1. bookVolume 66 (2022): Issue 1 (July 2022)
Journal Details
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
access type Open Access

Grading Material Properties in 3D Printed Concrete Structures

Published Online: 11 Jul 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 66 (2022) - Issue 1 (July 2022)
Page range: 73 - 89
Received: 31 Mar 2022
Accepted: 23 Jun 2022
Journal Details
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year

Functionally graded materials (FGMs) describe composite materials with a gradual change in properties along one or several axes. A major advantage with this approach is the avoidance of discontinuities between different layers of material. 3D Printing offers the possibility to control the material composition and spatial placement along the printing process to create structures with graded properties. However, there are very few examples of the application of this approach to 3D concrete printing (3DCP). This paper presents a review of the current approaches of and methods to grade the material properties of a 3DCP structure, as well as a review of similar methods used in other 3D printing processes. Finally, the potential applicability of these principles into concrete are presented and discussed.


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