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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2453-7837
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 64 (2020): Heft 3 (September 2020)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2453-7837
Erstveröffentlichung
30 Mar 2016
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in Laughing Doves and the Risk of Spread to Backyard Poultry

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 1 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly infectious viral disease of birds caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and doves have been incriminated in previous outbreaks of the disease that have discouraged backyard poultry productions. This survey was done to detect and characterize the NDV from 184 swabs from the cloacae and pharynxes of 67 trapped laughing doves and 25 backyard poultry birds. The study utilized haemagglutination assay (HA) followed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests on HA positive samples to screen field samples. Conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was conducted on the HI positives to characterize the NDV. This study revealed that of 134 dove samples screened, 88 (65.7 %) were HA positive. Of these HA positives subjected to HI testing, 37 (42.1 %) were HI positive. Interestingly, 21 (56.8 %) of the HI positives were also RT-PCR positive: 8 lentogenic, 12 velogenic, while one had both lentogenic and velogenic NDV. Comparatively, of the 50 chicken samples screened, 23 (46 %) were HA positive; and of these, HA positives subjected to HI testing, 16 (69.6 %) were HI positive. Only 4 (25 %) of the HI positives were RTPCR positive: 3 lentogenic and a velogenic NDV. From this study it was concluded that laughing doves were demonstrated to be infected with either lentogenic or velogenic NDV or both. The use of red blood adsorption-de-adsorption concentration of NDV enhanced the RT-PCR detection using the fusion gene primers NDV-F 4829 and NDV-R 5031. The detection of not only lentogenic but velogenic NDV in laughing doves poses a great risk to backyard poultry production.

Schlüsselwörter

  • backyard poultry
  • laughing doves
  • molecular pathotyping
  • Newcastle disease virus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Response of Three Nigerian Breeds of Sheep Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma vivax to Diminazene Aceturate Therapy

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 13 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The efficacy of diminazene aceturate in three Nigerian breeds of sheep [West African Dwarf (WAD), Yankassa and Ouda] experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax was studied. Five rams of each breed were administered 0.5 ml of goat blood containing 2.5 × 106T. vivax per millilitre intravenously, while three rams of each breed served as uninfected controls. The treatment with diminazene aceturate was intramuscularly administered to the infected sheep, when their packed cell volume (PCV) fell to 15 %, at a dosage of 7 mg.kg−1 b. w. The parameters measured were parasitaemia, live weight gain and PCV. By 24 hours post treatment (pt.), no trypanosomes were detected by either the Haematocrit Concentration Technique (HCT) or the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the blood of any of the treated sheep. However, a relapse of parasitaemia occurred 17 to 32 days pt. in 46.7 % of the treated rams and these were retreated with 14 mg.kg−1 b. w. diminazene aceturate. There were gradual increments in the live weight gain and the PCV of the treated rams until the resurgence of parasitaemia. Ouda had the highest cases of relapse (80 %), the least mean live weight gain and was the only breed in which mortality was recorded despite the treatment. In conclusion, diminazene aceturate administered at 7 mg.kg−1 b. w. cleared the trypanosomes in the blood of all the treated sheep within 24 hours and this was accompanied by the restoration of lost weight and the reversal of anaemia. However, the subsequent resurgence of parasitaemia indicated that a dosage of 7 mg.kg−1 b. w. was no longer reliable for complete elimination of trypanosomes from all the tissues of the host.

Schlüsselwörter

  • breeds
  • diminazene aceturate
  • sheep
  • therapy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ultrastructure of Granulosa Cells of Bovine Ovarian Antral Follicles in Relation to Atresia

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 22 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the most common forms of ovarian follicle atresia in large antral follicles of cows and quantify the occurrence of different cell structures in each form. Atresia of antral follicles in ovaries was determined on the basis of ultrastructural images acquired by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate to visualize cell organelles. All forms of atresia in large follicles are accompanied by regressive changes of the granulosa cells. The initial form of atresia is characterized by enlarged intercellular spaces after the disruption of the gap junctions and desmosomes. Small collapsed cells with pyknotic nuclei, substantially reduced the cytoplasm and a higher incidence of lysosomes are located on the surface of the granulosa layer. The stratum granulosum wall collapses and the basal membrane is swollen with a rupture of the lamina basalis. Obliterative atresia is characterized by a multiplied loose connective tissue consisting of collagen fibers, fibroblasts, histiocytes, blood capillaries and sporadically granulocytes. The cystic form of atresia is characterized by small collapsed, pyknotic granulosa cells settled in one or two layers. In luteinization-associated atresia, granulosa cells are hypertrophied, their cytoplasm contains smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria with tubules. In conclusion, the initial atresia of large antral ovarian follicles is associated with processes of cell death, followed by multiplication of the loose connective tissue cells, its dystrophy and hyalinization of the collagen fibers. Ultrastructural examination could be used as a complementary method to improve histopathological diagnostics of cow reproductive organs in veterinary practice.

Schlüsselwörter

  • atresia
  • granulosa
  • ovarian follicle
  • ultrastructure
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effect of Low Dose of Cadmium on Growth, Reproduction and Chicken Viability

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 31 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is considered to be a highly polluting heavy metal with toxic effects on health and reproduction. In this study, the effects of low dose cadmium on growth, reproductive properties, and egg properties were studied. Cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 3 mg Cd.kg−1 was added as a feed supplement. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight, egg production, fertility, hatching, embryo and chick mortality, and egg quality characteristics. After 2 months of exposure to low doses of cadmium, the body weight increased in the cocks and did not change in the laying hens. Egg production was not affected, while fertility increased. The values of egg weight and hardness, thickness and shell weight were significantly higher (P < 0.05). The embryo mortality in the experimental group was lower (6.5 % vs. 12.8 %) compared to the control group. The hatching was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the loss in 7 day old chickens was similar to that in the control group. Although the toxic effects of cadmium on reproduction and accumulation in poultry bodies have been generally described, low-doses of cadmium given to adult hens and cocks has improved the reproductive parameters and qualitative properties of laying hen eggs. The results related to the reproduction and quality of eggs obtained in this study have the characteristics of the hormetic effects of low cadmium uptake.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cadmium
  • chicken
  • growth
  • low dose
  • reproductive performance
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Morphometric Study of Microscopic Cysts of Sarcocystis Sp. in Sheep Carcasses

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 38 - 46

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Muscular samples of the oesophagus and diaphragm of 335 sheep collected from the slaughterhouse of El Harrach were analyzed by the histopathological method to describe the morphology of two species of Sarcocystis: S. arieticanis and S. tenella. The cysts were counted and measured with a micrometer for their dimensions. A total of 895 cysts were measured. The width, length, shape index (length/width), the thickness of the wall and the length of the projections were recorded. The thick-walled cysts of S. tenella were 10—450 μm long (the mean ± SD value was 50.35 μm ± 1.380) and 1—110 μm (the mean ± SD value was 27.51 μm ± 0.533) wide. The cyst walls were 0.5—4 μm thick (the mean ± SD value was 1.547 μm ± 0.020) and provided with radial striations. The shape index was 1—14 μm (the mean ± SD value was 1.93 ± 0.045). While in the S. arieticanis, the cyst wall was thin and had long hair-like protrusions, the cysts measured 8—780 μm (the mean ± SD value was 123.13 μm ± 12.799) in length and 5—100 μm (the mean ± SD value was 37.00 μm ± 1.68) in width. The hair-like protrusions reached a length of 3—14 μm (the mean ± SD value was 5.428 ± 0.353) and the shape index was 1—17 μm (the mean ± SD value was 3.10 ± 0.281). For the length, the width and the shape index, the differences were statistically significant between thin-walled cysts and thick-walled cysts. The general structural features of the cysts, previously described by other authors, were confirmed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • histopathological method
  • sheep
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ectoparasites Ctenocephalides (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae) in the Composition of Mixed Infestations in Domestic Dogs from Poltava, Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 47 - 53

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the most common ectoparasites on domestic carnivores are fleas from the genus Ctenocephalides. This group of blood sucking insects are one of the most important in medical and veterinary terms, as they can serve as carriers of dangerous infectious and may cause other invasive diseases. Research studies have established a variety of fleas and other contagions parasitizing domestic dogs in Poltava, Ukraine. Certain peculiarities of these ectoparasitic studies, as a part of mixed infestations of dogs, have recently been determined. The results of the studies have shown that the species composition of the fleas was represented by two main species. The dominant species was Ct. felis, and their prevalence was 36.05 %. Another species (Ct. canis) was diagnosed less often and had a prevalence of 27.94 %. It was found that in 31.18 % of the dogs, the blood-sucking insects were mostly parasitizing in the form of an associations with: nematoda (Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala), Cestoda (Dipylidium caninum), protozoa (Cystoisospora canis), and another ectoparasite (Trichodectes canis). Overall, 33 types of mixed infestations were detected. Moreover, the number of different parasitic species in each dog ranged from one to seven. Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides (in the composition of two species of parasites) were registered the most often (14.60 %). The infestation of dogs with other forms of mixed infestations was 0.69—8.01 %. The most frequent co-members for Ct. felis were Cestoda [D. caninum (13.47 %)], for Ct. canisCestoda [D. caninum (11.23 %)] and Nematoda [T. vulpis (8.29 %)].

Schlüsselwörter

  • cohabitants
  • domestic dog
  • fleas
  • mixed infestation
  • prevalence
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tetanus in Animals — Summary of Knowledge

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 54 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Tetanus is a neurologic non-transmissible disease (often fatal) of humans and other animals with a worldwide occurrence. Clostridium tetani is the spore producing bacillus which causes the bacterial disease. In deep penetrating wounds the spores germinate and produce a toxin called tetanospasmin. The main characteristic sign of tetanus is a spastic paralysis. A diagnosis is usually based on the clinical signs because the detection in the wound and the cultivation of C. tetani is very difficult. Between animal species there is considerable variability in the susceptibility to the bacillus. The most sensitive animal species to the neurotoxin are horses. Sheep and cattle are less sensitive and tetanus in these animal species are less common. Tetanus in cats and dogs are rare and dogs are less sensitive than cats. Clinically two forms of tetanus have been recognized, i. e. localized and generalized. The available treatment is not specific because the toxin in neuronal cells cannot be accessed by antitoxin antibodies. The aim of the therapy is to: neutralise the unbound neurotoxin, inhibit C. tetani growth in the wound, and provide supportive care to mitigate the effects of the neurotoxin. The treatment is difficult with an unclear prognosis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • animal
  • toxin
  • spasm
  • treatment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Epidemiological and Comparative Diagnostic Study of Anaplasma Spp. Infection in Goats from North-Eastern Algeria

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 61 - 74

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease affecting goats and other ruminants. Our goal was to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. infections, and to identify different tick species in goa ts along with their associated risk factors. The epidemiology of Anaplasma spp. (A. ovis/A. marginale) was investigated from April to September 2016 in dairy goats from three different agro-ecological areas in the northeast region of Algeria (Guelma and El-Taref). We tested 182 goat sera using a MSP5 competitive ELISA (cELISA) test for IgG antibody screening, and by microscopic examination using the Giemsa (May-Greunwald-Giemsa) stain of 128 blood smears to detect intraerythrocytic inclusions bodies. The results demonstrated a total infection rate of 78.02 % and 42.18 % using cELISA and MGG, respectively. Only two species of ticks collected were identified, i. e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (85.39 %) and Rhipicephalus bursa (14.60 %). Our study revealed that factors, such as the season, the type of farming, the hygienic status and the climatic conditions of the studied areas were found to be significantly associated with the tick infestation of goats (P < 0.05). The Anaplasma spp. infection prevalence was found to be highly dependent on the climatic conditions, the season (P < 0.05) and most closely related to the type of breeding and herd management (P = 0.000).

The evaluation of the Giemsa technique showed specificity and sensitivity of 60.71 % and 45.16 % respectively. Calculating the concordance between the two techniques revealed Cohen’s Kappa value of 0.038 in the range 0.21—0.40, which corresponded to a very low agreement. The McNemar test results showed that both tests gave significantly different results (P < 0.05). This work provides evidence for Anaplasma spp. in goats from north-eastern Algeria.

Schlüsselwörter

  • caprine anaplasmosis
  • cELISA
  • epidemiology
  • MGG staining
  • ticks
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Canine Dirofilariasis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 75 - 81

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Dirofilariasis is a disease of clinical importance in dogs. It is to this end that a case of a seven-year-old mongrel with dirofilariasis was presented to examine the unique features and presentation in the canine patient in question. The dog had clinical signs consistent with the disease. Further diagnostic tests were performed to establish the presence and severity of the disease and make an appropriate treatment plan. The Knott’s test revealed Dirofilaria species in the circulating blood and radiography showed right ventricular hypertrophy with pulmonary arterial enlargement and increased bronchial opacification. The treatment instituted was ivermectin therapy by subcutaneous injection every two weeks for six months, cardiac glycoside and antibiotics for 14 days. The clinical signs resolved after completion of the treatment. A general overview of heartworm infection in dogs was also done to update current knowledge of the disease. Though the risk of significant propagation of Dirofilaria immitis is considered low, with the climate change and international pet travel regulations, this emerging zoonosis remains a threat.

Schlüsselwörter

  • case report
  • dog
  • Nigeria
  • zoonosis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Individual Water Sources and their Potential Effect on Human and Animal Health in Environmentally Burdened Region

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 82 - 94

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The quality of water in a well that serves as an individual drinking water source, located in the Slovakian region previously burdened with mining activities, was investigated in relation to the quality of surface water in the same region. Selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters were determined in samples of ground water (well) and surface water (brook and river). Plate counts of coliform bacteria, E. coli, enterococci and bacteria cultivated at 22 °C and 37 °C were determined. Microbiological quality of samples collected from the well was generally satisfactory. Examination of the samples of surface water (river) showed a significant organic pollution indicated by fluorescence spectra. In all water samples the values of: pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium ions, nitrites, nitrates, chlorides and chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) were below the limits set by the state legislation. In the surface water, high levels of arsenic were found. The sum of calcium and magnesium in the well water was close to or below the recommended minimum level. In this well water, the level of antimony exceeded 10-fold the maximum limit for drinking water and was of the largest concern as this well water has been used for drinking, cooking, and watering of animals and vegetables for a long period of time. This poses a risk of accumulation of this metalloid in the food chain.

Schlüsselwörter

  • antimony
  • arsenic
  • drinking water
  • ground water
  • health risk
  • surface water
10 Artikel
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Detection of Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV) in Laughing Doves and the Risk of Spread to Backyard Poultry

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 1 - 12

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Newcastle disease (ND) is a highly infectious viral disease of birds caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and doves have been incriminated in previous outbreaks of the disease that have discouraged backyard poultry productions. This survey was done to detect and characterize the NDV from 184 swabs from the cloacae and pharynxes of 67 trapped laughing doves and 25 backyard poultry birds. The study utilized haemagglutination assay (HA) followed by haemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests on HA positive samples to screen field samples. Conventional reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was conducted on the HI positives to characterize the NDV. This study revealed that of 134 dove samples screened, 88 (65.7 %) were HA positive. Of these HA positives subjected to HI testing, 37 (42.1 %) were HI positive. Interestingly, 21 (56.8 %) of the HI positives were also RT-PCR positive: 8 lentogenic, 12 velogenic, while one had both lentogenic and velogenic NDV. Comparatively, of the 50 chicken samples screened, 23 (46 %) were HA positive; and of these, HA positives subjected to HI testing, 16 (69.6 %) were HI positive. Only 4 (25 %) of the HI positives were RTPCR positive: 3 lentogenic and a velogenic NDV. From this study it was concluded that laughing doves were demonstrated to be infected with either lentogenic or velogenic NDV or both. The use of red blood adsorption-de-adsorption concentration of NDV enhanced the RT-PCR detection using the fusion gene primers NDV-F 4829 and NDV-R 5031. The detection of not only lentogenic but velogenic NDV in laughing doves poses a great risk to backyard poultry production.

Schlüsselwörter

  • backyard poultry
  • laughing doves
  • molecular pathotyping
  • Newcastle disease virus
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Response of Three Nigerian Breeds of Sheep Experimentally Infected with Trypanosoma vivax to Diminazene Aceturate Therapy

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 13 - 21

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The efficacy of diminazene aceturate in three Nigerian breeds of sheep [West African Dwarf (WAD), Yankassa and Ouda] experimentally infected with Trypanosoma vivax was studied. Five rams of each breed were administered 0.5 ml of goat blood containing 2.5 × 106T. vivax per millilitre intravenously, while three rams of each breed served as uninfected controls. The treatment with diminazene aceturate was intramuscularly administered to the infected sheep, when their packed cell volume (PCV) fell to 15 %, at a dosage of 7 mg.kg−1 b. w. The parameters measured were parasitaemia, live weight gain and PCV. By 24 hours post treatment (pt.), no trypanosomes were detected by either the Haematocrit Concentration Technique (HCT) or the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in the blood of any of the treated sheep. However, a relapse of parasitaemia occurred 17 to 32 days pt. in 46.7 % of the treated rams and these were retreated with 14 mg.kg−1 b. w. diminazene aceturate. There were gradual increments in the live weight gain and the PCV of the treated rams until the resurgence of parasitaemia. Ouda had the highest cases of relapse (80 %), the least mean live weight gain and was the only breed in which mortality was recorded despite the treatment. In conclusion, diminazene aceturate administered at 7 mg.kg−1 b. w. cleared the trypanosomes in the blood of all the treated sheep within 24 hours and this was accompanied by the restoration of lost weight and the reversal of anaemia. However, the subsequent resurgence of parasitaemia indicated that a dosage of 7 mg.kg−1 b. w. was no longer reliable for complete elimination of trypanosomes from all the tissues of the host.

Schlüsselwörter

  • breeds
  • diminazene aceturate
  • sheep
  • therapy
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ultrastructure of Granulosa Cells of Bovine Ovarian Antral Follicles in Relation to Atresia

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 22 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The aim of this study was to describe the most common forms of ovarian follicle atresia in large antral follicles of cows and quantify the occurrence of different cell structures in each form. Atresia of antral follicles in ovaries was determined on the basis of ultrastructural images acquired by electron microscopy of ultrathin sections contrasted with uranyl acetate and lead citrate to visualize cell organelles. All forms of atresia in large follicles are accompanied by regressive changes of the granulosa cells. The initial form of atresia is characterized by enlarged intercellular spaces after the disruption of the gap junctions and desmosomes. Small collapsed cells with pyknotic nuclei, substantially reduced the cytoplasm and a higher incidence of lysosomes are located on the surface of the granulosa layer. The stratum granulosum wall collapses and the basal membrane is swollen with a rupture of the lamina basalis. Obliterative atresia is characterized by a multiplied loose connective tissue consisting of collagen fibers, fibroblasts, histiocytes, blood capillaries and sporadically granulocytes. The cystic form of atresia is characterized by small collapsed, pyknotic granulosa cells settled in one or two layers. In luteinization-associated atresia, granulosa cells are hypertrophied, their cytoplasm contains smooth endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria with tubules. In conclusion, the initial atresia of large antral ovarian follicles is associated with processes of cell death, followed by multiplication of the loose connective tissue cells, its dystrophy and hyalinization of the collagen fibers. Ultrastructural examination could be used as a complementary method to improve histopathological diagnostics of cow reproductive organs in veterinary practice.

Schlüsselwörter

  • atresia
  • granulosa
  • ovarian follicle
  • ultrastructure
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The Effect of Low Dose of Cadmium on Growth, Reproduction and Chicken Viability

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 31 - 37

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Cadmium (Cd) is considered to be a highly polluting heavy metal with toxic effects on health and reproduction. In this study, the effects of low dose cadmium on growth, reproductive properties, and egg properties were studied. Cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 3 mg Cd.kg−1 was added as a feed supplement. The following parameters were evaluated: body weight, egg production, fertility, hatching, embryo and chick mortality, and egg quality characteristics. After 2 months of exposure to low doses of cadmium, the body weight increased in the cocks and did not change in the laying hens. Egg production was not affected, while fertility increased. The values of egg weight and hardness, thickness and shell weight were significantly higher (P < 0.05). The embryo mortality in the experimental group was lower (6.5 % vs. 12.8 %) compared to the control group. The hatching was significantly higher (P < 0.05) and the loss in 7 day old chickens was similar to that in the control group. Although the toxic effects of cadmium on reproduction and accumulation in poultry bodies have been generally described, low-doses of cadmium given to adult hens and cocks has improved the reproductive parameters and qualitative properties of laying hen eggs. The results related to the reproduction and quality of eggs obtained in this study have the characteristics of the hormetic effects of low cadmium uptake.

Schlüsselwörter

  • cadmium
  • chicken
  • growth
  • low dose
  • reproductive performance
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Morphometric Study of Microscopic Cysts of Sarcocystis Sp. in Sheep Carcasses

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 38 - 46

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Muscular samples of the oesophagus and diaphragm of 335 sheep collected from the slaughterhouse of El Harrach were analyzed by the histopathological method to describe the morphology of two species of Sarcocystis: S. arieticanis and S. tenella. The cysts were counted and measured with a micrometer for their dimensions. A total of 895 cysts were measured. The width, length, shape index (length/width), the thickness of the wall and the length of the projections were recorded. The thick-walled cysts of S. tenella were 10—450 μm long (the mean ± SD value was 50.35 μm ± 1.380) and 1—110 μm (the mean ± SD value was 27.51 μm ± 0.533) wide. The cyst walls were 0.5—4 μm thick (the mean ± SD value was 1.547 μm ± 0.020) and provided with radial striations. The shape index was 1—14 μm (the mean ± SD value was 1.93 ± 0.045). While in the S. arieticanis, the cyst wall was thin and had long hair-like protrusions, the cysts measured 8—780 μm (the mean ± SD value was 123.13 μm ± 12.799) in length and 5—100 μm (the mean ± SD value was 37.00 μm ± 1.68) in width. The hair-like protrusions reached a length of 3—14 μm (the mean ± SD value was 5.428 ± 0.353) and the shape index was 1—17 μm (the mean ± SD value was 3.10 ± 0.281). For the length, the width and the shape index, the differences were statistically significant between thin-walled cysts and thick-walled cysts. The general structural features of the cysts, previously described by other authors, were confirmed.

Schlüsselwörter

  • histopathological method
  • sheep
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Ectoparasites Ctenocephalides (Siphonaptera, Pulicidae) in the Composition of Mixed Infestations in Domestic Dogs from Poltava, Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 47 - 53

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

One of the most common ectoparasites on domestic carnivores are fleas from the genus Ctenocephalides. This group of blood sucking insects are one of the most important in medical and veterinary terms, as they can serve as carriers of dangerous infectious and may cause other invasive diseases. Research studies have established a variety of fleas and other contagions parasitizing domestic dogs in Poltava, Ukraine. Certain peculiarities of these ectoparasitic studies, as a part of mixed infestations of dogs, have recently been determined. The results of the studies have shown that the species composition of the fleas was represented by two main species. The dominant species was Ct. felis, and their prevalence was 36.05 %. Another species (Ct. canis) was diagnosed less often and had a prevalence of 27.94 %. It was found that in 31.18 % of the dogs, the blood-sucking insects were mostly parasitizing in the form of an associations with: nematoda (Toxocara canis, Trichuris vulpis, Uncinaria stenocephala), Cestoda (Dipylidium caninum), protozoa (Cystoisospora canis), and another ectoparasite (Trichodectes canis). Overall, 33 types of mixed infestations were detected. Moreover, the number of different parasitic species in each dog ranged from one to seven. Fleas of the genus Ctenocephalides (in the composition of two species of parasites) were registered the most often (14.60 %). The infestation of dogs with other forms of mixed infestations was 0.69—8.01 %. The most frequent co-members for Ct. felis were Cestoda [D. caninum (13.47 %)], for Ct. canisCestoda [D. caninum (11.23 %)] and Nematoda [T. vulpis (8.29 %)].

Schlüsselwörter

  • cohabitants
  • domestic dog
  • fleas
  • mixed infestation
  • prevalence
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Tetanus in Animals — Summary of Knowledge

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 54 - 60

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Tetanus is a neurologic non-transmissible disease (often fatal) of humans and other animals with a worldwide occurrence. Clostridium tetani is the spore producing bacillus which causes the bacterial disease. In deep penetrating wounds the spores germinate and produce a toxin called tetanospasmin. The main characteristic sign of tetanus is a spastic paralysis. A diagnosis is usually based on the clinical signs because the detection in the wound and the cultivation of C. tetani is very difficult. Between animal species there is considerable variability in the susceptibility to the bacillus. The most sensitive animal species to the neurotoxin are horses. Sheep and cattle are less sensitive and tetanus in these animal species are less common. Tetanus in cats and dogs are rare and dogs are less sensitive than cats. Clinically two forms of tetanus have been recognized, i. e. localized and generalized. The available treatment is not specific because the toxin in neuronal cells cannot be accessed by antitoxin antibodies. The aim of the therapy is to: neutralise the unbound neurotoxin, inhibit C. tetani growth in the wound, and provide supportive care to mitigate the effects of the neurotoxin. The treatment is difficult with an unclear prognosis.

Schlüsselwörter

  • animal
  • toxin
  • spasm
  • treatment
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Epidemiological and Comparative Diagnostic Study of Anaplasma Spp. Infection in Goats from North-Eastern Algeria

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 61 - 74

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Anaplasmosis is an infectious disease affecting goats and other ruminants. Our goal was to estimate the prevalence of Anaplasma spp. infections, and to identify different tick species in goa ts along with their associated risk factors. The epidemiology of Anaplasma spp. (A. ovis/A. marginale) was investigated from April to September 2016 in dairy goats from three different agro-ecological areas in the northeast region of Algeria (Guelma and El-Taref). We tested 182 goat sera using a MSP5 competitive ELISA (cELISA) test for IgG antibody screening, and by microscopic examination using the Giemsa (May-Greunwald-Giemsa) stain of 128 blood smears to detect intraerythrocytic inclusions bodies. The results demonstrated a total infection rate of 78.02 % and 42.18 % using cELISA and MGG, respectively. Only two species of ticks collected were identified, i. e. Rhipicephalus sanguineus (85.39 %) and Rhipicephalus bursa (14.60 %). Our study revealed that factors, such as the season, the type of farming, the hygienic status and the climatic conditions of the studied areas were found to be significantly associated with the tick infestation of goats (P < 0.05). The Anaplasma spp. infection prevalence was found to be highly dependent on the climatic conditions, the season (P < 0.05) and most closely related to the type of breeding and herd management (P = 0.000).

The evaluation of the Giemsa technique showed specificity and sensitivity of 60.71 % and 45.16 % respectively. Calculating the concordance between the two techniques revealed Cohen’s Kappa value of 0.038 in the range 0.21—0.40, which corresponded to a very low agreement. The McNemar test results showed that both tests gave significantly different results (P < 0.05). This work provides evidence for Anaplasma spp. in goats from north-eastern Algeria.

Schlüsselwörter

  • caprine anaplasmosis
  • cELISA
  • epidemiology
  • MGG staining
  • ticks
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Canine Dirofilariasis: A Case Report and Review of the Literature

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 75 - 81

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Dirofilariasis is a disease of clinical importance in dogs. It is to this end that a case of a seven-year-old mongrel with dirofilariasis was presented to examine the unique features and presentation in the canine patient in question. The dog had clinical signs consistent with the disease. Further diagnostic tests were performed to establish the presence and severity of the disease and make an appropriate treatment plan. The Knott’s test revealed Dirofilaria species in the circulating blood and radiography showed right ventricular hypertrophy with pulmonary arterial enlargement and increased bronchial opacification. The treatment instituted was ivermectin therapy by subcutaneous injection every two weeks for six months, cardiac glycoside and antibiotics for 14 days. The clinical signs resolved after completion of the treatment. A general overview of heartworm infection in dogs was also done to update current knowledge of the disease. Though the risk of significant propagation of Dirofilaria immitis is considered low, with the climate change and international pet travel regulations, this emerging zoonosis remains a threat.

Schlüsselwörter

  • case report
  • dog
  • Nigeria
  • zoonosis
Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Individual Water Sources and their Potential Effect on Human and Animal Health in Environmentally Burdened Region

Online veröffentlicht: 06 Oct 2020
Seitenbereich: 82 - 94

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The quality of water in a well that serves as an individual drinking water source, located in the Slovakian region previously burdened with mining activities, was investigated in relation to the quality of surface water in the same region. Selected microbiological and physicochemical parameters were determined in samples of ground water (well) and surface water (brook and river). Plate counts of coliform bacteria, E. coli, enterococci and bacteria cultivated at 22 °C and 37 °C were determined. Microbiological quality of samples collected from the well was generally satisfactory. Examination of the samples of surface water (river) showed a significant organic pollution indicated by fluorescence spectra. In all water samples the values of: pH, electrical conductivity, dissolved oxygen, ammonium ions, nitrites, nitrates, chlorides and chemical oxygen demand (CODMn) were below the limits set by the state legislation. In the surface water, high levels of arsenic were found. The sum of calcium and magnesium in the well water was close to or below the recommended minimum level. In this well water, the level of antimony exceeded 10-fold the maximum limit for drinking water and was of the largest concern as this well water has been used for drinking, cooking, and watering of animals and vegetables for a long period of time. This poses a risk of accumulation of this metalloid in the food chain.

Schlüsselwörter

  • antimony
  • arsenic
  • drinking water
  • ground water
  • health risk
  • surface water

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