relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have progressively worsened and finally escalated in an armed warfare in 1999.

Immediately after the war, Serbs in Kosovo were occasionally exposed to acts of inter-ethnic and retaliatory violence. Inter-ethnic relations between the two major ethnicities continued to be tense and fragile after independence of Kosovo in 2008. Dramatic changes of ethnic composition structure, atrocities and huge number of refugees due to the war, have left a legacy of deep mistrust and animosities between Albanians and Serbs in the newly created state. Consequently, Serbs in Kosovo have from the beginning refused to recognize Kosovo’s independence and have rigorously refused any governance by Kosovo authorities. Serbian community, especially in the North, claims stronger territorial autonomy, even separatism and unification with Serbia. The paper claims that in Kosovo inter-ethnic and interstate relations are basically the components of the same equation. Therefore, paper concludes that only overall improvement of relations between Kosovo and Serbia could contribute to overall relaxation of inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo. Unfortunately, the latest incidents between Kosovo and Serbia have increased the tensions between the two sides to alarming levels.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Inter-ethnic Relations
  • Conflict
  • Kosovo
  • Albanians
  • Serbs
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Applicable Law for Contracts in the Sporting Context

Online veröffentlicht: 11 May 2017
Seitenbereich: 197 - 221

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article presents an analysis of contractual relations in sport from the standpoint of the Croatian legislative system. Due to the complexity of the subject matter, the author considers only a small fragment of it - the significance and the role of sport in Croatian society and the law of contracts „as a cornerstone on which „sports law“ has been built and which is of primary importance in most areas where there is an interface between sport and the law, irrespective of whether the sport is being played at an elite level or at a more humble one“.

Bearing in mind the limited extent of this article, the autor tries to provide some clarifications and some guidance on how to deal with the designation and the determination of the applicable law for contracts in the sporting context. Considering that there are different legal regimes which may come into play with regard to the designation of the law applicable to contracts in the sporting context, the author first presents the determination of the applicable law according to the Rome I Regulation and then according to the Croatian Arbitration Act, Swiss Private International Law Act and the CAS Code of Sports-related Arbitration, as the most common in sports practice. Then, the author deals with contracts concluded with minor athletes and the determination of the law applicable to some preliminary questions.

Finally, the author presents her perception of the problems encountered and some suggestions for the improvement of the existing legal framework.

Schlüsselwörter

  • sports contracts
  • applicable law
  • CAS Code
  • Rome I Regulation
  • Croatia

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