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Volumen 9 (2021): Heft 3 (September 2021)

Volumen 9 (2021): Heft 2 (June 2021)

Volumen 9 (2021): Heft 1 (March 2021)

Volumen 8 (2020): Heft 4 (December 2020)

Volumen 8 (2020): Heft 3 (September 2020)

Volumen 8 (2020): Heft 2 (June 2020)

Volumen 8 (2020): Heft 1 (March 2020)

Volumen 7 (2019): Heft 4 (December 2019)

Volumen 7 (2019): Heft 3 (September 2019)

Volumen 7 (2019): Heft 2 (June 2019)

Volumen 7 (2019): Heft 1 (March 2019)

Volumen 6 (2018): Heft 4 (December 2018)

Volumen 6 (2018): Heft 3 (September 2018)

Volumen 6 (2018): Heft 2 (June 2018)

Volumen 6 (2018): Heft 1 (March 2018)

Volumen 5 (2017): Heft 4 (December 2017)

Volumen 5 (2017): Heft 3 (September 2017)

Volumen 5 (2017): Heft 2 (June 2017)

Volumen 5 (2017): Heft 1 (March 2017)

Volumen 4 (2016): Heft 4 (December 2016)

Volumen 4 (2016): Heft 3 (September 2016)

Volumen 4 (2016): Heft 2 (June 2016)

Volumen 4 (2016): Heft 1 (March 2016)

Volumen 3 (2015): Heft 4 (December 2015)

Volumen 3 (2015): Heft 3 (September 2015)

Volumen 3 (2015): Heft 2 (June 2015)

Volumen 3 (2015): Heft 1 (March 2015)

Volumen 2 (2014): Heft 4 (December 2014)

Volumen 2 (2014): Heft 3 (September 2014)

Volumen 2 (2014): Heft 2 (June 2014)

Volumen 2 (2014): Heft 1 (March 2014)

Volumen 1 (2013): Heft 4 (December 2013)

Volumen 1 (2013): Heft 3 (September 2013)

Volumen 1 (2013): Heft 2 (June 2013)

Volumen 1 (2013): Heft 1 (March 2013)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2354-0079
Erstveröffentlichung
15 Apr 2013
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 4 (2016): Heft 3 (September 2016)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2354-0079
Erstveröffentlichung
15 Apr 2013
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

7 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 1 - 9

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

Schlüsselwörter

  • wood waste
  • sustainability
  • sawdust
  • waste utilization
  • wood resources
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The regional differentiation of the demographic movements in the Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 10 - 20

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Republic of Macedonia covers an area of 25,713 km² and according to data from the census conducted in 2002, it has a population of 2,022,547 inhabitants. In the past, the Republic of Macedonia was characterized by some significant demographic changes, including a decline in the average annual rate of population increase. The enhanced immigration movements and sudden decline in the rates of natural population increase have led to changes in distribution of the population and to a spatial differentiation in the population. The long period of transition in the country has been reflected in the spatial development of the country and its demographic processes and to relocation of the population. The different natural-geographical characteristics, unequal regional development potentials, unequal economic development, and demographic characteristics have led to changes in the demographic situation of certain regions. The regions that continually lose part of its population clearly differ from these regions that are characterized by an increased population which is leading to a greater concentration of people in certain location. Further decades with a declining birth rate, followed by a change in the values of population increase, together with migration movements, particularly from the rural and less developed economic regions, has resulted in a decline in the population. The different zones of depopulation and concentration in a simple way express the complex relationships in the population composition.

Schlüsselwörter

  • emigration
  • immigration
  • regionalization
  • spatial development
  • Macedonia
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Induced seismicity: a geo-ecological problem of a technogenic nature

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 21 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A debatable problem of the display of induced seismicity and its causes during the construction of reservoirs (Reservoir Induced Seismicity - RIS) is considered on the basis of an analysis of various publications. This paper describes the history of the evolution of ideas about the possibility of the activation of seismic events in the zones of influence of artificial reservoirs and examples of such activation in aseismic areas, which is a medium geological response to technogenic interference (e.g. Shivajisagar reservoir in West India, Mead reservoir in the USA, Danjiangkou Reservoir in central China, Nurek reservoir in Central Asia, Chirkey reservoir in Dagestan and other). The problem and reasons of induced seismicity (RIS) are debatable. however, published examples demonstrate the existence of this process. For reservoirs with different amounts of water RIS is an inseparable component of the natural and man-made geological process. The world statistics knows cases of seismicity intensification in areas near small man-made reservoirs with low pressure levels (Belecha in former Yugoslavia, Marathon in Greece, Grandval in France). In addition, it was found that the number of local earthquakes increased after creating a cascade of three small water reservoirs (Studen Kladenets, Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad) in the basin of The Arda river (Bulgaria). The RIS examples listed above allow us to think that it is not only the creation of large reservoirs that change (in some cases, intensifies) the local seismicity in the surrounding area. No reservoir, no matter what size it is, is insured from such geological process. At the present time there are more than 100 places in the world with displays of induced seismicity due to reservoir construction. In India there are up to eight reservoirs with these problems. Induced seismicity associated with the influence of man-made water reservoirs, causes a specific geo-ecological risks to the surrounding areas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • induced seismicity
  • artificial water reservoir
  • earthquake
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Honey bee: a consumer’s point of view

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 26 - 32

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article concerns the way bee products are perceived by customers. It is mainly focused on honey, which is considered the main output product of beekeeping. Beekeeping is a very popular activity in the Czech Republic. Based on current data there are over 48 thousand people engaged in beekeeping in the Czech Republic. Hand in hand with the increasing number of beekeepers the popularity of bee products - especially honey - among Czech consumers is also growing. Recently, the consumption of honey in the Czech Republic has been slightly increasing. A big problem today is that honey sold in Czech supermarkets is frequently falsified. At the same time, it is increasingly popular to buy honey directly from beekeepers. The aim of this research was to describe the situation about the honey market in the Czech Republic, and also to examine the relationship between consumers on the one hand, and honey/beekeepers on the other. We have also considered customer's trust in organic honey and honey sold in supermarket chains. Results show that consumers view bee products as generally healthy and prefer to buy bee products from a beekeeper because of greater convenience as locally sourced honey is perceived to be of higher quality. The majority of consumers agree with paying a higher price for a product of higher quality. The article confirmed the hypothesis that most people think that bee products sold by a beekeeper are healthier than those bought at ordinary shops.

Schlüsselwörter

  • beekeeping products
  • consumers
  • honey buyers’ behaviour
  • market analysis
  • honey
  • Czech Republic
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Enigmatic glacigenic ridges from the Odra Glaciation in the vicinity of Krzepice (Woźniki-Wieluń Upland, Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 33 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The central part of the Woźniki-Wieluń Upland is characterised by mature old glacial landforms associated with the Middle- Polish Glaciations. In some areas, however, more pronounced post-glacial landforms can be observed that were remodelled by later morphogenetic processes to a lesser extent. To the south-east of Krzepice, in the vicinity of Dolisko, there is an extensive depression in which twelve parallel ridges can be found. In terms of their morphology and location as well as due to their relationship to the surrounding landforms, the ridges examined resemble forms that would be referred to as drumlins, glaciotectonic forms or glacial curvilineations in late glacial areas. The material presented is the result of the initial research stage. The studies conducted in this stage involved primarily geomorphological mapping supplemented by an analysis of landforms on a shaded relief model and on an orthophotomap. At the current stage of studies on the glacigenic landforms in the vicinity of Dolisko, three scenarios concerning their origins have been put forward that need to be verified. The first scenario involves glaciotectonic origins, the second assumes that they were formed in the same manner as classic drumlins, fluted moraines or longitudinal squeeze ridges, and the third scenario assumes that they have the same origins as glacial curvilineations. The group of glacigenic ridges discussed is a glacial landform unique in southern Poland.

Schlüsselwörter

  • glaciotectonics
  • drumlins
  • glacial curvilineations
  • Odra Glaciation
  • Quaternary substrate relief
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Urban agglomerations and transformations of medium-sized towns in Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 41 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This analysis investigates medium-sized towns in Poland, i.e. those with a population between 20–100 thousand, located up to 100 km away from the main city of the agglomeration. The aim of this article is to compare the level of socio-economic development of Polish towns depending on their location in relation to the main city in the largest agglomerations in 1998 and 2013. Three zones of distance from the main city of each agglomeration have been taken into consideration: a. the inner zone, reaching up to 25 km from the main city; b. the outer zone located at a distance of 25 to 50 km from the main city, and c. the peripheral zone, located at a distance of 50 to 100 km from the main city and including the medium-size towns located outside the agglomeration system. This analysis of the distribution of medium-sized towns and their level of socio-economic development has shown various levels of changes which depend on the distance from the main city of the agglomeration. In 1998, the highest level of development of the medium-sized towns was recorded in towns outside of these agglomeration systems, i.e. those located most remotely from the main city (peripheral zone). Most of the medium-sized towns are situated at a distance of 50–100 km from Warszawa, Kraków, Łódź, Lublin, Gdańsk and have developed their own local, or even regional labour markets and some of them have even provided administrative functions in the past as voivodeship capitals. Only in the Poznań agglomeration, the level of development of medium-sized towns was higher in the immediate surroundings of the main city (25 km). The medium-sized towns in all zones of the distance from the main city in the Wrocław agglomeration represented a similar level of development. By 2013, the level of development of the medium-sized towns in the peripheral zone in all investigated settlement systems had decreased, with a significant improvement in the level of development of the towns in the immediate surroundings of the main city. Such situation occurs especially in the conurbation of Gdańsk and the agglomerations of Warszawa, Kraków and Poznań. This shows that the largest cities of Poland are the main engines of economic development by stimulating their surroundings and their impact on the surrounding areas. Unfortunately, the towns located in the marginal zones of several agglomerations (the zone 25–50 km away from the main city) experience certain disadvantages, such as the process of “the backwash effect”. Furthermore, the lack of developmental impulses is observed in many medium-sized towns at the distance of 50-100 km from the main city of the agglomeration.

Schlüsselwörter

  • medium-sized towns
  • agglomerations
  • population dynamics
  • the level of socio-economic development
  • Poland
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The volume of wet and dry atmospheric deposition in the area around Goczałkowice Reservoir between 2011–2013

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 56 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Research on wet and dry pollution deposition was carried out at two measurement points situated on opposite sides of the Goczałkowice Reservoir. On the east side was a station in Goczałkowice and on the west side was a station in Frelichów. Meteorological monitoring was conducted at four points situated in the vicinity of the reservoir. On the basis of the research carried out between 2011–2013 it was concluded that the size of dry and wet deposition in the area of the Goczałkowice Reservoir is diversified in particular years, seasons and months. Due to high precipitation and biological processes (activity of flora and fauna) the pollutant loads in the form of biogenic compounds (nitrogen and phosphorus) are the highest in the summer season. Whereas pollutant inputs in the form of dry deposition are highest in the winter season (heating season), which in the case of a thick ice and snow cover in the spring time causes their accumulation and increased input into the reservoir water (thawing weather, snow-melt season). In relation to the 1970s the size of the deposition became smaller, but in the case of biogenic compounds it was diversified. A decrease was observed in the case of total nitrogen but an increase in the case of phosphorus. On the basis of a comparison of the received results with the data provided by the Provincial Inspector for Environmental Protection and calculated for the annual area deposition of the Pszczyna district in 2011 it appears that deposition of total nitrogen in the reservoir area slightly exceeded the area value. In the case of total phosphorus in relation to the area data the deposition was over twice as high, which indicates that biogenic compounds are still a significant load of atmospheric deposition in the reservoir area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • meteorological conditions
  • biogenic compounds
  • precipitation
  • Silesia
  • Vistula River
7 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Sustainable wood waste management in Nigeria

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 1 - 9

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Wood industries produce large volumes of residues which must be utilized, marketed or properly disposed of. Heaps of wood residues are common features in wood industries throughout the year. In Nigeria, this residue is generally regarded as waste and this has led to open burning practices, dumping in water bodies or dumping in an open area which constitutes environmental pollution. Sawmills in Nigeria generated over 1,000,000 m3 of wood waste in 2010 while about 5000 m3 of waste was generated in plywood mills. Nigeria generates about 1.8 million tons of sawdust annually and 5.2 million tons of wood wastes. The impact of improper disposal of waste wood on the environment affects both the aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Also burning of waste wood releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere causing various health issues. Reuse/recycling of these wood residues in Nigeria will reduce the pressure on our ever decreasing forests, reduce environmental pollution, create wealth and employment. The literature available on this subject was reviewed and this article, therefore, focuses on the various methods of wood waste disposal and its utilization in Nigerian wood industries, the effects of wood waste on the environment as well as on human health and the benefits of proper wood waste management practices.

Schlüsselwörter

  • wood waste
  • sustainability
  • sawdust
  • waste utilization
  • wood resources
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The regional differentiation of the demographic movements in the Republic of Macedonia

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 10 - 20

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The Republic of Macedonia covers an area of 25,713 km² and according to data from the census conducted in 2002, it has a population of 2,022,547 inhabitants. In the past, the Republic of Macedonia was characterized by some significant demographic changes, including a decline in the average annual rate of population increase. The enhanced immigration movements and sudden decline in the rates of natural population increase have led to changes in distribution of the population and to a spatial differentiation in the population. The long period of transition in the country has been reflected in the spatial development of the country and its demographic processes and to relocation of the population. The different natural-geographical characteristics, unequal regional development potentials, unequal economic development, and demographic characteristics have led to changes in the demographic situation of certain regions. The regions that continually lose part of its population clearly differ from these regions that are characterized by an increased population which is leading to a greater concentration of people in certain location. Further decades with a declining birth rate, followed by a change in the values of population increase, together with migration movements, particularly from the rural and less developed economic regions, has resulted in a decline in the population. The different zones of depopulation and concentration in a simple way express the complex relationships in the population composition.

Schlüsselwörter

  • emigration
  • immigration
  • regionalization
  • spatial development
  • Macedonia
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Induced seismicity: a geo-ecological problem of a technogenic nature

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 21 - 25

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

A debatable problem of the display of induced seismicity and its causes during the construction of reservoirs (Reservoir Induced Seismicity - RIS) is considered on the basis of an analysis of various publications. This paper describes the history of the evolution of ideas about the possibility of the activation of seismic events in the zones of influence of artificial reservoirs and examples of such activation in aseismic areas, which is a medium geological response to technogenic interference (e.g. Shivajisagar reservoir in West India, Mead reservoir in the USA, Danjiangkou Reservoir in central China, Nurek reservoir in Central Asia, Chirkey reservoir in Dagestan and other). The problem and reasons of induced seismicity (RIS) are debatable. however, published examples demonstrate the existence of this process. For reservoirs with different amounts of water RIS is an inseparable component of the natural and man-made geological process. The world statistics knows cases of seismicity intensification in areas near small man-made reservoirs with low pressure levels (Belecha in former Yugoslavia, Marathon in Greece, Grandval in France). In addition, it was found that the number of local earthquakes increased after creating a cascade of three small water reservoirs (Studen Kladenets, Kardzhali and Ivaylovgrad) in the basin of The Arda river (Bulgaria). The RIS examples listed above allow us to think that it is not only the creation of large reservoirs that change (in some cases, intensifies) the local seismicity in the surrounding area. No reservoir, no matter what size it is, is insured from such geological process. At the present time there are more than 100 places in the world with displays of induced seismicity due to reservoir construction. In India there are up to eight reservoirs with these problems. Induced seismicity associated with the influence of man-made water reservoirs, causes a specific geo-ecological risks to the surrounding areas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • induced seismicity
  • artificial water reservoir
  • earthquake
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Honey bee: a consumer’s point of view

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 26 - 32

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This article concerns the way bee products are perceived by customers. It is mainly focused on honey, which is considered the main output product of beekeeping. Beekeeping is a very popular activity in the Czech Republic. Based on current data there are over 48 thousand people engaged in beekeeping in the Czech Republic. Hand in hand with the increasing number of beekeepers the popularity of bee products - especially honey - among Czech consumers is also growing. Recently, the consumption of honey in the Czech Republic has been slightly increasing. A big problem today is that honey sold in Czech supermarkets is frequently falsified. At the same time, it is increasingly popular to buy honey directly from beekeepers. The aim of this research was to describe the situation about the honey market in the Czech Republic, and also to examine the relationship between consumers on the one hand, and honey/beekeepers on the other. We have also considered customer's trust in organic honey and honey sold in supermarket chains. Results show that consumers view bee products as generally healthy and prefer to buy bee products from a beekeeper because of greater convenience as locally sourced honey is perceived to be of higher quality. The majority of consumers agree with paying a higher price for a product of higher quality. The article confirmed the hypothesis that most people think that bee products sold by a beekeeper are healthier than those bought at ordinary shops.

Schlüsselwörter

  • beekeeping products
  • consumers
  • honey buyers’ behaviour
  • market analysis
  • honey
  • Czech Republic
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Enigmatic glacigenic ridges from the Odra Glaciation in the vicinity of Krzepice (Woźniki-Wieluń Upland, Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 33 - 40

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The central part of the Woźniki-Wieluń Upland is characterised by mature old glacial landforms associated with the Middle- Polish Glaciations. In some areas, however, more pronounced post-glacial landforms can be observed that were remodelled by later morphogenetic processes to a lesser extent. To the south-east of Krzepice, in the vicinity of Dolisko, there is an extensive depression in which twelve parallel ridges can be found. In terms of their morphology and location as well as due to their relationship to the surrounding landforms, the ridges examined resemble forms that would be referred to as drumlins, glaciotectonic forms or glacial curvilineations in late glacial areas. The material presented is the result of the initial research stage. The studies conducted in this stage involved primarily geomorphological mapping supplemented by an analysis of landforms on a shaded relief model and on an orthophotomap. At the current stage of studies on the glacigenic landforms in the vicinity of Dolisko, three scenarios concerning their origins have been put forward that need to be verified. The first scenario involves glaciotectonic origins, the second assumes that they were formed in the same manner as classic drumlins, fluted moraines or longitudinal squeeze ridges, and the third scenario assumes that they have the same origins as glacial curvilineations. The group of glacigenic ridges discussed is a glacial landform unique in southern Poland.

Schlüsselwörter

  • glaciotectonics
  • drumlins
  • glacial curvilineations
  • Odra Glaciation
  • Quaternary substrate relief
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Urban agglomerations and transformations of medium-sized towns in Poland

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 41 - 55

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This analysis investigates medium-sized towns in Poland, i.e. those with a population between 20–100 thousand, located up to 100 km away from the main city of the agglomeration. The aim of this article is to compare the level of socio-economic development of Polish towns depending on their location in relation to the main city in the largest agglomerations in 1998 and 2013. Three zones of distance from the main city of each agglomeration have been taken into consideration: a. the inner zone, reaching up to 25 km from the main city; b. the outer zone located at a distance of 25 to 50 km from the main city, and c. the peripheral zone, located at a distance of 50 to 100 km from the main city and including the medium-size towns located outside the agglomeration system. This analysis of the distribution of medium-sized towns and their level of socio-economic development has shown various levels of changes which depend on the distance from the main city of the agglomeration. In 1998, the highest level of development of the medium-sized towns was recorded in towns outside of these agglomeration systems, i.e. those located most remotely from the main city (peripheral zone). Most of the medium-sized towns are situated at a distance of 50–100 km from Warszawa, Kraków, Łódź, Lublin, Gdańsk and have developed their own local, or even regional labour markets and some of them have even provided administrative functions in the past as voivodeship capitals. Only in the Poznań agglomeration, the level of development of medium-sized towns was higher in the immediate surroundings of the main city (25 km). The medium-sized towns in all zones of the distance from the main city in the Wrocław agglomeration represented a similar level of development. By 2013, the level of development of the medium-sized towns in the peripheral zone in all investigated settlement systems had decreased, with a significant improvement in the level of development of the towns in the immediate surroundings of the main city. Such situation occurs especially in the conurbation of Gdańsk and the agglomerations of Warszawa, Kraków and Poznań. This shows that the largest cities of Poland are the main engines of economic development by stimulating their surroundings and their impact on the surrounding areas. Unfortunately, the towns located in the marginal zones of several agglomerations (the zone 25–50 km away from the main city) experience certain disadvantages, such as the process of “the backwash effect”. Furthermore, the lack of developmental impulses is observed in many medium-sized towns at the distance of 50-100 km from the main city of the agglomeration.

Schlüsselwörter

  • medium-sized towns
  • agglomerations
  • population dynamics
  • the level of socio-economic development
  • Poland
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

The volume of wet and dry atmospheric deposition in the area around Goczałkowice Reservoir between 2011–2013

Online veröffentlicht: 17 Sep 2016
Seitenbereich: 56 - 68

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Research on wet and dry pollution deposition was carried out at two measurement points situated on opposite sides of the Goczałkowice Reservoir. On the east side was a station in Goczałkowice and on the west side was a station in Frelichów. Meteorological monitoring was conducted at four points situated in the vicinity of the reservoir. On the basis of the research carried out between 2011–2013 it was concluded that the size of dry and wet deposition in the area of the Goczałkowice Reservoir is diversified in particular years, seasons and months. Due to high precipitation and biological processes (activity of flora and fauna) the pollutant loads in the form of biogenic compounds (nitrogen and phosphorus) are the highest in the summer season. Whereas pollutant inputs in the form of dry deposition are highest in the winter season (heating season), which in the case of a thick ice and snow cover in the spring time causes their accumulation and increased input into the reservoir water (thawing weather, snow-melt season). In relation to the 1970s the size of the deposition became smaller, but in the case of biogenic compounds it was diversified. A decrease was observed in the case of total nitrogen but an increase in the case of phosphorus. On the basis of a comparison of the received results with the data provided by the Provincial Inspector for Environmental Protection and calculated for the annual area deposition of the Pszczyna district in 2011 it appears that deposition of total nitrogen in the reservoir area slightly exceeded the area value. In the case of total phosphorus in relation to the area data the deposition was over twice as high, which indicates that biogenic compounds are still a significant load of atmospheric deposition in the reservoir area.

Schlüsselwörter

  • meteorological conditions
  • biogenic compounds
  • precipitation
  • Silesia
  • Vistula River

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