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Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2354-0079
Erstveröffentlichung
15 Apr 2013
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

Volumen 5 (2017): Heft 3 (September 2017)

Zeitschriftendaten
Format
Zeitschrift
eISSN
2354-0079
Erstveröffentlichung
15 Apr 2013
Erscheinungsweise
4 Hefte pro Jahr
Sprachen
Englisch

Suche

5 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“The Reality from the Myth”: The poor as main agents of forest degradation: Lessons from Ashanti Region, Ghana

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 11

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The prevailing literature on poverty-environment links mostly presents a rather deterministic view of the nexus between poverty and the environment, revolving around the negative impact of the poor on the environment. Specifically, in Ghana, empirical evidence on the prevalence of forest degradation is sparse because the requisite data are often difficult to obtain. Using a qualitative approach, data collected through in-depth interviews with 45 randomly selected participants and 5 purposively selected key informants (Traditional Authorities) and using a thematic analysis, the poverty-environment, specifically the forest degradation nexus was verified. This cross-sectional study leads the authors to posit that poverty has a minimal negative effect on major forest degradation in Ghana. The study found that the poor were rather conscious, and future-oriented with regard to the environment, specifically forests owing to how their livelihoods and survival are directly linked to their immediate environment. The results suggest that the poverty-environment nexus could be country, or context-specific and varies between geographical and historical contexts. By implication, the seemingly universal assertion that the poor are those who cause major deforestation in communities could be problematic. Henceforth, the study maintains that it would be a fallacy to make generalisations that poverty is the main cause of major forest degradation, since the link between poverty and the environment is very context-specific. We argued on the premise that reduction of poverty in Ghana may not lead to the reduction of forest degradation. Joint implementation of holistic poverty-environment strategies that incorporate both the poor and the rich should be adopted to curb the wanton forest degradation in Ghana.

Schlüsselwörter

  • livelihoods
  • deforestation
  • energy
  • sustainability
  • Ghana
  • Ashanti Region
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Charcoal kilns as a source of data on the past iron industry (an example from the River Czarna valley, Central Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 12 - 22

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Charcoal was the primary fuel used for iron smelting and processing until the end of the 19th century. It was produced through burning piles of wood called charcoal kilns. The aim of the study was to identify and record traces of charcoal kilns related to past ironworks in the valley of the River Czarna (Małopolska Upland, Central Poland). Detailed analysis was conducted in areas adjacent to historical centres of iron processing in Maleniec, Kołoniec and Machory. A quantitative analysis of the traces of charcoal kilns in the topography was done based on DEM from airborne LiDAR. Soil profiles were analysed at the sites where traces of charcoal kilns were identified from DEM. Radiocarbon dating and palaeobotanical analyses were performed for selected charcoal from kiln remnants. In the study area we identified over 11,500 charcoal kilns. The radiocarbon age of these charcoals indicate that the charcoal kilns under study were used in the 15th, 18th and 19th century. Thus the results suggest that the iron industry in the studied area is c 100 years older than the historical written sources indicate. Palaeobotanical analyses show that coniferous trees were used for charcoal production. The large number of traces of charcoal kilns and their wide spatial distribution indicate that past charcoal production has had a significant impact on the environment and landscape change in the River Czarna valley and adjacent areas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • iron processing
  • charcoal production
  • LiDAR
  • radiocarbon dating
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alien plant species (ephemerophytes) in Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District, Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 23 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research on ephemerophytes of the alien portion of the flora of the Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District (north-eastern Ukraine). It is a detailed study of this group of plants, conducted for the first time in the Ukraine. The checklist of alien vascular plants contains 345 species, of which 27 species are ephemerophytes (or 8%): Adonis aestivalis, A. annua, Papaver albiflorum, Urtica cannabina, Gypsophila perfoliata, Atriplex micrantha, Chenopodium × preissmannii, Ch. × thellungii, Rumex longifolius, Sisymbrium polymorphum, Euphorbia humifusa, Malus sylvestris, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astrodaucus orientalis, Datura tatula, Solanum schultesii, Lindernia procumbens, Melampyrum cristatum, Helianthus annuus, Petasites spurius, Xanthium ripicola × Xanthium albinum, Echinochloa tzvelevii, Panicum capillare, Panicum capillare L. subsp. barvipulvinatum, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria ×ambigua, Sorghum halepense. The basis of this work is original data of the author obtained during field studies, and a critical study of the literature, archival, cartographic materials and herbarium collections, and the use of classical methods of botanical classification. Complex research of this group of plants was conducted and as a result of these investigations the following characteristics were established: a predominance of kenophytes of Mediterranean origin in this group, species of arid areas, cosmopolitan species with a diffuse type of space structure, therophytes, herbaceous monocarpic plants, mesotrophes, heliophytes and xeromesophytes, with an insignificant degree of impact on native plant communities and with a limited distribution within the study region. The combination of these results indicates that ephemerophytes comprise a temporary, unstable component of the flora of this region of the Ukraine. The paper provides maps of the distribution of these 27 species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alien flora
  • ephemerophytes
  • Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District
  • Ukraine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of lignite surface mining on local communities: controversies and areas of negotiation

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 31 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Selecting locations for lignite mining and power generation complexes has been the subject of intense controversy. As a result, there have been many conflicts in society due to environmental and economic concerns. This paper poses the question of how lignite surface mining affects local communities. These effects may be both negative and positive and some of them are intangible. It is very difficult to balance the pros and cons objectively as it depends on the assumed objectives and criteria of the analysis. Different social and economic structures in different communities, and various additional factors, are just some of the reasons why this balance may significantly differ around a country. The authors hold opposing views on the role of lignite in the energy mix and the balance of negative and positive effects that surface mining exerts on local communities. They agree, however, that the most important elements of the societal debate on lignite mining have not yet been adequately studied or presented in public discourse. The authors propose to introduce the procedure of Social Impact Assessment to the Polish legal system. This could be effective as a means to prevent many conflicts in the energy sector and be the best way to reach a compromise.

Schlüsselwörter

  • brown coal
  • social impact assessment
  • local community
  • pit mine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Dendrochronology as a source of data for landslide activity maps – an example from Beskid Żywiecki Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 40 - 46

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We applied dendrochronological methods for dating landslide activity in the study area (3.75 km2), on the slopes of Sucha Mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), in the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains, in the Western Carpathians. 46 sampling sites were distributed throughout the study area. At each site we sampled 1-3 coniferous trees: Norway spruces (Picea abies Karst.) and/or silver firs (Abies alba Mill.). From each tree 2 cores were sampled: one from the upslope and the other from the downslope side of the stem. Based on tree-ring widths measured for opposite sides of stems we have calculated eccentricity index values and dated past landslide events. Mean frequency of landslides was obtained for each sampling site. Finally, the data was interpolated into a map of landslide activity. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation has been applied. For most of the study area we found medium (19 sites) and low (23 sites) levels of landslide activity. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide slope and for the one small landslide. The study conducted on Sucha Mountain has shown that dendrochronology can be an effective method for analysing landslide activity and may be useful in further studies, including those for landslide hazard and risk assessments.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dendrochronology
  • landslides
  • growth eccentricity
  • Western Carpathians
5 Artikel
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

“The Reality from the Myth”: The poor as main agents of forest degradation: Lessons from Ashanti Region, Ghana

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 1 - 11

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

The prevailing literature on poverty-environment links mostly presents a rather deterministic view of the nexus between poverty and the environment, revolving around the negative impact of the poor on the environment. Specifically, in Ghana, empirical evidence on the prevalence of forest degradation is sparse because the requisite data are often difficult to obtain. Using a qualitative approach, data collected through in-depth interviews with 45 randomly selected participants and 5 purposively selected key informants (Traditional Authorities) and using a thematic analysis, the poverty-environment, specifically the forest degradation nexus was verified. This cross-sectional study leads the authors to posit that poverty has a minimal negative effect on major forest degradation in Ghana. The study found that the poor were rather conscious, and future-oriented with regard to the environment, specifically forests owing to how their livelihoods and survival are directly linked to their immediate environment. The results suggest that the poverty-environment nexus could be country, or context-specific and varies between geographical and historical contexts. By implication, the seemingly universal assertion that the poor are those who cause major deforestation in communities could be problematic. Henceforth, the study maintains that it would be a fallacy to make generalisations that poverty is the main cause of major forest degradation, since the link between poverty and the environment is very context-specific. We argued on the premise that reduction of poverty in Ghana may not lead to the reduction of forest degradation. Joint implementation of holistic poverty-environment strategies that incorporate both the poor and the rich should be adopted to curb the wanton forest degradation in Ghana.

Schlüsselwörter

  • livelihoods
  • deforestation
  • energy
  • sustainability
  • Ghana
  • Ashanti Region
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Charcoal kilns as a source of data on the past iron industry (an example from the River Czarna valley, Central Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 12 - 22

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Charcoal was the primary fuel used for iron smelting and processing until the end of the 19th century. It was produced through burning piles of wood called charcoal kilns. The aim of the study was to identify and record traces of charcoal kilns related to past ironworks in the valley of the River Czarna (Małopolska Upland, Central Poland). Detailed analysis was conducted in areas adjacent to historical centres of iron processing in Maleniec, Kołoniec and Machory. A quantitative analysis of the traces of charcoal kilns in the topography was done based on DEM from airborne LiDAR. Soil profiles were analysed at the sites where traces of charcoal kilns were identified from DEM. Radiocarbon dating and palaeobotanical analyses were performed for selected charcoal from kiln remnants. In the study area we identified over 11,500 charcoal kilns. The radiocarbon age of these charcoals indicate that the charcoal kilns under study were used in the 15th, 18th and 19th century. Thus the results suggest that the iron industry in the studied area is c 100 years older than the historical written sources indicate. Palaeobotanical analyses show that coniferous trees were used for charcoal production. The large number of traces of charcoal kilns and their wide spatial distribution indicate that past charcoal production has had a significant impact on the environment and landscape change in the River Czarna valley and adjacent areas.

Schlüsselwörter

  • iron processing
  • charcoal production
  • LiDAR
  • radiocarbon dating
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Alien plant species (ephemerophytes) in Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District, Ukraine

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 23 - 30

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

This paper presents the results of research on ephemerophytes of the alien portion of the flora of the Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District (north-eastern Ukraine). It is a detailed study of this group of plants, conducted for the first time in the Ukraine. The checklist of alien vascular plants contains 345 species, of which 27 species are ephemerophytes (or 8%): Adonis aestivalis, A. annua, Papaver albiflorum, Urtica cannabina, Gypsophila perfoliata, Atriplex micrantha, Chenopodium × preissmannii, Ch. × thellungii, Rumex longifolius, Sisymbrium polymorphum, Euphorbia humifusa, Malus sylvestris, Onobrychis viciifolia, Astrodaucus orientalis, Datura tatula, Solanum schultesii, Lindernia procumbens, Melampyrum cristatum, Helianthus annuus, Petasites spurius, Xanthium ripicola × Xanthium albinum, Echinochloa tzvelevii, Panicum capillare, Panicum capillare L. subsp. barvipulvinatum, Phalaris canariensis, Setaria ×ambigua, Sorghum halepense. The basis of this work is original data of the author obtained during field studies, and a critical study of the literature, archival, cartographic materials and herbarium collections, and the use of classical methods of botanical classification. Complex research of this group of plants was conducted and as a result of these investigations the following characteristics were established: a predominance of kenophytes of Mediterranean origin in this group, species of arid areas, cosmopolitan species with a diffuse type of space structure, therophytes, herbaceous monocarpic plants, mesotrophes, heliophytes and xeromesophytes, with an insignificant degree of impact on native plant communities and with a limited distribution within the study region. The combination of these results indicates that ephemerophytes comprise a temporary, unstable component of the flora of this region of the Ukraine. The paper provides maps of the distribution of these 27 species.

Schlüsselwörter

  • alien flora
  • ephemerophytes
  • Romensko-Poltavsky Geobotanical District
  • Ukraine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Effects of lignite surface mining on local communities: controversies and areas of negotiation

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 31 - 39

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

Selecting locations for lignite mining and power generation complexes has been the subject of intense controversy. As a result, there have been many conflicts in society due to environmental and economic concerns. This paper poses the question of how lignite surface mining affects local communities. These effects may be both negative and positive and some of them are intangible. It is very difficult to balance the pros and cons objectively as it depends on the assumed objectives and criteria of the analysis. Different social and economic structures in different communities, and various additional factors, are just some of the reasons why this balance may significantly differ around a country. The authors hold opposing views on the role of lignite in the energy mix and the balance of negative and positive effects that surface mining exerts on local communities. They agree, however, that the most important elements of the societal debate on lignite mining have not yet been adequately studied or presented in public discourse. The authors propose to introduce the procedure of Social Impact Assessment to the Polish legal system. This could be effective as a means to prevent many conflicts in the energy sector and be the best way to reach a compromise.

Schlüsselwörter

  • brown coal
  • social impact assessment
  • local community
  • pit mine
access type Uneingeschränkter Zugang

Dendrochronology as a source of data for landslide activity maps – an example from Beskid Żywiecki Mountains (Western Carpathians, Poland)

Online veröffentlicht: 23 Sep 2017
Seitenbereich: 40 - 46

Zusammenfassung

Abstract

We applied dendrochronological methods for dating landslide activity in the study area (3.75 km2), on the slopes of Sucha Mountain (1040 m a.s.l.), in the Beskid Żywiecki Mountains, in the Western Carpathians. 46 sampling sites were distributed throughout the study area. At each site we sampled 1-3 coniferous trees: Norway spruces (Picea abies Karst.) and/or silver firs (Abies alba Mill.). From each tree 2 cores were sampled: one from the upslope and the other from the downslope side of the stem. Based on tree-ring widths measured for opposite sides of stems we have calculated eccentricity index values and dated past landslide events. Mean frequency of landslides was obtained for each sampling site. Finally, the data was interpolated into a map of landslide activity. Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) interpolation has been applied. For most of the study area we found medium (19 sites) and low (23 sites) levels of landslide activity. The highest level of activity was recorded for the largest landslide slope and for the one small landslide. The study conducted on Sucha Mountain has shown that dendrochronology can be an effective method for analysing landslide activity and may be useful in further studies, including those for landslide hazard and risk assessments.

Schlüsselwörter

  • dendrochronology
  • landslides
  • growth eccentricity
  • Western Carpathians

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