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Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 4 (December 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 3 (September 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 2 (June 2020)

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 1 (March 2020)

Volumen 19 (2019): Heft 4 (December 2019)

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Volumen 17 (2017): Heft 4 (December 2017)

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Volumen 14 (2014): Heft 3 (September 2014)

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Volumen 12 (2012): Heft 4 (December 2012)

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Volumen 10 (2010): Heft 2 (June 2010)

Volumen 10 (2010): Heft 1 (March 2010)

Volumen 9 (2009): Heft 4 (December 2009)

Volumen 9 (2009): Heft 3 (September 2009)

Volumen 9 (2009): Heft 2 (June 2009)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1804-1663
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Feb 2010
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 20 (2020): Heft 3 (September 2020)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1804-1663
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Feb 2010
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Public Spending Efficiency in the OECD: Benchmarking Health Care, Education, and General Administration

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 253 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In many OECD countries, changes in demography and health conditions are putting pressure on public finance. To prevent further expansion of government spending as a percentage of GDP, public spending efficiency will need to be raised. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to assess the efficiency of welfare spending (normalized by the working-age population) in a sample of OECD countries around 2012, focussing on health care, secondary education, and general public services. The DEA model has a two input-one output structure, with at least one of the variables representing a composite indicator controlling for country-specific factors (socio-economic environment and lifestyle factors, for example). We find wide dispersion in efficiency measures across OECD countries and provide possible quantified improvements for both output and input efficiency.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Administration
  • DEA
  • education
  • efficiency
  • health care
  • nonparametric
  • public spending

JEL Classification

  • H11
  • H51
  • H52
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Newly Discovered Gold Does Not Distort the Economy; It Is Not A Market Failure

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 281 - 288

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We wish to “quibble” with Murphy (2019). We mean this literally. That is, we are in strong and enthusiastic agreement with virtually everything he writes therein, except for one point: we think him guilty of allowing the cloven hoof of market failure into the Austrian tent. Our purpose in the present essay is to banish market failure from praxeological premises. To wit, he maintains that pure market processes such as a gold discovery can “distort” prices and interest rates, and we argue to the contrary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • distortion
  • interest rates
  • market failure
  • prices

JEL Classification

  • B53
  • E32
  • E42
  • E58
  • G21
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Financial Literacy, Behaviour and Well-Being of Millennials in Poland Compared to Previous Generations: The Insights from Three Large-Scale Surveys

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 289 - 335

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are many concerns about financial competences of Millennials. Initial research on this generation suggests that it is less financially knowledgeable and exhibits less healthy financial behaviours compared to other generations. The goal of the article is to compare Millennials to non-Millennials as a whole, as well as to other generations treated in isolation, to check whether Millennials diverge in terms of financial literacy, behaviour and well-being. To that end, this study uses three distinct datasets from three surveys conducted in 2017 and 2018 on different samples of Poles. The applied statistic tests of significant differences do not confirm that Millennials diverge from other generations with respect to financial literacy as well as behaviours related to cash management, saving and investment. However, the surveyed Millennials perform significantly less healthy credit management and insurance behaviours compared to non-Millennials. We also found that Millennials report significantly higher levels of financial well-being compared to all previous generations.

Schlüsselwörter

  • financial literacy
  • debt literacy
  • financial behaviour
  • financial well-being
  • Millennials

JEL Classification

  • D14
  • D15
  • G51
  • G53
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of eHealth Deployment at Primary Care in the EU Member States by Usage of Selected MCDM Methods

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 337 - 359

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Information and Communication Technologies have become a revolutionary part of European healthcare in recent years. The European Commission considers eHealth as an important and appropriate tool that can contribute to cope with the challenges that are currently affecting the healthcare systems in Europe. The development of eHealth is therefore embedded in many EU strategies and is being evaluated on an ongoing basis. In the past, several studies have been carried out focusing on the evaluation of individual areas of eHealth - especially on the area of primary care secured by General Practitioners and Acute Hospitals. However, no synthesis of these works was made. This paper is focused on the proposing of an assessment for both mentioned areas of eHealth. The aim is to evaluate the eHealth deployment in the European Union Member States by the synthesis of Composite Indicators in existing studies into the evaluation model based on the application of Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making techniques. The evaluation is performed by the usage of TOPSIS, WSA, and MAPPAC method. The result of the research is the design of an evaluation framework for eHealth that enables the comparison of eHealth indicators in the international context and evaluation of eHealth deployment in European Union Member States in the form of a ranking. In this ranking, the Nordic countries are among the best-rated countries, while the worst-rated countries are in Eastern Europe.

Schlüsselwörter

  • eHealth
  • European Union
  • EU countries
  • Evaluation
  • MCDM

JEL Classification

  • C38
  • H11
  • I11
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Identifying major policy challenges and policy interventions via expert methods

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 361 - 377

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the application of expert decision methods for the formulation and prioritization of the long-term economic, social and environmental policies in the Slovak Republic. The Partnership Agreement for the Slovak Republic (PA) is an underlying strategy for investments from the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) in the period 2021-2027. Policies implemented under the PA will allocate €13.4b on four policy objectives. This paper concentrates on the policy objective 4 ‘Social development’. The authors co-operated with the Deputy Prime Minister Office and assembled panels of top Slovak experts on social and economic issues. The Delphi and Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methods were combined for analyzing major development challenges and eliciting policy priorities. The methods combined the bottom-up and top-down approaches to policy making. Nine potential policy measures in three policy areas emerged from the Delphi exercise. The AHP exercise applied three criteria (relevance, urgency and feasibility) to rank the abovementioned measures within three policy areas. As for the Policy Area 1 (Labour market, employment, training and institutions) the measure 4.1.1 ‘Improving access to employment and modernizing institutions and services on labour market’ clearly dominated over the measure 4.1.2 ‘Supporting a better work-life balance’. The measure 4.2.2 ‘Equal access to quality and inclusive education’ emerged substantially more important than measures 4.2.1 ‘Improving the quality and effectiveness of education and training systems’ and 4.2.3 ‘Support to life-long learning’ in the Policy Area 2 ‘Education and skills’. Finally, measures 4.3.2 ‘Supporting social and economic integration of marginalized Roma communities’ and 4.3.3 ‘Ensuring equal access to healthcare including primary care’ received the highest ranks in the Policy Area 3 ‘Health and social services’.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Delphi method
  • Analytical hierarchy process
  • Partnership Agreement
  • Long-term planning

JEL Classification

  • D78
  • D70
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Categorization of the EU Member States in the Context of Selected Multicriteria International Indices Using Cluster Analysis

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 379 - 401

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main aim of the paper was to analyse the economic and social development of the European Union (EU) member states (28 countries) on the basis of selected five multicriteria indices (the Global Competitiveness Index, the Economic Freedom Index, the Global Innovation Index, the Corruption Perceptions Index, the Human Development Index). To perform settled aim, a multidimensional classification of EU countries for years 2011 and 2018 using cluster analysis was realized. The purpose of the analysis was to categorize the individual EU countries into clusters and to find out to what extent the position of EU member states has changed in terms of selected international indices over the analysed period. Based on the findings, it is arguable that a major part of the EU member states cluster into the same groups based on the selected indices assessment, regardless of the time period. However, six countries (Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, and United Kingdom) improved their position during the period under review and ranked into the cluster of more prosperous countries in 2018. The rate of change (improvement) was quantified at the level of 21.43%. Based on the results, Latvia and Lithuania were the most similar countries in terms of economic prosperity (Euclidean distance reached the level of 3.08), while the least similar countries were Greece and Sweden (Euclidean distance reached the level of 70.8). Declining Euclidean distances indicate that economic disparities of the individual EU countries have decreased in the period under review. This paper aims at developing the research to find out how, besides hierarchy, we can analyse the EU member states from the perspective of various multicriteria indices. The four proposed clusters could be used as a starting point for future policy reforms, pointing to the weaknesses of various countries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cluster analysis
  • economic development
  • EU member states
  • international indices
  • multidimensional classification

JEL Classification

  • E60
  • O11
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Book Review on The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoğlu and James A. Robinson

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 403 - 405

Zusammenfassung

7 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Public Spending Efficiency in the OECD: Benchmarking Health Care, Education, and General Administration

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 253 - 280

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

In many OECD countries, changes in demography and health conditions are putting pressure on public finance. To prevent further expansion of government spending as a percentage of GDP, public spending efficiency will need to be raised. This paper uses data envelopment analysis (DEA) to assess the efficiency of welfare spending (normalized by the working-age population) in a sample of OECD countries around 2012, focussing on health care, secondary education, and general public services. The DEA model has a two input-one output structure, with at least one of the variables representing a composite indicator controlling for country-specific factors (socio-economic environment and lifestyle factors, for example). We find wide dispersion in efficiency measures across OECD countries and provide possible quantified improvements for both output and input efficiency.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Administration
  • DEA
  • education
  • efficiency
  • health care
  • nonparametric
  • public spending

JEL Classification

  • H11
  • H51
  • H52
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Newly Discovered Gold Does Not Distort the Economy; It Is Not A Market Failure

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 281 - 288

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We wish to “quibble” with Murphy (2019). We mean this literally. That is, we are in strong and enthusiastic agreement with virtually everything he writes therein, except for one point: we think him guilty of allowing the cloven hoof of market failure into the Austrian tent. Our purpose in the present essay is to banish market failure from praxeological premises. To wit, he maintains that pure market processes such as a gold discovery can “distort” prices and interest rates, and we argue to the contrary.

Schlüsselwörter

  • distortion
  • interest rates
  • market failure
  • prices

JEL Classification

  • B53
  • E32
  • E42
  • E58
  • G21
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Financial Literacy, Behaviour and Well-Being of Millennials in Poland Compared to Previous Generations: The Insights from Three Large-Scale Surveys

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 289 - 335

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

There are many concerns about financial competences of Millennials. Initial research on this generation suggests that it is less financially knowledgeable and exhibits less healthy financial behaviours compared to other generations. The goal of the article is to compare Millennials to non-Millennials as a whole, as well as to other generations treated in isolation, to check whether Millennials diverge in terms of financial literacy, behaviour and well-being. To that end, this study uses three distinct datasets from three surveys conducted in 2017 and 2018 on different samples of Poles. The applied statistic tests of significant differences do not confirm that Millennials diverge from other generations with respect to financial literacy as well as behaviours related to cash management, saving and investment. However, the surveyed Millennials perform significantly less healthy credit management and insurance behaviours compared to non-Millennials. We also found that Millennials report significantly higher levels of financial well-being compared to all previous generations.

Schlüsselwörter

  • financial literacy
  • debt literacy
  • financial behaviour
  • financial well-being
  • Millennials

JEL Classification

  • D14
  • D15
  • G51
  • G53
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of eHealth Deployment at Primary Care in the EU Member States by Usage of Selected MCDM Methods

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 337 - 359

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Information and Communication Technologies have become a revolutionary part of European healthcare in recent years. The European Commission considers eHealth as an important and appropriate tool that can contribute to cope with the challenges that are currently affecting the healthcare systems in Europe. The development of eHealth is therefore embedded in many EU strategies and is being evaluated on an ongoing basis. In the past, several studies have been carried out focusing on the evaluation of individual areas of eHealth - especially on the area of primary care secured by General Practitioners and Acute Hospitals. However, no synthesis of these works was made. This paper is focused on the proposing of an assessment for both mentioned areas of eHealth. The aim is to evaluate the eHealth deployment in the European Union Member States by the synthesis of Composite Indicators in existing studies into the evaluation model based on the application of Multiple-Criteria Decision-Making techniques. The evaluation is performed by the usage of TOPSIS, WSA, and MAPPAC method. The result of the research is the design of an evaluation framework for eHealth that enables the comparison of eHealth indicators in the international context and evaluation of eHealth deployment in European Union Member States in the form of a ranking. In this ranking, the Nordic countries are among the best-rated countries, while the worst-rated countries are in Eastern Europe.

Schlüsselwörter

  • eHealth
  • European Union
  • EU countries
  • Evaluation
  • MCDM

JEL Classification

  • C38
  • H11
  • I11
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Identifying major policy challenges and policy interventions via expert methods

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 361 - 377

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the application of expert decision methods for the formulation and prioritization of the long-term economic, social and environmental policies in the Slovak Republic. The Partnership Agreement for the Slovak Republic (PA) is an underlying strategy for investments from the European Structural and Investment Funds (ESIF) in the period 2021-2027. Policies implemented under the PA will allocate €13.4b on four policy objectives. This paper concentrates on the policy objective 4 ‘Social development’. The authors co-operated with the Deputy Prime Minister Office and assembled panels of top Slovak experts on social and economic issues. The Delphi and Analytical hierarchy process (AHP) methods were combined for analyzing major development challenges and eliciting policy priorities. The methods combined the bottom-up and top-down approaches to policy making. Nine potential policy measures in three policy areas emerged from the Delphi exercise. The AHP exercise applied three criteria (relevance, urgency and feasibility) to rank the abovementioned measures within three policy areas. As for the Policy Area 1 (Labour market, employment, training and institutions) the measure 4.1.1 ‘Improving access to employment and modernizing institutions and services on labour market’ clearly dominated over the measure 4.1.2 ‘Supporting a better work-life balance’. The measure 4.2.2 ‘Equal access to quality and inclusive education’ emerged substantially more important than measures 4.2.1 ‘Improving the quality and effectiveness of education and training systems’ and 4.2.3 ‘Support to life-long learning’ in the Policy Area 2 ‘Education and skills’. Finally, measures 4.3.2 ‘Supporting social and economic integration of marginalized Roma communities’ and 4.3.3 ‘Ensuring equal access to healthcare including primary care’ received the highest ranks in the Policy Area 3 ‘Health and social services’.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Delphi method
  • Analytical hierarchy process
  • Partnership Agreement
  • Long-term planning

JEL Classification

  • D78
  • D70
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Categorization of the EU Member States in the Context of Selected Multicriteria International Indices Using Cluster Analysis

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 379 - 401

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The main aim of the paper was to analyse the economic and social development of the European Union (EU) member states (28 countries) on the basis of selected five multicriteria indices (the Global Competitiveness Index, the Economic Freedom Index, the Global Innovation Index, the Corruption Perceptions Index, the Human Development Index). To perform settled aim, a multidimensional classification of EU countries for years 2011 and 2018 using cluster analysis was realized. The purpose of the analysis was to categorize the individual EU countries into clusters and to find out to what extent the position of EU member states has changed in terms of selected international indices over the analysed period. Based on the findings, it is arguable that a major part of the EU member states cluster into the same groups based on the selected indices assessment, regardless of the time period. However, six countries (Czech Republic, Estonia, Germany, Latvia, Lithuania, and United Kingdom) improved their position during the period under review and ranked into the cluster of more prosperous countries in 2018. The rate of change (improvement) was quantified at the level of 21.43%. Based on the results, Latvia and Lithuania were the most similar countries in terms of economic prosperity (Euclidean distance reached the level of 3.08), while the least similar countries were Greece and Sweden (Euclidean distance reached the level of 70.8). Declining Euclidean distances indicate that economic disparities of the individual EU countries have decreased in the period under review. This paper aims at developing the research to find out how, besides hierarchy, we can analyse the EU member states from the perspective of various multicriteria indices. The four proposed clusters could be used as a starting point for future policy reforms, pointing to the weaknesses of various countries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Cluster analysis
  • economic development
  • EU member states
  • international indices
  • multidimensional classification

JEL Classification

  • E60
  • O11
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

A Book Review on The Narrow Corridor: States, Societies, and the Fate of Liberty by Daron Acemoğlu and James A. Robinson

Online veröffentlicht: 18 Sep 2020
Seitenbereich: 403 - 405

Zusammenfassung

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