1. bookVolume 118 (2021): Issue 1 (January 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
20 May 2020
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

A short history of the form of octagonal and elliptical city squares

Published Online: 06 Oct 2021
Page range: -
Received: 01 Jun 2021
Accepted: 23 Sep 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
20 May 2020
Publication timeframe
1 time per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The article starts with the short discussion of two geometrical figures, i.e., octagon and ellipse, their genesis in architecture and urban design, and the examples of buildings whose plans were based upon them. Then, the selected octagonal and elliptical city squares are discussed: their genesis, context, layout, architecture surrounding the square, objects appearing in the square and, most specially, urban form and composition. The theory of architectural-landscape interiors has been applied to pinpoint the type of city squares by the assessing of the degree of openings in the square’s perimeter. The review consists of 22 case studies (9 octagonal and 13 elliptical) from the 15th to the 20th century. The last discussed case in each group, both atypical created in Krakow in the 20th century, are discussed even more thoroughly. The conclusions were presented first separately for octagonal and elliptical city squares and finally also for both groups in a comparative way.

Keywords

Bogdanowski, J. (1976). Kompozycja i planowanie w architekturze krajobrazu. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo PAN. Search in Google Scholar

Grimal, P. (1970). Miasta rzymskie. Warszawa: Wydawnictwo PWN. Search in Google Scholar

Gutkind, E.A. (1965). International History of City Development. Vol. II: Urban Development in the Alpine and Scandinavian countries. New York: The Free Press. Search in Google Scholar

Gutkind, E.A. (1970). International History of City Development. Vol. V: Urban Development in the Western Europe: France and Belgium. New York: The Free Press. Search in Google Scholar

Johnston, N.J. (1983). Cities in the Round. Seattle & London: University of Washington Press. Search in Google Scholar

Königer, E. (1938). Kunst in Oberschlesien. Breslau: Verlag Priebatsch Buchandlung. Search in Google Scholar

Kostof, S. (1991). The City Shaped. Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History. London: Thames and Hudson. Search in Google Scholar

Koter, M. (1984). Rozwój układu miejskiego Łodzi wczesnoprzemysłowej. In: J. Szewczyk (Ed.), Miscellanea Łódzkie. Vol. 1: Myśl urbanistyczna a rozwój przestrzenny Łodzi. Łódź: Muzeum Historii Miasta Łódź. Search in Google Scholar

Martimort, A.G. (1987). The Church at Prayer. Vol. I: Principles of the Liturgy. Collegeville: Liturgical Press. Search in Google Scholar

Motak, M. (2020). Osiedle Urzędnicze w Krakowie. Urbanistyka i architektura 1924–1942. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Krakowskiej. Search in Google Scholar

Münter, G. (1957). Idealstädte. IhreGeschuchte von 15.–17. Jahrhundert. Berlin: Henschelverlag. Search in Google Scholar

Olenderek, J. (2011). Łódzki modernizm i inne nurty przedwojennego budownictwa. Łódź: Dom Wydawniczy Księży Młyn. Search in Google Scholar

Ostrowski, W. (1996). Wprowadzenie do historii budowy miast. Ludzie i środowisko. Warszawa: Oficyna Wydawnicza Politechniki Warszawskiej. Search in Google Scholar

Piprek, M. (1988). Architektura Finlandii. Warszawa: Arkady. Search in Google Scholar

Radwański, D. (2018). Plan owalny w architekturze. Gliwice: Wydawnictwo Politechniki Śląskiej. Search in Google Scholar

Ruler, D.A. van (1984). Krzyż i koło: dusza świata. Architektura, 420, 22–25. Search in Google Scholar

Szafer, T.P. (1955). Ze studiów nad planowaniem miast w Polsce XVIII i pocz. XIX w. In: Studia z historii budowy miast (pp. 47–81). Warszawa: Instytut Urbanistyki i Architektury. Search in Google Scholar

Trachtenberg, M., Hyman, I. (2002), Architecture from Prehistory to Postmodernity. New York: Harry N. Abrams. Search in Google Scholar

Webb, M. (1990). The City Square. A Historical Evolution. New York: Whitney Library of Design. Search in Google Scholar

Witruwiusz. (1999). O architekturze ksiąg dziesięć. Warszawa: Prószyński i S-ka. Search in Google Scholar

Zarębska, T. (1971). Teoria urbanistyki włoskiej XV i XVI wieku. Warszawa: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe. Search in Google Scholar

Zucker, P. (1959). Town and Square from the Agora to the Village Green. New York: Columbia University Press. Search in Google Scholar

Burno, F. (2016). Spektakl i modernizacja Miasta włoskie w okresie faszyzmu 19221945. Warszawa: Fundacja Kultura Miejsca, Akademia Sztuk Pięknych w Warszawie. Search in Google Scholar

Cervelatti, P.L. (1991). Emilia Romagna. La cultura delle città. Vol. 3. Firenze: Cantini. Search in Google Scholar

Chmielewski, J. (2021). Wyburzanie dzielnicy żydowskiej na Podzamczu. Retrieved from http://teatrnn.pl/leksykon/artykuly/wyburzanie-dzielnicyzydowskiej-na-podzamczu/ (date of access: 2021/01/05). Search in Google Scholar

Comune di Bagnacavallo. (n.d.). http://www.comune.bagnacavallo.ra.it/content/download/1733/22602/file/strumentiurbanistici.pdf (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Devoti, Ch. (2016). La sede di rappresentanza delle Generali a Torino nei piani urbanistici per la città. In: C. Benocci (Eds.), Le assicurazioni Generali nelle citta italane–tra la fine dell’ottocento e Gui inizi del novocento (pp. 117–128). Roma: Edizioni Kappa. Search in Google Scholar

Donati, R. (1978). Tuscany. Narni–Terni: Plurugraf. Search in Google Scholar

Futugawa, Y., Mendini, A. (1993). Arata Isozaki & Associates Tsukuba Center Building, Ibaraki, Japan, 1979–83. Tokio: A.D.A Edita. Search in Google Scholar

García, J. (2008). Una inmobiliaria compra por 30 millones un edificio de Axa junto a la Plaza Moyua. El Correo. Retrieved from https://www.elcorreo.com/vizcaya/20080117/vizcaya/inmobiliaria-compra-millonesedificio-20080117.html?ref=http:%2F%2Fes.wikipedia.org%2F (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Gardner, M. (1989). Mathematical carnival. Washington: The Mathematical Association of America. Search in Google Scholar

Goethe, J.W. (1885). Goethe’s travels in Italy. London. Search in Google Scholar

Gómez, E.M., Moral-Andrés, F. (2017). Controlled Landscapes or Building Sustainability in Public Spaces. Case of Studies of Padova and Moscow. In: R.A. Fernandez, S. Zubelzu, R. Martinez (Eds.), Carbon Footprint and the Industrial Life Cycle (pp. 85–106). New York: Springer. Search in Google Scholar

Hall, T. (1999). Huvudstad i omvandling – Stockholms planering och utbyggnad under 700 år. Stockholm: Sveriges Radio. Search in Google Scholar

Ingarden, K. (2020). Arata Isoaki – a Sfinx, an Oedipusor the ever-changing Kamo No Chōmeiof our times? In: W. Kosiński (Eds.), Teka Komisji Urbanistyki i Architektury (pp. 120–133). Vol. XLVIII. Kraków: Oddział PAN w Krakowie. Search in Google Scholar

Insabato, E., Ghelli, C. (Eds.). (2007). Guida agli archivi di architetti e ingegneri del Novecento in Toscana. Firenze: Edifir. Search in Google Scholar

Jamiołkowska, J., Kurzątkowski, M. (1986). Lublin. In: W. Kalinowski (Eds.), Zabytki urbanistyki i architektury w Polsce. T. 1: Miasta historyczne (pp. 277–304). Warszawa: Arkady. Search in Google Scholar

Kuwałek, R. (2001). Lublin. Jerozolima Królestwa Polskiego. Lublin: Stowarzyszenie „Dialog i Współpraca”. Search in Google Scholar

Lanzardo, D., Poli, F. (2012). Torino la città delle statue. Fantasmi di pietra sulla scena urbana. Torino: Edizioni del Capricorno. Search in Google Scholar

Lumbroso, G. (Ed.). (1877). Memorie e lettere di Carlo Promis. Architetto, Storico Ed Archeologo Torinese (1808-1873). Torino: Fratelli Bocca. Search in Google Scholar

Malpeli, M.L. (1806). Dissertazioni sulla storia antica di Bagnacavallo. Faenza: Michele Gaspare Conti. Search in Google Scholar

Mas Serra, E. (2006). El Palacio Chávarri. Retrieved from http://www.bilbao.eus/castella/residentes/vivebilbao/publicaciones/periodicobilbao/200608/pag16.pdf (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Maulsby, L.M. (2014). Fascism, Architecture, and the Claiming of Modern Milan 19221943. Toronto: University of Toronto Press. Search in Google Scholar

Mazzarosa, A. (1843). Guida di Lucca e dei luoghi più importanti del ducato. Lucca: Giuseppe Giusti. Search in Google Scholar

Mezer, A. (2010). The Elllypse, The Historical and Mathematical Journey. Hoboken: Wiley. Search in Google Scholar

Moszyński A. (1970). Dziennik podróży do Francji i Włoch. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Literackie. Search in Google Scholar

Pasquali, S. (2009). MEMMO, Andrea. Dizionario biografico degli italiani, 73. Retrieved from https://www.treccani.it/enciclopedia/andrea-memmo_(Dizionario-Biografico)/ (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Poggi, L. (1946). L’architetto Giuseppe Poggi e il suo archivio, conferenza letta il 31 maggio 1946 alla Società Leonardo da Vinci, special edition “La Nuova Città”. Retrieved from https://www.guidemeflorence.com/pl/2020/11/03/rampy-poggi-florencja/ (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Società degli ingegneri e degli architetti in Torino. (1984). Beni culturali ambientali Nel Comune del Torino. Torino: Politecnico di Torino. Dipartimento Casa Città. Search in Google Scholar

Puppi, L., Toffanin, G. (1983). Guida di Padova. Arte e storiatra vie e pizze. Trieste: Lint. Search in Google Scholar

Rossotti, R. (1995). Le Strade di Torino. Roma: Newton Compton. Search in Google Scholar

Scarzella, P., Caldera, C. (1995). Il complessonodale di piazza Solferino e corso Re Umberto. In: Politecnico di Torino, Dipartimento di ingegneria dei sistemi edilizi e territoriali, Torino nell’Ottocento e nel Novecento: ampliamenti e trasformazioni entro la cerchia dei corsi napoleonici, Torino: Celid. Search in Google Scholar

Susperregui Virto, J.M. (2000). Manuel I. Galíndez 1892–1980. Vol. 6: Arquitectos contemporáneos. Pamplona: Colegio Oficial de Arquitectos Vasco-Navarro, Delegación en Vizcaya. Search in Google Scholar

Tesori d’Italia. (1975). Milano: Reader’s Digest. Search in Google Scholar

Unknown Author. (1822). Porta alla Croce. Guida della città di Firenze. Ornata di pinata e vedut. Firenze: Antonio Campani. Search in Google Scholar

Venosta, F. (1867). Milano e le sue vie. Studi storici. Vol. 1. Milano: Giocondo Messaggi. Search in Google Scholar

Woltz, N.B. (n.d.). Landscape Architects. Retrieved from https://www.nbwla.com/projects/park/public-square-and-gardens-hudson-yards (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Wróbel, T. (1971). Zarys historii budowy miast. Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy imienia Ossolińskich. Search in Google Scholar

Zaggia. S. (2010). «Isoletta sacra al commercio ed all’arti». Andrea Memmo, Melchiorre Cesarotti e il Prato della Valle come esperimento di riforma del paesaggiourbano. In: F. Finotti (Eds.), Melchiorre Cesarotti e le trasformazioni del paesaggioeuropeo. Trieste: EUT Edizioni Università di Trieste. Retrieved from https://www.openstarts.units.it/handle/10077/4458 (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Zava, S. (2018). Prato Della Valle. Padova: Il Poligrafo. Search in Google Scholar

Zętar, J. (2017). Jak budowano plac Zamkowy… Gazeta Wyborcza. Magazyn Lubelski, 18 sierpnia, 6–7. Search in Google Scholar

Zętar, J. (2016). Narracje (nie)pamięci: Plac Zamkowy. Topografia palimpsestu (cz. 2). Retrieved from https://blog.teatrnn.pl/laboratorium-nn/narracjeniepamieci-i-plac-zamkowy-topografia-palimpsestu-cz-2/ (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Zętar, J. (2019). Wielka Księga Miasta. Fotografie Lubelskiej Dzielnicy Żydowskiej w zbiorach ośrodka „Brama Grodzka – Teatr NN”. Folia Bibliologica, Vol. LXI, 63–83. Search in Google Scholar

http://openlucca.it/ (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

http://www.comune.torino.it/ (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

https://www.barcelo.com(date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

https://piethein.com/superellipse/ (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

https://vecchiamilano.wordpress.com/2011/09/22/cordusio/ (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

http://www.bilbaopedia.info/plaza-moyua (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

https://www.hotelcarlton.es/nuestra-historia.html (date of access: 2021/03/01). Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo