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Volumen 62 (2018): Heft 2 (June 2018)

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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2453-7837
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 62 (2018): Heft 3 (September 2018)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2453-7837
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Tetracycline on Ruminal Activity and Blood Calcium in Sheep

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 5 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tetracycline administration on the frequency of ruminal contractions and serum calcium concentrations. Rumen contractions were monitored by auscultation in 23 sheep prior to the administration of oxytetracycline and recorded every 12 hours for 84 hours after the intramuscular injection of the antibiotic. The blood for calcium analyses was collected by venipuncture of the jugular vein before and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the administration of oxytetracycline. The serum calcium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse the time effect of tetracycline treatment on the rumen contractions and serum calcium concentrations. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in ruminal contractions following the application of oxytetracycline, with a maximum decrease at 24 hours following oxytetracycline application and a return to the initial rumen contraction frequency by 60—72 hours following the oxytetracycline application. The oxytetracycline administration resulted in a serum calcium decrease from 2.42 mmol.l–1 to 2.26 mmol.l–1 24 hours after the administration (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the administration of tetracycline in sheep can be associated with a decline in ruminal motility potentially causing production losses, particularly in lactating ewes. Despite the resulting transient production decreases, oxytetracycline remains the antibiotic drug of choice for the treatment of bacterial infections in small ruminants, including foot rot especially.

Schlüsselwörter

  • calcium
  • rumen activity
  • sheep
  • tetracycline
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Demographic Factors Influencing the Rabies Antibody Prevalence of Dogs in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 9 - 23

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Canine rabies is enzootic in Nigeria occurring in all parts of the country. Rabies has been reported in Niger state neighbouring the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and the movement of rabid dogs between the neighbour states is possible. Hence, a study to determine the immune status of dogs in Abuja to rabies was necessary. A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the rabies antibody titre of owned dogs and the rabies knowledge, attitude and practices of the dog owners. Serum samples from 276 dogs were collected and a structured questionnaire administered to each dog owner using a personal interview method. Associations between the demographic variables, protection titres and knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) were assessed using χ2 analysis. Sera samples were analysed to measure for rabies antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Out of the 276 dogs sampled, 229 (83 %) had a certified antirabies vaccination record. All vaccinated dogs had antibody titre against rabies greater than 0.6 EU.ml–1. The dog owners had a mean knowledge score of 63.54 ± 23.82 %, mean attitude score of 81.45 ± 20.37 % and the mean practice score was 91.3 ± 21.39 %. There was a significant association between the vaccination status of the dogs and categorized knowledge score (P < 0.05), attitude score (P < 0.05) and practice score (P < 0.05). A large proportion of the dogs (47.4 %) owned by residents of satellite towns were not vaccinated against rabies. Hence mass vaccination of dogs in these suburban settlements is strongly recommended

Schlüsselwörter

  • antibody
  • dog owners
  • rabies
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship between Canine Lymphocyte AgNOR Counts and Haematological Indices of Health

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 24 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A modified agyrophil technique was applied to peripheral blood smears to determine the mean AgNOR counts (MAC) of lymphocytes and ultimately assess the state of the lymphoid system in various clinical conditions of dogs. Fifty dogs, from clinically normal to pets with leukaemia, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, were recruited. Blood smears from each dog were stained with routine Romanowsky and modified agyrophil stains. Signalment, clinical diagnoses and hematologic parameters of the dogs were related to the MAC. An AgNOR proliferative index (AgPI) — percentage of lymphocytes with 3 or more AgNORs, was determined, and correlated with MAC. The statistical significance was determined at P < 0.05. MAC ranged from 1.17 in clinically healthy patients to 6.00 in leukaemic patients. The MAC was 2.00 in patients (n = 26) with lymphocyte counts within reference intervals (900—2400 per microliter); 2.23 in patients (n = 4) with lymphopenia; 2.18 in patients with lymphocytosis (n = 18) and 4.73 in patients (n = 4) with lymphocytic leukemia. Also, the MAC was 2.00 in non-anemic dogs while it was 2.47, 2.49 and 3.06 in patients with mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. The MAC correlated strongly with AgPI (r = 0.91). The ancillary AgNOR technique provides a cheaper, more rapid and sensitive tool than routine lymphocyte counts in assessing the state of lymphoid proliferation in a variety of conditions in the dog.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AgNOR
  • canine
  • haematology
  • lymphocyte
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunohistochemical Study of the Stromal Cells in the Lactating Bovine Mammary Gland

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 29 - 35

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The bovine mammary gland is a special gland characterized by high secretory activity. During lactation the cellular and fibrous components of the interstitial tissue septa are exposed to store accumulated secretory products. The aim of this study was to find and study the cells in the stroma of the bovine lactating mammary gland. For this purpose, the immunohistochemical methods and antibodies against the smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin were used. The myoepithelial cells (MEC) which stained with smooth muscle actin (SMA), were found supporting the secretory units and the intralobular ducts. Coexpression of the SMA and desmin were found in the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. The fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and free cells positive to vimentin were located in the connective tissue septa. The results of this study on the mammary glands indicated that smooth muscle cells (SMC) were altered in the lactating mammary gland, with additional cells such as fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) participated in the storage and after milk let-down they allowed the mammary glands to return to their original state.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bovine
  • immunohistochemistry
  • mammary gland
  • stromal cells
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

In vitro Evaluation of Biological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Extracts

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 36 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) of the Asteraceae family is known for its pharmacological effects and has been used in therapy for centuries. Currently extracts of all parts of this plant are used — root, leaves and flowers. The extracts are prepared using various extraction agents that may significantly affect the effectiveness and therapeutic spectrum of the extracts. The aim of this study was to use three different solvents for the preparation of the extracts from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves and flowers, namely triton X-100 (2 %), nonidet P-40 (2 %) and acetone (30 %). After extraction, the extractants were evaporated and the dried extracts were dissolved in water to obtain a series of solutions of the concentrations: 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg.ml–1. The biological effects of the extracts were investigated by means of the MTT test of cell viability. Rabbit kidney epithelial cells (RK13) exposed to the extracts for 24 and 48 hours were used as a model cell line. We observed that the acetone extract of dandelion leaves and flowers at lower concentrations caused an increase in the viability of the treated cells in comparison with the control cells which were not exposed to the extracts (P < 0.05). At the same time, we observed a significant effect of the solvent used for the preparation of the dry extracts on the viability of the cells. The residues of the extractants caused a decrease in the cell viability almost to zero, which in fact means the death of the cells. The selection of the correct extractant for the preparation of the extracts is essential regarding the use of extracts in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cell culture
  • MTT
  • solvent
  • viability
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Proliferation of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Epoxiconazole

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 41 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The potential genotoxic/cytotoxic effect of epoxiconazole was evaluated by means of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) following the 24 and 48 h in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to epoxiconazole at concentrations of: 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg. ml–1. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), used as an epoxiconazole solvent, was used as a negative control and mitomycine (MMC) as a positive control. After the 24-hour exposure, we failed to observe a significant increase in SCE frequencies in comparison with the negative control, however, the concentrations of 10—100 μg.ml–1 caused a significant decrease in the proliferation index (PI; P < 0.001). Also, the 48-hour exposure produced no significant alterations in the SCE frequencies in comparison with the control. At epoxiconazole concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 μg.ml–1 we recorded a moderate to strong, dose-dependent inhibition of PI (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001), while at the highest dose (100 μg.ml–1) the reduction in PI compared to the control was less pronounced (P < 0.05). The reduction in PI at the concentration range of 10—100 μg.ml–1 depended on the number of cells in the M1, M2 and M3 phases of the cell cycle per total number of 100 evaluated metaphases. Our results indicated a significant cytotoxic or cytostatic effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • epoxiconazole
  • proliferation index
  • sister chromatid exchanges
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of Residues of Antimicrobial Compounds in Eggs by the Rapid Screening Methods

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 48 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Eggs belong to the most frequently consumed products of animal origin worldwide, and therefore the safety of eggs is a substantiated issue. Conventional poultry rearing involves the use of antimicrobials added to their feed or potable water particularly for disease treatment, however, in some countries also for the prevention of diseases, promotion of growth and better utilisation of the feed. Thus, effective control of residues of such substances in eggs is very important for the protection of the public health. The aim of this study was to detect the potential presence of antimicrobial residues in fresh hen eggs using commercially available rapid screening methods (Premi®Test and EXP Ampulle test) and compare the results of both of these tests. We examined 22 samples randomly selected from among 66 samples purchased in 11 European countries. We respected the procedures as supplied by the manufacturers of the tests together with their respective test kits. The examination of eggs by the Premi®Test did not detect the presence of antimicrobial residues in the samples, while the EXP Ampulle test provided 8 positive and 6 dubious results. Our results allowed us to conclude that the EXP Ampulle appears to be more sensitive and allows one to carry out more effective control of the presence of antimicrobial residues in hen eggs intended for human consumption.

Schlüsselwörter

  • antibiotics
  • detection
  • eggs
  • residues
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mastitis Pathogens Isolated from Raw Milk Samples on Sheep Farms Situated in Marginal Parts of Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 56 - 61

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Relatively large parts of the Slovak territory are marginal regions, which in terms of the economy of ruminant rearing can effectively produce animal commodities only occasionally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and aetiology of mastitis during one milking season in two sheep dairy herds of 224 (A) and 270 (B) ewes situated in the marginal parts of Slovakia. A complex examination of health status of ewes based on: the clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk with the California mastitis test (CMT) and the bacteriological analysis of raw milk samples from individual halves were carried out at the beginning (April) and at the end (September) of the milking season. The prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the herds of ewes (A and B) were 19.1 % and 14.3 %, respectively. In both herds we confirmed predominantly the subclinical forms of IMI. The highest percentages of aetiological agents were determined for coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), such as Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus piscifermentans and Staphylococcus intermedius, the occurrences of which were determined in 41 (48.2 %) and 37 (47.9 %) positive milk samples, respectively.

Schlüsselwörter

  • coagulase negative staphylococci
  • ewes
  • marginal parts
  • mastitis
  • prevalence
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pygomelia and True Hermaphroditism in a Nine Week Old Large White Piglet Case Report

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 62 - 67

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A nine weeks old female Large White piglet which was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, with a complaint of extra limbs was diagnosed with pygomelia and concurrent true hermaphroditism based on gross morphologic features, radiography, exploratory laparotomy and histopathology of the malformed organs. The piglet had two well-developed extra hind limbs consisting of the femur, tibia, fibula and the phalanges. Radiographically, the accessory limbs were attached to the ischium through a rudimentary pelvic bone. The supernumerary limbs were smaller than the normal appendages, but contained equal digits. The anal orifice was observed cranial to the right supernumerary limb. Caudal to the left supernumerary limb a rudimentary penis was observed. Two oval shaped fibrous masses were palpated in the inguinal canal of the piglet. In addition, there was a transparent tubular tract measuring 24 cm in length which contained serous fluid. The right kidney was rudimentary measuring 2.10 cm, while the left kidney appeared hypertrophied measuring 6.10 cm. The histology of the left kidney showed dysplastic areas of undifferentiated mesenchymal stroma in the cortex and medulla with the presence of groups of immature glomeruli in the cortex. The tubules in the medulla were scanty in number and had atypical epithelium. The adrenal glands had normal architecture with ectopic adrenal tissue in the adrenal capsule, while the ovaries and uterus were normal. It was concluded that the complex anomalies in the piglet might be as a result of a complex mode of inheritance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hermaphroditism
  • intersex
  • pigs
  • pygomelia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antioxidant Activity of the Fungus Cordyceps sinensis Grown on Two Different Media

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 68 - 73

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cordyceps sinensis, a species of the genus Ascomycetes, is recognised as the most famous tonic herb and natural remedy in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Various pharmacological actions of the chemical constituents of C. sinensis have been reported, including: antitumour effects, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant, nephroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study we tested the antioxidant activity of extracts of the fungus C. sinensis grown on two subspecies of rice, Oryza sativa var. Indica and Oryza sativa var. Japonica. The extracts were prepared with methanol by two different extraction procedures (reflux and ultrasound). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH assay. Our investigations showed that the sample 1 (grown on Oryza sativa var. Japonica) exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the sample 2 (grown on Oryza sativa var. Indica). The higher antioxidant activity of the sample 1 was observed with both extraction procedures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • antioxidant activity
  • DDPH radical
  • infrared spectroscopy
  • var.
  • var.
10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of Tetracycline on Ruminal Activity and Blood Calcium in Sheep

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 5 - 8

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The objective of this study was to assess the effects of tetracycline administration on the frequency of ruminal contractions and serum calcium concentrations. Rumen contractions were monitored by auscultation in 23 sheep prior to the administration of oxytetracycline and recorded every 12 hours for 84 hours after the intramuscular injection of the antibiotic. The blood for calcium analyses was collected by venipuncture of the jugular vein before and at 24, 48, 72, and 96 hours after the administration of oxytetracycline. The serum calcium concentrations were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyse the time effect of tetracycline treatment on the rumen contractions and serum calcium concentrations. There was a significant decrease (P < 0.01) in ruminal contractions following the application of oxytetracycline, with a maximum decrease at 24 hours following oxytetracycline application and a return to the initial rumen contraction frequency by 60—72 hours following the oxytetracycline application. The oxytetracycline administration resulted in a serum calcium decrease from 2.42 mmol.l–1 to 2.26 mmol.l–1 24 hours after the administration (P < 0.01). In conclusion, the administration of tetracycline in sheep can be associated with a decline in ruminal motility potentially causing production losses, particularly in lactating ewes. Despite the resulting transient production decreases, oxytetracycline remains the antibiotic drug of choice for the treatment of bacterial infections in small ruminants, including foot rot especially.

Schlüsselwörter

  • calcium
  • rumen activity
  • sheep
  • tetracycline
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Demographic Factors Influencing the Rabies Antibody Prevalence of Dogs in Federal Capital Territory, Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 9 - 23

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Canine rabies is enzootic in Nigeria occurring in all parts of the country. Rabies has been reported in Niger state neighbouring the Federal Capital Territory (FCT) and the movement of rabid dogs between the neighbour states is possible. Hence, a study to determine the immune status of dogs in Abuja to rabies was necessary. A cross sectional study was carried out to assess the rabies antibody titre of owned dogs and the rabies knowledge, attitude and practices of the dog owners. Serum samples from 276 dogs were collected and a structured questionnaire administered to each dog owner using a personal interview method. Associations between the demographic variables, protection titres and knowledge attitude and practice (KAP) were assessed using χ2 analysis. Sera samples were analysed to measure for rabies antibodies using an indirect enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Out of the 276 dogs sampled, 229 (83 %) had a certified antirabies vaccination record. All vaccinated dogs had antibody titre against rabies greater than 0.6 EU.ml–1. The dog owners had a mean knowledge score of 63.54 ± 23.82 %, mean attitude score of 81.45 ± 20.37 % and the mean practice score was 91.3 ± 21.39 %. There was a significant association between the vaccination status of the dogs and categorized knowledge score (P < 0.05), attitude score (P < 0.05) and practice score (P < 0.05). A large proportion of the dogs (47.4 %) owned by residents of satellite towns were not vaccinated against rabies. Hence mass vaccination of dogs in these suburban settlements is strongly recommended

Schlüsselwörter

  • antibody
  • dog owners
  • rabies
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Relationship between Canine Lymphocyte AgNOR Counts and Haematological Indices of Health

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 24 - 28

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A modified agyrophil technique was applied to peripheral blood smears to determine the mean AgNOR counts (MAC) of lymphocytes and ultimately assess the state of the lymphoid system in various clinical conditions of dogs. Fifty dogs, from clinically normal to pets with leukaemia, presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, were recruited. Blood smears from each dog were stained with routine Romanowsky and modified agyrophil stains. Signalment, clinical diagnoses and hematologic parameters of the dogs were related to the MAC. An AgNOR proliferative index (AgPI) — percentage of lymphocytes with 3 or more AgNORs, was determined, and correlated with MAC. The statistical significance was determined at P < 0.05. MAC ranged from 1.17 in clinically healthy patients to 6.00 in leukaemic patients. The MAC was 2.00 in patients (n = 26) with lymphocyte counts within reference intervals (900—2400 per microliter); 2.23 in patients (n = 4) with lymphopenia; 2.18 in patients with lymphocytosis (n = 18) and 4.73 in patients (n = 4) with lymphocytic leukemia. Also, the MAC was 2.00 in non-anemic dogs while it was 2.47, 2.49 and 3.06 in patients with mild, moderate and severe anaemia, respectively. The MAC correlated strongly with AgPI (r = 0.91). The ancillary AgNOR technique provides a cheaper, more rapid and sensitive tool than routine lymphocyte counts in assessing the state of lymphoid proliferation in a variety of conditions in the dog.

Schlüsselwörter

  • AgNOR
  • canine
  • haematology
  • lymphocyte
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunohistochemical Study of the Stromal Cells in the Lactating Bovine Mammary Gland

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 29 - 35

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The bovine mammary gland is a special gland characterized by high secretory activity. During lactation the cellular and fibrous components of the interstitial tissue septa are exposed to store accumulated secretory products. The aim of this study was to find and study the cells in the stroma of the bovine lactating mammary gland. For this purpose, the immunohistochemical methods and antibodies against the smooth muscle actin, vimentin, and desmin were used. The myoepithelial cells (MEC) which stained with smooth muscle actin (SMA), were found supporting the secretory units and the intralobular ducts. Coexpression of the SMA and desmin were found in the smooth muscle cells of the blood vessels. The fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) and free cells positive to vimentin were located in the connective tissue septa. The results of this study on the mammary glands indicated that smooth muscle cells (SMC) were altered in the lactating mammary gland, with additional cells such as fibroblasts (myofibroblasts) participated in the storage and after milk let-down they allowed the mammary glands to return to their original state.

Schlüsselwörter

  • bovine
  • immunohistochemistry
  • mammary gland
  • stromal cells
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

In vitro Evaluation of Biological Effects of Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) Extracts

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 36 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) of the Asteraceae family is known for its pharmacological effects and has been used in therapy for centuries. Currently extracts of all parts of this plant are used — root, leaves and flowers. The extracts are prepared using various extraction agents that may significantly affect the effectiveness and therapeutic spectrum of the extracts. The aim of this study was to use three different solvents for the preparation of the extracts from dandelion (Taraxacum officinale) leaves and flowers, namely triton X-100 (2 %), nonidet P-40 (2 %) and acetone (30 %). After extraction, the extractants were evaporated and the dried extracts were dissolved in water to obtain a series of solutions of the concentrations: 125, 250, 500 and 1000 µg.ml–1. The biological effects of the extracts were investigated by means of the MTT test of cell viability. Rabbit kidney epithelial cells (RK13) exposed to the extracts for 24 and 48 hours were used as a model cell line. We observed that the acetone extract of dandelion leaves and flowers at lower concentrations caused an increase in the viability of the treated cells in comparison with the control cells which were not exposed to the extracts (P < 0.05). At the same time, we observed a significant effect of the solvent used for the preparation of the dry extracts on the viability of the cells. The residues of the extractants caused a decrease in the cell viability almost to zero, which in fact means the death of the cells. The selection of the correct extractant for the preparation of the extracts is essential regarding the use of extracts in the pharmaceutical or cosmetic industries.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cell culture
  • MTT
  • solvent
  • viability
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Analysis of Sister Chromatid Exchanges and Proliferation of Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes Exposed to Epoxiconazole

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 41 - 47

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The potential genotoxic/cytotoxic effect of epoxiconazole was evaluated by means of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) following the 24 and 48 h in vitro exposure of human peripheral blood lymphocytes to epoxiconazole at concentrations of: 5, 10, 25, 50 and 100 μg. ml–1. Dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), used as an epoxiconazole solvent, was used as a negative control and mitomycine (MMC) as a positive control. After the 24-hour exposure, we failed to observe a significant increase in SCE frequencies in comparison with the negative control, however, the concentrations of 10—100 μg.ml–1 caused a significant decrease in the proliferation index (PI; P < 0.001). Also, the 48-hour exposure produced no significant alterations in the SCE frequencies in comparison with the control. At epoxiconazole concentrations ranging from 10 to 50 μg.ml–1 we recorded a moderate to strong, dose-dependent inhibition of PI (P < 0.05; P < 0.01; P < 0.001), while at the highest dose (100 μg.ml–1) the reduction in PI compared to the control was less pronounced (P < 0.05). The reduction in PI at the concentration range of 10—100 μg.ml–1 depended on the number of cells in the M1, M2 and M3 phases of the cell cycle per total number of 100 evaluated metaphases. Our results indicated a significant cytotoxic or cytostatic effect on human peripheral blood lymphocytes.

Schlüsselwörter

  • epoxiconazole
  • proliferation index
  • sister chromatid exchanges
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of Residues of Antimicrobial Compounds in Eggs by the Rapid Screening Methods

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 48 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Eggs belong to the most frequently consumed products of animal origin worldwide, and therefore the safety of eggs is a substantiated issue. Conventional poultry rearing involves the use of antimicrobials added to their feed or potable water particularly for disease treatment, however, in some countries also for the prevention of diseases, promotion of growth and better utilisation of the feed. Thus, effective control of residues of such substances in eggs is very important for the protection of the public health. The aim of this study was to detect the potential presence of antimicrobial residues in fresh hen eggs using commercially available rapid screening methods (Premi®Test and EXP Ampulle test) and compare the results of both of these tests. We examined 22 samples randomly selected from among 66 samples purchased in 11 European countries. We respected the procedures as supplied by the manufacturers of the tests together with their respective test kits. The examination of eggs by the Premi®Test did not detect the presence of antimicrobial residues in the samples, while the EXP Ampulle test provided 8 positive and 6 dubious results. Our results allowed us to conclude that the EXP Ampulle appears to be more sensitive and allows one to carry out more effective control of the presence of antimicrobial residues in hen eggs intended for human consumption.

Schlüsselwörter

  • antibiotics
  • detection
  • eggs
  • residues
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Mastitis Pathogens Isolated from Raw Milk Samples on Sheep Farms Situated in Marginal Parts of Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 56 - 61

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Relatively large parts of the Slovak territory are marginal regions, which in terms of the economy of ruminant rearing can effectively produce animal commodities only occasionally. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence and aetiology of mastitis during one milking season in two sheep dairy herds of 224 (A) and 270 (B) ewes situated in the marginal parts of Slovakia. A complex examination of health status of ewes based on: the clinical examination of the udder, macroscopic evaluation of milk with the California mastitis test (CMT) and the bacteriological analysis of raw milk samples from individual halves were carried out at the beginning (April) and at the end (September) of the milking season. The prevalence of intramammary infection (IMI) in the herds of ewes (A and B) were 19.1 % and 14.3 %, respectively. In both herds we confirmed predominantly the subclinical forms of IMI. The highest percentages of aetiological agents were determined for coagulase negative staphylococci (CoNS), such as Staphylococcus chromogenes, Staphylococcus schleiferi, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus piscifermentans and Staphylococcus intermedius, the occurrences of which were determined in 41 (48.2 %) and 37 (47.9 %) positive milk samples, respectively.

Schlüsselwörter

  • coagulase negative staphylococci
  • ewes
  • marginal parts
  • mastitis
  • prevalence
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Pygomelia and True Hermaphroditism in a Nine Week Old Large White Piglet Case Report

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 62 - 67

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A nine weeks old female Large White piglet which was presented to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Federal University of Agriculture, Abeokuta, with a complaint of extra limbs was diagnosed with pygomelia and concurrent true hermaphroditism based on gross morphologic features, radiography, exploratory laparotomy and histopathology of the malformed organs. The piglet had two well-developed extra hind limbs consisting of the femur, tibia, fibula and the phalanges. Radiographically, the accessory limbs were attached to the ischium through a rudimentary pelvic bone. The supernumerary limbs were smaller than the normal appendages, but contained equal digits. The anal orifice was observed cranial to the right supernumerary limb. Caudal to the left supernumerary limb a rudimentary penis was observed. Two oval shaped fibrous masses were palpated in the inguinal canal of the piglet. In addition, there was a transparent tubular tract measuring 24 cm in length which contained serous fluid. The right kidney was rudimentary measuring 2.10 cm, while the left kidney appeared hypertrophied measuring 6.10 cm. The histology of the left kidney showed dysplastic areas of undifferentiated mesenchymal stroma in the cortex and medulla with the presence of groups of immature glomeruli in the cortex. The tubules in the medulla were scanty in number and had atypical epithelium. The adrenal glands had normal architecture with ectopic adrenal tissue in the adrenal capsule, while the ovaries and uterus were normal. It was concluded that the complex anomalies in the piglet might be as a result of a complex mode of inheritance.

Schlüsselwörter

  • hermaphroditism
  • intersex
  • pigs
  • pygomelia
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Antioxidant Activity of the Fungus Cordyceps sinensis Grown on Two Different Media

Online veröffentlicht: 16 Oct 2018
Seitenbereich: 68 - 73

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cordyceps sinensis, a species of the genus Ascomycetes, is recognised as the most famous tonic herb and natural remedy in traditional Chinese medicine for centuries. Various pharmacological actions of the chemical constituents of C. sinensis have been reported, including: antitumour effects, hepatoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects, and antioxidant, nephroprotective and anti-apoptotic properties. In this study we tested the antioxidant activity of extracts of the fungus C. sinensis grown on two subspecies of rice, Oryza sativa var. Indica and Oryza sativa var. Japonica. The extracts were prepared with methanol by two different extraction procedures (reflux and ultrasound). The antioxidant activity of the extracts was determined by the DPPH assay. Our investigations showed that the sample 1 (grown on Oryza sativa var. Japonica) exhibited higher antioxidant activity than the sample 2 (grown on Oryza sativa var. Indica). The higher antioxidant activity of the sample 1 was observed with both extraction procedures.

Schlüsselwörter

  • antioxidant activity
  • DDPH radical
  • infrared spectroscopy
  • var.
  • var.

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