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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1804-1663
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Feb 2010
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 16 (2016): Heft 1 (March 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
1804-1663
Erstveröffentlichung
19 Feb 2010
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inflation Target and its Impact on Macroeconomy in the Zero Lower Bound Environment: the case of the Czech economy

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 3 - 16

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper uses a stochastic simulation of a DSGE model of the Czech economy to study the macroeconomic consequences of inflation target setting when interest rates are constrained by the zero lower bound. The distortions of this constraint depend non-linearly on the inflation target. For an inflation target of two percent the costs are negligible, but they increase steeply with lower target values. The largest impact is on the average values of output, consumption and investment; inflation is only slightly influenced. The volatility of all the variables considered increases significantly, but only for inflation targets that are close to zero. An inflation target of four percent does not bring additional benefits either in terms of lower volatility or in terms of higher average values.

Schlüsselwörter

  • zero lower bound on interest rate
  • inflation target
  • DSGE model

JEL Classification:

  • E37
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Use of a Consumer Survey to Determine the Relevant Market – Case Study for public transport between Prague and Most

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 17 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to define a relevant market in the passenger transportation industry for the route between Prague and Most. A rising number of bus companies operating on this particular market suggests competition pressures. On the basis of European Commission legislation and its common practice we apply a demand-side substitution analysis in the form of the so called SSNIP test. Data for the empirical analysis were collected by means of a customer survey, which captured reactions to a 10% increase in the price of purchased tickets. The survey outcomes were then used to calculate an own price elasticity of demand and to carry out a critical loss analysis in order to define the relevant market.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Transport Economics
  • SSNIP test
  • Critical loss analysis
  • Consumer survey

JEL Classification:

  • R40
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of the degree of foreign ownership on firms' performance

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 29 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A large number of studies have compared the performance of foreign-owned and domestic firms. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effect of the degree of foreign ownership on a firm's performance. We attempt to fill this gap in the literature by conducting research that distinguishes not only between domestic and foreign-owned firms, but also between wholly and partly foreign-owned firms. We also examine the possible non-linearity of the performance-ownership relationship. We divide the firms in our study into three groups by their ownership - domestic, foreign, and joint ventures. We use a regression analysis to explore whether foreign ownership influences the firms' performance, measured by several variables such as profitability, innovation performance (measured by gross expenditures on research and development activities), numbers of employees involved in research and development, production, value added, leverage and net working capital intensity. The results of our research indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in firms' performance as a result of foreign ownership in all variables except the number of research and development employees and leverage. Moreover, we show that foreign ownership and performance are linked by an inverted U-shaped relationship. A firm’s performance increases with greater foreign ownership up to the range of 61-65 %, and declines thereafter.

Schlüsselwörter

  • performance
  • foreign ownership
  • foreign investor
  • joint ventures
  • Slovak republic

JEL Classification:

  • F23
  • G32
  • L25
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Impact of Including Immigrants without Permanent Residence Status in the Public Health Insurance System in the Czech Republic

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 45 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured) persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Migration
  • Public Health Insurance
  • Self-employment
  • Third countries
  • Dependent relatives

JEL Classification:

  • F22
  • J15
  • J61
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Book Review: Exodus. How Migration is Changing Our World

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 63 - 67

Zusammenfassung

5 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Inflation Target and its Impact on Macroeconomy in the Zero Lower Bound Environment: the case of the Czech economy

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 3 - 16

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper uses a stochastic simulation of a DSGE model of the Czech economy to study the macroeconomic consequences of inflation target setting when interest rates are constrained by the zero lower bound. The distortions of this constraint depend non-linearly on the inflation target. For an inflation target of two percent the costs are negligible, but they increase steeply with lower target values. The largest impact is on the average values of output, consumption and investment; inflation is only slightly influenced. The volatility of all the variables considered increases significantly, but only for inflation targets that are close to zero. An inflation target of four percent does not bring additional benefits either in terms of lower volatility or in terms of higher average values.

Schlüsselwörter

  • zero lower bound on interest rate
  • inflation target
  • DSGE model

JEL Classification:

  • E37
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Use of a Consumer Survey to Determine the Relevant Market – Case Study for public transport between Prague and Most

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 17 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this paper is to define a relevant market in the passenger transportation industry for the route between Prague and Most. A rising number of bus companies operating on this particular market suggests competition pressures. On the basis of European Commission legislation and its common practice we apply a demand-side substitution analysis in the form of the so called SSNIP test. Data for the empirical analysis were collected by means of a customer survey, which captured reactions to a 10% increase in the price of purchased tickets. The survey outcomes were then used to calculate an own price elasticity of demand and to carry out a critical loss analysis in order to define the relevant market.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Transport Economics
  • SSNIP test
  • Critical loss analysis
  • Consumer survey

JEL Classification:

  • R40
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The effect of the degree of foreign ownership on firms' performance

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 29 - 44

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A large number of studies have compared the performance of foreign-owned and domestic firms. However, only a limited number of studies have investigated the effect of the degree of foreign ownership on a firm's performance. We attempt to fill this gap in the literature by conducting research that distinguishes not only between domestic and foreign-owned firms, but also between wholly and partly foreign-owned firms. We also examine the possible non-linearity of the performance-ownership relationship. We divide the firms in our study into three groups by their ownership - domestic, foreign, and joint ventures. We use a regression analysis to explore whether foreign ownership influences the firms' performance, measured by several variables such as profitability, innovation performance (measured by gross expenditures on research and development activities), numbers of employees involved in research and development, production, value added, leverage and net working capital intensity. The results of our research indicate that there is a statistically significant difference in firms' performance as a result of foreign ownership in all variables except the number of research and development employees and leverage. Moreover, we show that foreign ownership and performance are linked by an inverted U-shaped relationship. A firm’s performance increases with greater foreign ownership up to the range of 61-65 %, and declines thereafter.

Schlüsselwörter

  • performance
  • foreign ownership
  • foreign investor
  • joint ventures
  • Slovak republic

JEL Classification:

  • F23
  • G32
  • L25
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Impact of Including Immigrants without Permanent Residence Status in the Public Health Insurance System in the Czech Republic

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 45 - 62

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Whether an individual can or cannot participate in the Czech public health insurance system depends on several characteristics, one of which is whether he/she has permanent residence status in the Czech Republic, and a second whether he/she is employed. This means that those without permanent residence status, including self-employed migrants from third countries, their dependent relatives, and the dependent relatives of third country employees in the Czech Republic, cannot participate in the public health insurance system. Some argue that such migrants should be included in the system, since commercial health insurance is disadvantageous and the contributions they would pay into the public health insurance system would increase the public health insurance agencies’ income. We estimate the value of the contributions to public health insurance that would be paid by third country self-employed and non-working immigrants, if they were insured based on data from 2011 to 2013, and compare this to the assumed costs of their medical care. To calculate the contributions for self-employed migrants we use data on the distribution of the tax base for self-employed persons from personal income tax returns. Our estimation results in an overall negative balance of 22 million CZK on the data for 2012 and 2013. In the current system this deficit would be covered by the state, which would pay contributions to the system for certain (state insured) persons amounting to 97 million CZK; overall therefore the inclusion of these immigrants would result in a positive balance of 75 million CZK.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Migration
  • Public Health Insurance
  • Self-employment
  • Third countries
  • Dependent relatives

JEL Classification:

  • F22
  • J15
  • J61
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Book Review: Exodus. How Migration is Changing Our World

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Mar 2016
Seitenbereich: 63 - 67

Zusammenfassung

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