1. bookVolume 5 (2012): Issue 2 (November 2012)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
19 Jun 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
19 Jun 2009
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo

About 3% of pregnant women are treated with antidepressant drugs during gestation. After delivery the number of treated women increases to 5 to 7%. Most prescribed antidepressants in pregnancy are selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and/or serotonin and noradrenaline re-uptake inhibitors, such as fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, citalopram and venlafaxine (VENF). Despite the fact that VENF has been assigned to pregnancy category C by the FDA, experimental studies with this drug are rare. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate the effect of prenatal administration of VENF on early postnatal development of rat offspring and selected biochemical variables at weaning of pups. Pregnant female Wistar rats were treated with VENF from day 15 to 20 of gestation at the doses of 7.5, 37.5 and 70 mg/kg. Females were allowed to spontaneously deliver their pups. After delivery the pups were inspected for viability, gross malformation and they were weighed on day 0, 4 and 21 post partum. On day 21 post partum, the pups were killed, brains were removed from the skulls and blood samples were collected for biochemical assay (proteins, glucose-GOD, glucose-HEX, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and total antioxidant status). The study showed that prenatal VENF administration resulted in a mild maternal intoxication manifested by decreased body weight gain of pregnant females. There was no effect of the drug tested on the body and brain weights of offspring. No obvious morphological alterations were observed in the delivered pups. Similarly, there were no changes in the selected biochemical variables determined.

Keywords

Bellantuono C, Migliarese G, Maggioni F, Imperadore G. (2007) Anridepressant drugs and breastfeeding. Recent Prog Med 98: 29-42.Search in Google Scholar

Chung TK, Lau TK, Yip AS, Chiu HF, Lee DT. (2001). Antepartum depressive symptomatology is associated with adverse obstetric and neonatal outcomes. Psychosom Med 63: 830-834.Search in Google Scholar

Da-Silva VA, Alterburg SP, Malheiros LR, Thomaz TG, Lindsey CJ. (1999). Postnatal development of rats exposed to fl uoxetine or venlafaxine during the third week of pregnancy. Braz J Med Biol Res 32: 93-98.Search in Google Scholar

DeSantis DT, Schmaltz LW. (1984). The mother-litter relationship in developmental rat studies: cannibalism vs caring. Dev Psychobiol 17: 255-62Search in Google Scholar

Dubovický M, Kovačovský P, Ujházy E, Navarová J, Brucknerová I, Mach M. (2008). Evaluation of developmental neurotoxicity: some important issues focused on neurobehavioral development Interdiscip Toxicol 1: 206-210.Search in Google Scholar

Dubovický M. (2010). Neurobehavioral manifestations of developmental impairment of the brain. Interdiscip Toxicol 3: 59-67.Search in Google Scholar

Evans J, Heron J, Francomb H, Oke S, Golding J. (2001). Cohort study of depressed mood during pregnancy and after childbirth. BMJ 323: 257-260.Search in Google Scholar

Favreliere S, Nourrisson A, Jaafari N, Pérault Pochat MC (2010). Treatment of depressed pregnant women by selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors: risk for the foetus and the newborn. Encephale Suppl 2: D133-D138.Search in Google Scholar

Freeman MP. (2011). Antidepressant medication treatment during pregnancy: prevalence of use, clinical implications, and alternatives. J Clin Psychiatry 72: 977-978.Search in Google Scholar

Gentile S. (2005). SSRIs in pregnancy and lactation: emphasis on neurobehavioral outcome. CNS Drugs 19: 623-633.Search in Google Scholar

Melville JL, Gavin A, Gup Y, Fan MY, Katon WJ. (2010). Depressive disorders during pregnancy: prevalence and risk factors in a large urban sample. Obstet Gynecol. 116: 1064-1070.Search in Google Scholar

Morrison JL, Riggs KW, Rurak DW. (2005). Fluoxetine during pregnancy: impact on fetal development. Reprod Fertil Dev 17: 641-650.Search in Google Scholar

Moses-Kolko EL, Bogen D, Perel J, Bregar A, Uhl K, Levin B, Wisner KL. (2005). Neonatal signs after late in utero exposure to serotonin reuptake inhibitors: literature review and implications for clinical applications. JAMA 293: 2372-2383.Search in Google Scholar

Nonacs R, Cohen LS. (2002). Depression during pregnancy: diagnosis and treatment options. J Clin Psychiatry 63: 24-30.Search in Google Scholar

Oberlander TF, Papsdorf M, Brain UM, Misri S, Ross C, Grunau RE. (2010). Prenatal effect of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor antidepressants, serotonin, transporter promoter genotype (SLC6A4) and maternal mood on child behavior at 3 years of age. Arch Padiatr Adolesc Med 164: 444-451.Search in Google Scholar

OECD. (1995). Guideline for the testing of chemicals, Draft proposal for a new guideline 426, Developmental Neurotoxicity Study.Search in Google Scholar

Papakostas GI, Thase ME, Fava M, Nelson JC, Shelton RC. (2007). Are antidepressant drugs that combine serotonergic and noradrenergic mechanisms of action more eff ective than the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in treating major depression disorder? A meta-analysis of studies of newer agents. Biol Psychiatry 62: 1217-1227.Search in Google Scholar

Patil AS, Kuller JA, Rhee EH. (2011) Antidepressants in pregnancy: a review of commonly prescribed medications. Obstet Gynecol Surv 66: 777-8.Search in Google Scholar

Pilar-Cuéllar F, Vidal R, Pazos A. (2012). Subchronic treatment with fluoxetine and the 5-HT(2A) antagonist ketanserin upregulates hippocampal BDNF and β-catenin in parallel with antidepressant-like eff ect. Br J Pharmacol. 165(4b): 1046-57Search in Google Scholar

Rampono J, Simmer K, Ilett KF, Hackett LP, Doherty DA, Elliot R, Kok CH, Coenen A, Froman T. (2009). Placental transfer of SSRI and SNRI antidepressants and eff ects on the neonate. Pharmacopsychiatry 42: 95-100.Search in Google Scholar

Sumner SC, Fennell TR, Snyder RW, Taylor GF, Lewin AH. (2010). Distribution of carbon-14 labeled C60 ([14C]C60) in the pregnant and in the lactating dam and the eff ect of C60 exposure on the biochemical profi le of urine. J Appl Toxicol 30: 354-60.Search in Google Scholar

Tuccori M, Testi A, Antonioli L, Fomai M, Montagnani S, Ghisu N, Colucci R, Corona T, Blandizzi C, Del Tacca M. (2009). Safety concerns associated with the use of serotonin reuptake inhibitors and other serotonergic/noradrenergic antidepressants during pregnancy: a review. Clin Ther 31: 1426-1453.Search in Google Scholar

Weikop P, Kehr J, Scheel-Krüger J. (2007). Reciprocal eff ects of combined administration of serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine reuptake inhibitors on serotonin and dopamine levels in the rat prefrontal cortex: the role of 5-HT1A receptors. J. Psychopharmacol. 21: 795-804.Search in Google Scholar

Wellington K, Perry C. (2001). Venlafaxine extended-release: a review of its use in the management of major depression. CNS Drugs 15: 643-69.Search in Google Scholar

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo