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Volumen 62 (2018): Heft 3 (September 2018)

Volumen 62 (2018): Heft 2 (June 2018)

Volumen 62 (2018): Heft 1 (March 2018)

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Volumen 61 (2017): Heft 3 (September 2017)

Volumen 61 (2017): Heft 2 (June 2017)

Volumen 61 (2017): Heft 1 (March 2017)

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Volumen 60 (2016): Heft 2 (June 2016)

Volumen 60 (2016): Heft 1 (March 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2453-7837
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 62 (2018): Heft 1 (March 2018)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2453-7837
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Macroscopic Study of Celiac, Cranial Mesenteric and Caudal Mesenteric Arteries in the European Hare

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 5 - 10

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to describe the branching schema of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta: the a. celiaca, the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis. The study was carried out on nine adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. In all specimens, the first branch originating from the a. celiaca was the a. lienalis. The a. hepatica was present as the second branch in four cases and as the third branch also in four cases. The first branch of the a. mesenterica cranialis was the a. colica media in seven cases. The second branch was represented by the a. pancreaticoduodenalis caudalis also in seven cases. Two aa. jejunales originated as the third branch. In seven cases, the fourth branch formed the truncus jejunalis and the fifth branch the a. ileocecalis. The a. mesenterica caudalis had a uniform arrangement in all of the specimens. The results enabled us to conclude that there was higher variability of the branching pattern of the a. celiaca in comparison with the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis in the European hare.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anatomical study
  • European hare
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunohistochemical Study of the Goat Ductus deferens

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 11 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ductus deferens plays an important role in sperm transport and participates in the preservation of structure, maturation, and viability of sperm. In this study, we have immunohistochemically examined the ductus deferens in the goat. For immunohistochemical study the following monoclonal antibodies were used: cytokeratin 18, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and elastin. Morphologically, three distinct layers were identified in the goat ductus deferens — tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica adventitia. The epithelium of the mucosa was intensely stained with cytokeratin 18 (CK 18). The fibroblasts in the lamina propria and blood capillaries in the muscle layer showed positive reaction for vimentin. A positive reaction for α-SMA was observed in the smooth muscle cells of the tunica muscularis in the internal, middle and outer sublayers. An intense positive reaction for α-SMA was observed in the wall of the blood vessels. Elastic fibers in the form of a loose meshwork were present in all three layers. The high density of elastic fibers were found in the tunica adventitia.

Schlüsselwörter

  • goat
  • immunohistochemical study
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay and Rapid Immuno-Diagnostic Test for Rabies Antigen Detection in Archived Dog Brain Tissues

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 18 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Rabies urgently requires strengthening of new and existing diagnostic methodology in order to overcome the threat it poses. We evaluated the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test (RIDT) in detecting rabies viral antigens, comparing both tests with the Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT) which is the gold standard in rabies diagnosis. Fifty dog brain tissues collected from the archives of the Central Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria, were utilized for this study. ELISA performed better than RIDT and recorded equivalent result with DFAT as compared with RIDT. There was a 96 % agreement between ELISA and DFAT for rabies antigen detection (concordance coefficient 78 % : 95 % C. I. 0.6366 to 0.8654) while there was a 54 % agreement between RIDT and DFAT (concordance coefficient 17 % : 95 % C. I. 0.05138—0.2752). Compared to DFAT, the sensitivities of ELISA and RIDT were 95.5 % and 47.6 %, respectively, and the specificities of ELISA and RIDT were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The simple Cohen’s kappa coefficient for ELISA related to the DFAT was found to be 0.834 (95 % C. I. 0.613—1.0). For RIDT, the Kappa value was 0.170 (95 % C. I. 0.003—0.337). The ELISA is as reliable a diagnostic method as the DFAT which is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. It has an advantage of being able to analyse large number of samples at the same time, making it more suitable for epidemiological studies and for laboratories that cannot perform the DFAT. The unsatisfactory result of RIDT in this study reiterates the need to perform an adequate test validation before it can be used in the laboratory for rabies diagnosis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test
  • Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay
  • rabies
  • Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test
  • sensitivity
  • specificity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Addition of Dried Blood Plasma to Feed of Minks During Lactation and Rearing of Kits

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 25 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Studies on the effects of dried blood plasma on certain health parameters of mink (of the pastel variety) were conducted during lactation and the rearing of the kits. The study included two groups of mink (control group and experimental group). Animals in the experimental group received 0.5 % of dry blood plasma and the control group did not receive the plasma supplement. From the whole blood of both groups the direct and indirect haematological indices were recorded. Also, in both groups, the histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were performed on the: liver, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleen, and intestinal segments. From the experimental group some of the organs examined demonstrated slightly altered histopathology.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood plasma
  • defensins
  • haematological markers
  • histopathological examination
  • immunohistochemistry
  • mink
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Avifauna of Lake Geča — Pilot Faunistic and Serological Study

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 32 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Lake Geča is located in the northern part of the Protected Bird Territory Košická kotlina. With a surface area of 250 ha it is the largest water area in the complex of a number of gravel lake areas located close to the villages Čaňa and Geča. From 2014—2016 we used the method of capture and ringing to focus on observations of transmigrating passerine birds species. This pilot study included serological testing of selected passerine species for the presence of specific antibodies to Usutu virus (USUV) by the virus neutralization test. During the field research we obtained 1077 data about ringed birds of 43 species. We received one report about the presence of a bird ringed in our study from another location in Slovakia, and 3 long distance (above 100 km) reports from Hungary, Czechia and Croatia. No specific antibodies against USUV were detected in the birds tested.

Schlüsselwörter

  • avifauna
  • Geča
  • bird-ringing
  • Usutu virus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Monitoring of 137CS and 40K in the Levice District, Southern Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 38 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The contamination of the environment, soil and meat of wild animals with radionuclides can negatively affect human health. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk arising from post-Chernobyl contamination of the meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa) originating from the district Levice, southern Slovakia, with the radioactive artificial element 137Cs. The level of natural radionuclide 40K was also determined. We examined altogether 45 samples obtained from 9 wild boars hunted in this area during the period of 2013—2015. From each animal we collected and analysed samples from the thigh, stomach contents, stomach muscles and skin. We also examined samples of soil from the locations where these animals were shot. The activity values of radioactive caesium 137Cs determined in this study were very low and therefore the consumption of wild boar meat originating from this location presents no risk to human health.

Schlüsselwörter

  • contamination
  • Cs
  • K
  • radionuclides
  • soil
  • wild boar
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier by Neuroinvasive Pathogens

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 44 - 51

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) are important steps for all neuroinvasive pathogens. All of the ways of pathogens passing through the BBB are still unclear. Among known pathways, pathogen traversal can occur paracellularly, transcellularly or using a “Trojan horse” mechanism. The first step of translocation across the BBB is the interactions of the pathogen’s ligands with the receptors of the host brain cells. Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the temperate zones of Europe and North America, are caused by Borreliella species (former Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) that affects the peripheral and the CNS. In this review, we have presented various pathogen interactions with endothelial cells, which allow the disruption of the BBB so that the pathogens can pass across the BBB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood-brain barrier
  • paracellular and transcellular passage
  • “Trojan horse“ mechanism
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Role of Meningococcal Porin B in Protein-Protein Interactions with Host Cells

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 52 - 58

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative diplococcus responsible for bacterial meningitis and fatal sepsis. Ligand-receptor interactions are one of the main steps in the development of neuroinvasion. Porin B (PorB), neisserial outer membrane protein (ligand), binds to host receptors and triggers many cell signalling cascades allowing the meningococcus to damage the host cells or induce immune cells responses via the TLR2-dependent mechanisms. In this paper, we present a brief review of the structure and function of PorB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • PorB
  • protein
  • Toll-like receptor
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Transport of Nanobodies Across the Blood-Brain Barrier

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 59 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presence of a blood-brain barrier (BBB) and a blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier presents animmense challenge for effective delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system. Many potential drugs, which are effective at their site of action, have failed due to the lack of distribution in sufficient quantity to the central nervous system (CNS). In consequence, many diseases of the central nervous system remain undertreated. Antibodies, IgG for example, are difficult to deliver to the CNS due to their size (~155 kDa), physico-chemical properties and the presence of Fc receptor on the blood-brain barrier. Smaller antibodies, like the recently developed nanobodies, may overcome the obstacle of the BBB and enter into the CNS. The nanobodies are the smallest available antigen-binding fragments harbouring the full antigenbinding capacity of conventional antibodies. They represent a new generation of therapeutics with exceptional properties, such as: recognition of unique epitopes, target specificity, high affinity, high solubility, high stability and high expression yields in cost-effective recombinant production. Their ability to permeate across the BBBmakes thema promising alternative for central nervous system disease therapeutics. In this review, we have systematically presented different aspects of the BBB, drug delivery mechanisms employed to cross the BBB, and finally nanobodies — a potential therapeutic molecule against neuroinfections.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood-brain barrier
  • carrier
  • nanobody
  • permeability
  • shuttle
  • transport
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Contribution of Pili of S. Pneumoniae in the Onset of Meningitis

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 67 - 72

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Bacterial meningitis is a devastating worldwide disease. Half of the survivors of meningitis remain with permanent neurological sequelae. The pathogenesis of meningitis is based on a complex host-pathogen interaction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a life-threatening neuroinvasive pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes the upper respiratory tract. Adherence of pneumococci to the host epithelium is a prerequisite in the onset of streptococcal infections; such adherence is favored by the formation of bacterial pili. In this article, we will describe the pneumococcal pili and its contribution to the onset of meningitis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • meningitis
  • pili
10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Macroscopic Study of Celiac, Cranial Mesenteric and Caudal Mesenteric Arteries in the European Hare

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 5 - 10

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this paper was to describe the branching schema of the ventral branches of the abdominal aorta: the a. celiaca, the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis. The study was carried out on nine adult European hares using the corrosion cast technique. After the euthanasia, the vascular network was perfused with saline. Batson’s corrosion casting kit No. 17 was used as a casting medium. After polymerisation of the medium, the maceration was carried out in KOH solution. In all specimens, the first branch originating from the a. celiaca was the a. lienalis. The a. hepatica was present as the second branch in four cases and as the third branch also in four cases. The first branch of the a. mesenterica cranialis was the a. colica media in seven cases. The second branch was represented by the a. pancreaticoduodenalis caudalis also in seven cases. Two aa. jejunales originated as the third branch. In seven cases, the fourth branch formed the truncus jejunalis and the fifth branch the a. ileocecalis. The a. mesenterica caudalis had a uniform arrangement in all of the specimens. The results enabled us to conclude that there was higher variability of the branching pattern of the a. celiaca in comparison with the a. mesenterica cranialis and the a. mesenterica caudalis in the European hare.

Schlüsselwörter

  • anatomical study
  • European hare
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Immunohistochemical Study of the Goat Ductus deferens

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 11 - 17

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Ductus deferens plays an important role in sperm transport and participates in the preservation of structure, maturation, and viability of sperm. In this study, we have immunohistochemically examined the ductus deferens in the goat. For immunohistochemical study the following monoclonal antibodies were used: cytokeratin 18, α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA), vimentin and elastin. Morphologically, three distinct layers were identified in the goat ductus deferens — tunica mucosa, tunica muscularis and tunica adventitia. The epithelium of the mucosa was intensely stained with cytokeratin 18 (CK 18). The fibroblasts in the lamina propria and blood capillaries in the muscle layer showed positive reaction for vimentin. A positive reaction for α-SMA was observed in the smooth muscle cells of the tunica muscularis in the internal, middle and outer sublayers. An intense positive reaction for α-SMA was observed in the wall of the blood vessels. Elastic fibers in the form of a loose meshwork were present in all three layers. The high density of elastic fibers were found in the tunica adventitia.

Schlüsselwörter

  • goat
  • immunohistochemical study
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Evaluation of Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay and Rapid Immuno-Diagnostic Test for Rabies Antigen Detection in Archived Dog Brain Tissues

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 18 - 24

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Rabies urgently requires strengthening of new and existing diagnostic methodology in order to overcome the threat it poses. We evaluated the Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay (ELISA) and the Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test (RIDT) in detecting rabies viral antigens, comparing both tests with the Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test (DFAT) which is the gold standard in rabies diagnosis. Fifty dog brain tissues collected from the archives of the Central Diagnostic Laboratory, National Veterinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria, were utilized for this study. ELISA performed better than RIDT and recorded equivalent result with DFAT as compared with RIDT. There was a 96 % agreement between ELISA and DFAT for rabies antigen detection (concordance coefficient 78 % : 95 % C. I. 0.6366 to 0.8654) while there was a 54 % agreement between RIDT and DFAT (concordance coefficient 17 % : 95 % C. I. 0.05138—0.2752). Compared to DFAT, the sensitivities of ELISA and RIDT were 95.5 % and 47.6 %, respectively, and the specificities of ELISA and RIDT were 100 % and 87.5 % respectively. The simple Cohen’s kappa coefficient for ELISA related to the DFAT was found to be 0.834 (95 % C. I. 0.613—1.0). For RIDT, the Kappa value was 0.170 (95 % C. I. 0.003—0.337). The ELISA is as reliable a diagnostic method as the DFAT which is the gold standard for rabies diagnosis. It has an advantage of being able to analyse large number of samples at the same time, making it more suitable for epidemiological studies and for laboratories that cannot perform the DFAT. The unsatisfactory result of RIDT in this study reiterates the need to perform an adequate test validation before it can be used in the laboratory for rabies diagnosis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • Direct Fluorescent Antibody Test
  • Enzyme Linked Immuno-Sorbent Assay
  • rabies
  • Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test
  • sensitivity
  • specificity
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Addition of Dried Blood Plasma to Feed of Minks During Lactation and Rearing of Kits

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 25 - 31

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Studies on the effects of dried blood plasma on certain health parameters of mink (of the pastel variety) were conducted during lactation and the rearing of the kits. The study included two groups of mink (control group and experimental group). Animals in the experimental group received 0.5 % of dry blood plasma and the control group did not receive the plasma supplement. From the whole blood of both groups the direct and indirect haematological indices were recorded. Also, in both groups, the histopathological and immunohistochemical studies were performed on the: liver, kidneys, lymph nodes, spleen, and intestinal segments. From the experimental group some of the organs examined demonstrated slightly altered histopathology.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood plasma
  • defensins
  • haematological markers
  • histopathological examination
  • immunohistochemistry
  • mink
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Avifauna of Lake Geča — Pilot Faunistic and Serological Study

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 32 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Lake Geča is located in the northern part of the Protected Bird Territory Košická kotlina. With a surface area of 250 ha it is the largest water area in the complex of a number of gravel lake areas located close to the villages Čaňa and Geča. From 2014—2016 we used the method of capture and ringing to focus on observations of transmigrating passerine birds species. This pilot study included serological testing of selected passerine species for the presence of specific antibodies to Usutu virus (USUV) by the virus neutralization test. During the field research we obtained 1077 data about ringed birds of 43 species. We received one report about the presence of a bird ringed in our study from another location in Slovakia, and 3 long distance (above 100 km) reports from Hungary, Czechia and Croatia. No specific antibodies against USUV were detected in the birds tested.

Schlüsselwörter

  • avifauna
  • Geča
  • bird-ringing
  • Usutu virus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Monitoring of 137CS and 40K in the Levice District, Southern Slovakia

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 38 - 43

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The contamination of the environment, soil and meat of wild animals with radionuclides can negatively affect human health. The aim of our study was to analyse the risk arising from post-Chernobyl contamination of the meat of wild boars (Sus scrofa) originating from the district Levice, southern Slovakia, with the radioactive artificial element 137Cs. The level of natural radionuclide 40K was also determined. We examined altogether 45 samples obtained from 9 wild boars hunted in this area during the period of 2013—2015. From each animal we collected and analysed samples from the thigh, stomach contents, stomach muscles and skin. We also examined samples of soil from the locations where these animals were shot. The activity values of radioactive caesium 137Cs determined in this study were very low and therefore the consumption of wild boar meat originating from this location presents no risk to human health.

Schlüsselwörter

  • contamination
  • Cs
  • K
  • radionuclides
  • soil
  • wild boar
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Crossing the Blood-Brain Barrier by Neuroinvasive Pathogens

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 44 - 51

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The penetration of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) are important steps for all neuroinvasive pathogens. All of the ways of pathogens passing through the BBB are still unclear. Among known pathways, pathogen traversal can occur paracellularly, transcellularly or using a “Trojan horse” mechanism. The first step of translocation across the BBB is the interactions of the pathogen’s ligands with the receptors of the host brain cells. Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in the temperate zones of Europe and North America, are caused by Borreliella species (former Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato) that affects the peripheral and the CNS. In this review, we have presented various pathogen interactions with endothelial cells, which allow the disruption of the BBB so that the pathogens can pass across the BBB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood-brain barrier
  • paracellular and transcellular passage
  • “Trojan horse“ mechanism
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Role of Meningococcal Porin B in Protein-Protein Interactions with Host Cells

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 52 - 58

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Neisseria meningitidis is a Gram-negative diplococcus responsible for bacterial meningitis and fatal sepsis. Ligand-receptor interactions are one of the main steps in the development of neuroinvasion. Porin B (PorB), neisserial outer membrane protein (ligand), binds to host receptors and triggers many cell signalling cascades allowing the meningococcus to damage the host cells or induce immune cells responses via the TLR2-dependent mechanisms. In this paper, we present a brief review of the structure and function of PorB.

Schlüsselwörter

  • PorB
  • protein
  • Toll-like receptor
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Permeability of the Blood-Brain Barrier and Transport of Nanobodies Across the Blood-Brain Barrier

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 59 - 66

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The presence of a blood-brain barrier (BBB) and a blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier presents animmense challenge for effective delivery of therapeutics to the central nervous system. Many potential drugs, which are effective at their site of action, have failed due to the lack of distribution in sufficient quantity to the central nervous system (CNS). In consequence, many diseases of the central nervous system remain undertreated. Antibodies, IgG for example, are difficult to deliver to the CNS due to their size (~155 kDa), physico-chemical properties and the presence of Fc receptor on the blood-brain barrier. Smaller antibodies, like the recently developed nanobodies, may overcome the obstacle of the BBB and enter into the CNS. The nanobodies are the smallest available antigen-binding fragments harbouring the full antigenbinding capacity of conventional antibodies. They represent a new generation of therapeutics with exceptional properties, such as: recognition of unique epitopes, target specificity, high affinity, high solubility, high stability and high expression yields in cost-effective recombinant production. Their ability to permeate across the BBBmakes thema promising alternative for central nervous system disease therapeutics. In this review, we have systematically presented different aspects of the BBB, drug delivery mechanisms employed to cross the BBB, and finally nanobodies — a potential therapeutic molecule against neuroinfections.

Schlüsselwörter

  • blood-brain barrier
  • carrier
  • nanobody
  • permeability
  • shuttle
  • transport
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Contribution of Pili of S. Pneumoniae in the Onset of Meningitis

Online veröffentlicht: 11 Apr 2018
Seitenbereich: 67 - 72

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Bacterial meningitis is a devastating worldwide disease. Half of the survivors of meningitis remain with permanent neurological sequelae. The pathogenesis of meningitis is based on a complex host-pathogen interaction. Streptococcus pneumoniae is a life-threatening neuroinvasive pathogen that asymptomatically colonizes the upper respiratory tract. Adherence of pneumococci to the host epithelium is a prerequisite in the onset of streptococcal infections; such adherence is favored by the formation of bacterial pili. In this article, we will describe the pneumococcal pili and its contribution to the onset of meningitis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • meningitis
  • pili

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