1. bookVolume 58 (2018): Issue 1 (June 2018)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo

Reduction of Radon Gas in Concrete Using Admixtures and Additives

Published Online: 01 Dec 2018
Page range: 17 - 34
Received: 06 Feb 2018
Accepted: 18 Apr 2018
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
30 Sep 2018
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Copyright
© 2020 Sciendo
Abstract

The second largest cause of lung cancer is related to radon (222Rn) and its progenies in our environment. Building materials, such as concrete, contribute to the production of radon gas through the natural decay of 238U from its constituents. The Swedish Cement and Concrete Research Institute (CBI) has examined three concrete recipes where only an additive as well as fly ash were added as single constituents to a reference recipe and compared to a reference concrete. The inputs of an additive as well as a supplementary cementitious material (fly ash) were made as a mean to investigate their potential influence on the radon exhalation rates of the concrete. Measurements were performed with an ATMOS 33 ionizing pulsation chamber for at least five different occasions for each recipe during a 22 month period. The results indicate a reduction of the exhalation rate by approximately 30-35 % for each altered recipe. This means roughly 1.5-2 mSv per year decrease in effective dose to a human using an additive or a supplementary cementitious material such as fly ash in relation to the investigated standard concrete.

Keywords

1. World Health Organization. “WHO Handbook on Indoor Radon: a Public Health Perspective,” World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland, 2009, 110 pp.Search in Google Scholar

2. EC. “CPR - Regulation (EU) no 305/2011 of the European Parliament and of the Council Laying Down Harmonized Conditions for the Marketing of Construction Products and repealing,” Council Directive 89/106/EEC, Official Journal European Union, Vol. 88, 2011, pp. 5-43.Search in Google Scholar

3. EC. “Council Directive 2013/59/Euroatom of 5 December 2013 Laying Down Basic Safety Standards for Protection against the Dangers Arising from Exposure to Ionizing Radiation, and repealing Directives 89/618/Euroatom, 90/641/Euroatom, 96/29/Euroatom, 97/43/Euroatom and 2003/122/Euroatom,” Offical Journal of the European Union, Vol. 13, 2014, 73 pp.Search in Google Scholar

4. Darby S, Hill D, Auvinen A, Barros-Dios JM, Baysson H, Bochicchio F, Deo H, Falk R, Forastiere F, Hakam M, Heid I, Kreienbrock L, Kreuzer M, Lagrade F, Mäkeläinen I, Muirhead C, Oberaigner W, Pershagen G, Ruano-Ravina A, Ruosteenoja E, Schaffrath Rosario A, Tirmarche M, Tomasek L, Whitley E, Wichmann H-E & Doll R: “Residential Radon and Lung Cancer: Detailed Results of a Collaborative Analysis of Individual Data on 7148 Persons with Lung Cancer, 14208 Persons without Lung Cancer from 13 Epidemiologic studies in Europed,” Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment and Health, Vol. 32, 2006.Search in Google Scholar

5. Mjönes L, Burén A, Swedjemark G A: “Radon Rates in Swedish Dwellings (Radonhalter i svenska bostäder),” SSI-report-a 84-23”, Stockholm, Sweden, 1984, 56 pp. (In Swedish).Search in Google Scholar

6. Jelinek C & Eliasson T: “Radiation from Bedrock (Strålning från bergmaterial),” Geological Survey of Sweden, SGU-report 2015:34, Uppsala, Sweden, 2015, 26 pp. (In Swedish).Search in Google Scholar

7. Stranden E, Kolstad A. K., Lind B: “The Influence of Moisture and Temperature on Radon Exhalation,” Radiation Protection Dosimetry, Vol. 7, No 1-4, 1984, pp. 55-58.Search in Google Scholar

8. De Jong P & van Dijk W: “The Effect of the Composition and Production Process of Concrete on the 222Rn Exhalation Rate,” Environmental International, Vol. 22, 1996, pp. 287-293.Search in Google Scholar

9. Chauhan R P & Kumar A: “Radon Resistant Potential of Concrete Manufactured Using Ordinary Portland Cement Blended with Rice Husk Ash,” Atmospheric Environment, Vol. 81, 2013, pp. 413–420.10.1016/j.atmosenv.2013.09.024Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

10. Zhongnan S, Xiao X, Yanwen L, Jingna Y, Zhongyu H, Shizhao S, Lihong J, Weidong Z, Lijin X, Hongqiang Z, Jian Q, Wenzhan J, Tao Z, Liang H, Baohua W, Xiqiang L & Nan Z: “Experimental Exploration of the Waterproofing Mechanism of Inorganic Sodium Silicate-Based Concrete Sealers,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 104, 2016, pp. 276–283.Search in Google Scholar

11. Cozmuta I, Van der Graaf E R & de Meijer R J: “Moisture Dependence of Radon Transport in Concrete: Measurements and Modeling,” Health Physics, Vol. 85, No. 4, 2003, Groningen, The Netherlands, pp. 438-456.Search in Google Scholar

12. Yu K N, Young E C M, Stokes M J, Kwan M K & Balendran R V: “Radon Emanation from Concrete Surfaces and the Effect of the Curing Period, Pulverized Fuel Ash (PFA) Substitution and Age,” Applied Radiation and Isotopes, Vol. 48, No 7, 1997, pp. 1003-1007.10.1016/S0969-8043(97)00021-3Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

13. Taylor-Lange S C, Stewart J G, Juenger M C G & Siegel J A: “The Contribution of Fly Ash toward Indoor Radon Pollution from Concrete,” Building and Environment, Vol. 56, 2012, pp. 276-282.Search in Google Scholar

14. ISO 11665-7. “Measurement of Radioactivity in the Environment — Air: Radon-222 — Part 7: Accumulation Method for Estimating Surface Exhalation Rate,” International Standard (ISO), First edition, Geneva, Switzerland, 2012, 23 pp.Search in Google Scholar

15. Swedish National Board of Housing, Building and Planning: “The National Board of Housing, Building and Planning Regulatory Framework (Boverkets författningssamling),” BFS 2006:12 – BBR 12 (in Swedish), Karlskrona, Sweden, 2006, 44 pp. (In Swedish).Search in Google Scholar

16. Åkerblom G & Clavensjö B: “Book of Radon – Preventing Measures in New Buildings (Radonboken, förebyggande åtgärder i nya byggnader).” Formas, Stockholm, Sweden, 2004, 106 pp. (In Swedish).Search in Google Scholar

17. Greenspan L: “Humidity Fixed Points of Binary Saturated Aqueous Solutions”. Journal of Research of the National Bureau of Standards. A Physics and Chemistry, Vol. 81a, No 1, 1977, pp. 89-95.Search in Google Scholar

18. Åhs, M. “Simulation of Moisture Measurements in Concrete with a Low w/c Ratio (Simulering av fuktmätning i betong med lågt vct),” TVBM; Div. of Building Materials, Faculty of Engineering, Lund University, Lund, Sweden, Vol. 3177, 2014, 46 pp. (In Swedish).Search in Google Scholar

19. Döse M: “Ionizing Radiation in Concrete and Concrete Buildings – Empirical Assessment,” Bulletin 141, (Licentiate Thesis), Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2016, 91 pp.Search in Google Scholar

20. Isaksson M: “Basic Radiation Physics (Grundläggande strålningsfysik)”, 2nd edition. Elanders, Studentlitteratur, Lund, Sweden, 2011, 330 pp.Search in Google Scholar

21. Isaksson M & Rääf, C L: “Environmental Radioactivity and Emergency Preparedness,” CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group, Florida, USA, 2016, 614 pp.Search in Google Scholar

22. Zhuqing Y & Guang Y: “The Pore Structure of Cement Paste Blended with Fly Ash,” Construction and Building Materials, Vol. 45, 2013, pp. 30–35.Search in Google Scholar

23. Setina J, Gabrene A & Juhnevica I: “Effect of Pozzolanic Additives on Structure and Chemical Durability of Concrete,” Procedia Engineering, Vol. 57, 2013, pp. 1005-1012.Search in Google Scholar

24. Keller G, Hoffmann B, & Feigenspan T: “Radon Permeability and Radon Exhalation of Building Materials,” Science of the Total Environment, Vol. 272, 2001, pp. 85-89.Search in Google Scholar

25. Hycrete Inc.: “Material Safety data Sheet Hycrete X1002.”. Hycrete Inc., p 3. www.hycrete.comSearch in Google Scholar

26. US-Patent 7261923. 2003. “Alkali Salt of Branched Dioic Acid and Defoamer; Post Surface Treating Construction Materials; Imparting Lasting, Effective Moisture Resistance”.Search in Google Scholar

27. US-Patent 7381252. 2003. “Anti-Corrosion Admixture Composition for Concrete Compositions for Use in Reinforced Concrete Structures”.Search in Google Scholar

28. US-Patent 7407535. 2006. “Compositions Containing a Disodium or Dipotassium C9-15 Branched Alken-1-Ylsuccinate for Treating Formed Concrete Structures; Despite Being Water Soluble the Treatments Deliver Improved Moisture Resistance”.Search in Google Scholar

29. US-Patent 7498090. 2003. “A Material Such as Reinforced or Unreinforced Concrete Coated with a Disodium or Dipotassium Salt of an Unsaturated Dicarboxylic Acid, Such as Disodium Dodecenylsuccinate”.Search in Google Scholar

30. US-Patent 7513948. 2006. “Autogenous Healing of Cracks in Concrete Structures”.Search in Google Scholar

31. US-Patent 7670415. 2007. “Vapor Barrier for Porous Structures and System”.Search in Google Scholar

32. Selander, A, “Hydrophobic Impregnation of Concrete Structures – Effects on Concrete Properties,” Bulletin 141 (Doctoral Thesis), Dept. of Civil and Architectural Engineering, School of Architecture and Built Environment, KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden, 2010, 45 pp.Search in Google Scholar

33. Roos M, König F, Stadtmüller S & Weyershausen B: “Evolution of Silicone Based Water Repellents for Modern Building Protection,” Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Water Repellent Treatment of Building Materials”, Brussels, Belgium, 2008, Aedificatio Publishers, pp. 3-16.Search in Google Scholar

34. Selander A, Davant N & Malaga K: “Hydrophobic Shotcrete – a Method to Waterproof Tunnels,” Proceedings, Hydrophobe VII - 7th International Conference on Water Repellent Treatment and Protective Surface Technology for Building Materials, Lisbon, Portugal, 2014, pp. 67-75.Search in Google Scholar

35. Spaeth V, Delplancke-Ogletree M P & Lecomte J P: “Hydration Process and Microstructure Development of Integral Water Repellent Cement Based Materials,” Proceedings, 5th International Conference on Water Repellent Treatment of Building Materials”, Brussels, Belgium, 2008, Aedificatio Publishers, pp. 245-254.Search in Google Scholar

36. Chauhan R P & Kumar A: “Study of Radon Transport Modified with Silica Fume,” Radiation Measurements, Vol. 59, 2013, pp. 59-65.Search in Google Scholar

37. ICRP. “Lung Cancer Risk from Radon and Progeny and Statement on Radon,” ICRP Publication 115, Ann. ICRP 40 (1), 2010.Search in Google Scholar

38. CEN/TR 17113. “Construction Products - Assessment of Release of Dangerous Substances - Radiation From Construction Products - Dose Assessment of Emitted Gamma Radiation,” European committee for standardization, CEN, 2017, pp. 47.Search in Google Scholar

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo