1. bookVolume 66 (2022): Issue 1 (March 2022)
Journal Details
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Canine Intracranial Venous System: A Review

Published Online: 31 Mar 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 66 (2022) - Issue 1 (March 2022)
Page range: 60 - 69
Received: 26 Jan 2022
Accepted: 28 Feb 2022
Journal Details
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

The intracranial venous system (ICVS) represents in mammals a complex three-dimensional structure, which provides not only for adequate brain perfusion, but has also a significant impact on: cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) resorption, maintaining of the intracranial pressure (ICP), and brain thermoregulation. An intimate understanding of the anatomy and physiology of ICVS is fundamental for neurological diagnostics, selection of therapeutic options, and success of neurosurgical procedures in human and veterinary medicine. Since the intracranial interventions in dogs are recently performed more frequently than twenty or thirty years ago, the authors decided to review and report on the basic knowledge regarding the complex topic of morphology and function of the canine ICVS. The research strategy involved an NCBI/NLM, PubMed/MED-LINE, and Clarivate Analytics Web of Science search from January 1, 1960, to December 31, 2021, using the terms “canine dural venous sinuses” and “intracranial venous system in dogs” in the English language literature; also references from selected papers were scanned and relevant articles included.


1. Amato, M. C., Tirapelli, L. F., Carlotti, C. G., Jr., Colli, B. O., 2016: Straight sinus: ultrastructural analysis aimed at surgical tumour resection. J. Neurosurg., 125, 494—507. DOI: 10.3171/2015.6.JNS15584.10.3171/2015.6.JNS1558426745473 Search in Google Scholar

2. Agrawal, D., Naik, V., 2015: Postoperative cerebral venous infarction. J. Pediatr. Neurosci., 10, 5—8. DOI: 10.4103/1817-1745.154314. Search in Google Scholar

3. Armstrong, L. D., Horowitz, A., 1971: The brain venous system of the dog. Developmental dynamics. Am. J. Anat., 132, 479—490. DOI: 10.1002/aja.1001320406.10.1002/aja.10013204065126024 Search in Google Scholar

4. Aurboonyawat, T., Suthipongchai, S., Pereira, V., Ozanne, A., Plasjaunias, P., 2007: Patterns of cranial venous system from the comparative anatomy in vertebrates. Part I. Introduction and the dorsal venous system. Intervent. Radiol., 13, 335—344. DOI: 10.1177/159101990701300404.10.1177/159101990701300404332923920566102 Search in Google Scholar

5. Aurboonyawat, T., Pereira, V., Kring, T., Toulgoat, F., Churojana, A., Lasjaunias, P., 2008: Patterns of the cranial venous system from the comparative anatomy in vertebrates. Part II. The lateral-ventral venous system. Intervent. Radiol., 14, 21—31. DOI: 10.1177/159101990801400103.10.1177/159101990801400103331370120557782 Search in Google Scholar

6. Aurboonyawat, T., Pereira, V., Krings, T., Toulgoat, F., Chiewvit, P., Lasjaunias, P., 2008: Patterns of the cranial venous system from the comparative anatomy in vertebrates. Part III. The ventricular system and comparative anatomy of the venous outlet of spinal cord and its homology with the five brain vesicles. Intervent. Radiol., 14, 125—136. DOI: 10. 1177/159101990801400203.10.1177/159101990801400203331371520557753 Search in Google Scholar

7. Balik, V., Uberall, I., Sulla, I., Ehrman, J., Kato, Y., Sulla, I. J., et al., 2018: Variability in wall thickness and related structures of major dural sinuses in posterior cranial fossa: a microscopic anatomical study and clinical implications. Oper. Neurosurg., 17, 88—96. DOI: 10.1093/ons/opy287.10.1093/ons/opy28730395343 Search in Google Scholar

8. Balik, V., 2019: Histological structure of the major dural sinus walls in the posterior cranial fossa: a factor that might matter in dural sinus surgery. World Neurosurg., 128, 431—432. DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019. Search in Google Scholar

9. Barami, K., 2016: Cerebral venous overdrainage: an under-recognized complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion. Neurosurg. Focus, 41, 3, E9. DOI: 10.3171/2016.6.FOCUS 16172. Search in Google Scholar

10. Barbati, G., Dalla Montá, G., Coletta, R., Blasetti, A. G., 2003: Post-traumatic superior sagittal sinus thrombosis, Case report and analysis of the international literature. Minerva Anestesiol., 69, 919—925. Search in Google Scholar

11. Batson, O. V., 1940: The function of the vertebral veins in metastatic processes. Ann. Surg., 112, 138—149. DOI: 10. 1097/00000658-194007000-00016.10.1097/00000658-194007000-00016138792717857618 Search in Google Scholar

12. Bezuidenhout, A. J., 2013: Veins of the central nervous system. In Evans, H. E., de Lahunta, A.: Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog. 4th edn., Elsevier, Saunders, St. Louis, 526—534. Search in Google Scholar

13. Butler, H., 1967: The development of mammalian dural venous sinuses with especial reference to the post-glenoid vein. J. Anat., 102, 33—56. Search in Google Scholar

14. Carreira, L. M., Ferreira, A., Burilo, F. L., 2011: The dorsal sagittal venous sinus anatomical variations in brachycephalic, dolichocephalic, and mesocephalic dogs and their significance for brain surgery. Anat. Rec., 294, 1920—1929. DOI: 10.1002/ar.21474.10.1002/ar.2147421972218 Search in Google Scholar

15. Carreira, L. M., Ferreira, A., 2016: Morphological variations in the transverse venous sinus anatomy of dogs and its relationship to skull landmarks. Anat. Histol. Embryol., 45, 308—318. DOI: 10.1111/ahe.12199.10.1111/ahe.1219926315333 Search in Google Scholar

16. Chen, S., Chen, Y., Xu, L., Matei, N., Tang, J., Feng, H., et al., 2015: Venous system in acute brain injury: mechanisms of pathophysiological changes and function. Exp. Neurol., 272, 4—10. DOI: 10.1016/j.expneurol.2015. Search in Google Scholar

17. D’Alecy, L., Feigl, E. O., 1972: Sympathetic control of cerebral blood flow in dogs. Circ. Res., 31, 267—283. DOI: 10. 1161/01.res. Search in Google Scholar

18. Daniaux, L. A., Sturges, B. K., Zwingenberger, A. L., 2012: Multiple meningiomas in a dog: A case report. Vet. World, 5, 495—498. DOI: 10.5455/vetworld.2012.495‒498.10.5455/vetworld.2012.495-498 Search in Google Scholar

19. Evans, H. E., de Lahunta, A., 2013: Axial skeleton. Skull. In Evans, H. E., de Lahunta, A.: Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog. 4th edn., Elsevier, Saunders, St. Louis, 84—113. Search in Google Scholar

20. Famaey, N., Cui, Z. Y., Musigazi, G. U., Ivens, J., Depreitere, B., Verbeken, E., et al., 2015: Structural and mechanical characterization of bridging veins: A review. J. Mol. Behav. Biomed. Mater., 41, 222—240. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmbbm. 2014.06.009. Search in Google Scholar

21. Fenn, J., Lam, R., Kenny, P. J., 2013: Variations in magnetic resonance venographic anatomy of the dorsal venous sinus system in 51 dogs. Vet. Radiol. Ultrasound, 54, 373—380. DOI: 10.1111/vru.12041.10.1111/vru.1204123578353 Search in Google Scholar

22. Forward, A. K., Volk, H. A., DeDecker, S., 2018: Postoperative survival and early complications after intracranial surgery in dogs. Vet. Surg., 47, 549—554. DOI: 10.1111/vsu. 12785. Search in Google Scholar

23. García-González, U., Cavalcanti, D. D., Agrawal, A., Gonzalez, L. F., Wallace, R. C., Spetzler, R. F., et al., 2009: The diploic venous system: surgical anatomy and neurosurgical implications. Neurosurg. Focus, 27, 5, E2. DOI: 001: 10.3171/2009.8.FOCUS09169.10.3171/2009.8.FOCUS0916919877793 Search in Google Scholar

24. Gedrova, S., Galik, J., Marsala, M., Zavodska, M., Pavel, J., Sulla, I., et al., 2018: Neuroprotective effect of local hypothermia in a computer-controlled compression model in minipig: Correlation of tissue sparing along the rostrocaudal axis with neurological outcome. Exp. Ther. Med., 15, 254—270. DOI: 10.3892/etm.2017.5432.10.3892/etm.2017.5432576922329399061 Search in Google Scholar

25. Gowin,W.,1983:Bedeutung des Wirbelsäulensystems bei der Metastasenbildung. Stralentherapie, 159, 682—689. Search in Google Scholar

26. Haziroglu, R. M., Takci, I., Ciftci, N., 1994: Gross anatomy of dural sinuses in sheep. A. Ü. Vet. Fak. Derg., 41, 533—539. DOI: 10.1501/Vetfak_0000000358.10.1501/Vetfak_0000000358 Search in Google Scholar

27. Hibino, H., Matsuura, M., 1985: Cerebral venous sinus pressure in seated dogs: impact of PEEP, cervical venous compression, and abdominal compression. Anesthesiol., 63, 184—189. DOI: 10.1097/00000542-198508000-00012.10.1097/00000542-198508000-000123896029 Search in Google Scholar

28. Hicks, J., Platt, S., Kent, M., Haley, A., 2015: Canine brain tumours: a model for the human disease ? Vet. Compar. Oncol., 15, 252—272. DOI: 10.1111/vco.12152.10.1111/vco.1215225988678 Search in Google Scholar

29. Holt, J. P., 1959: Flow of liquids through “collapsible” tubes. Circ. Res., 7, 342—353. DOI: 10.1161/01.RES.7.3.342.10.1161/01.RES.7.3.342 Search in Google Scholar

30. Hopkins, A. L., Wheeler, S. J., 1991: Subdural hematoma in a dog. Vet. Surg., 20, 413—417. DOI: 10.1111/j.1532-950x.1991.tb00349.x.10.1111/j.1532-950X.1991.tb00349.x Search in Google Scholar

31. Jones, A. M., Bentley, E., Rylander, H., 2018: Cavernous sinus syndrome in dogs and cats: Case series (2002—2015). Open Vet. J., 8, 186—192. DOI: 10.4314/ovj.v8i2.12.10.4314/ovj.v8i2.12598735129911023 Search in Google Scholar

32. Kilic, T., Akakin, A., 2008: Anatomy of cerebral veins and sinuses. Front. Neurol. Neurosci., 23, 4—15. DOI: 10. 1159/000111256. Search in Google Scholar

33. Luce, J. M., Huseby, J. L., Butler, J., 1982: A Starling resistor regulates cerebral venous outflow in dogs. J. Appl. Physiol., 53, 1496—1503. DOI: 10.1152/jappl.1982.53.6.1496.10.1152/jappl.1982.53.6.14966759493 Search in Google Scholar

34. Mortazavi, M. M., Tubbs, R. S., Riech, S., Verma, K., Shoja, M. M., Zurada, A., et al., 2012: Anatomy and pathology of the cranial emissary veins: A review with surgical implications. Neurosurgery, 70, 1312—1319. DOI: 10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824388f8.10.1227/NEU.0b013e31824388f822127046 Search in Google Scholar

35. Navarro, R., Juhas, S., Keshavarzi, S., Juhasova, J., Motlik, J., Marsala, S., et al., 2012: Chronic spinal compression model in minipigs: a systematic behavioural, qualitative, and quantitative neuropathological study. J. Neurotrauma, 29, 499—513. DOI: 10.1089/neu.2011.2076.10.1089/neu.2011.2076327882322029501 Search in Google Scholar

36. Pfitzner, J., 1976: Poiseuille and his law. Anaesthesia, 31, 273—275. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2044.1976.tb11804.x.10.1111/j.1365-2044.1976.tb11804.x779509 Search in Google Scholar

37. Pleasas, I. N., Jull, P., Volk, H. A., 2013: A case of canine discospondylitis and epidural empyema due to Salmonella species. Can. Vet. J., 54, 595—598. Search in Google Scholar

38. Proulx, S. T., 2021: Cerebrospinal fluid outflow: a review of the historical and contemporary evidence for arachnoid willi, perineural routes, and dural lymphatics. Cell. Molec. Life Sci., 78, 2429—2457. DOI: 10.1007/s00018-020-03706-5.10.1007/s00018-020-03706-5800449633427948 Search in Google Scholar

39. Reinhard, K., Miller, M., Evans, H., 1962: The craniovertebral veins and sinuses of the dog. Am. J. Anat., 11, 67—87. DOI: 10.1002/aja.1001110106.10.1002/aja.100111010614491272 Search in Google Scholar

40. Rossmaisl, J. H., 2014: New treatment modalities for brain tumours in dogs and cats. Vet. Clin. North Am. Small Anim. Pract., 44, 1013—1038. DOI: 10.1016/j.cvsm.2014. Search in Google Scholar

41. Sarvar, M., Virapongse, C., Carbo, P., 1984: Experimental production of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis in the dog. AJNR, 6, 19—22. Search in Google Scholar

42. Schaller, B., Graf, R., Sanada, Y., Tolnay, M., Rosner, G., Wienhard, K., et al., 2003: Hemodynamic changes after occlusion of the posterior sagittal sinus: an experimental PET study in cats. Am. J. Neuroradiol., 24, 1876—1880. Search in Google Scholar

43. Schaller, B., 2004: Physiology of cerebral venous blood flow: from experimental data in animals to normal function in humans. Brain Res. Rew., 46, 243—260. DOI: 10.1016/j. brainresrev.2004.04.005. Search in Google Scholar

44. Schliemann, H., 1966: Zur Morfologie und Entwicklung des Craniums von Canis lupus familiaris. Gegenbraurs Morphol. Jahrb., 109, 501—603. Search in Google Scholar

45. Schmutz, H.-K., 1980: The chordae Willisii in the superior sagittal sinus: morphology and classification. Acta Anat., 108, 94—98. DOI: 10.1159/000145286.10.1159/0001452867445958 Search in Google Scholar

46. Sessums, K., Mariani, C., 2009: Intracranial meningioma in dogs and cats: a comparative review. Compendium Vet. (Yardley, PA), 31, 330—339. Search in Google Scholar

47. Shulman, K., Yarnell, P., Ransohoff, J., 1964: Dural sinus pressure in normal and hydrocephalic dogs. Arch. Neurol., 10, 575—580. DOI: 10.1001/archneur.1964.00460180041003.10.1001/archneur.1964.0046018004100314130416 Search in Google Scholar

48. Sindou, M., Auque, J., Jouanneau, E., 2005: Neurosurgery and the intracranial venous system. Acta Neurochir. (Suppl.), 94, 167—175. DOI: 10.1007/3-211-27911-3_27.10.1007/3-211-27911-3_2716060259 Search in Google Scholar

49. Skerrit, G., 2018: King’s Applied Anatomy of the Central Nervous System of Domestic Mammals. 2nd edn., John Wiley and Sons Ltd., Chichester, UK, 368 pp. Search in Google Scholar

50. Snyder, J. M., Lipitz, L., Skorupski, K. A., Shofer, F. S., Van Winkle, T. J., 2008: Secondary intracranial neoplasia in the dog: 177 cases (1986—2003). J. Vet. Intern. Med., 22, 172—177. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2007.0002. Search in Google Scholar

51. Song, R. B., Vite, C. H., Bradley, C. W., Cross, J. R., 2013: Postmortem evaluation of 435 cases of intracranial neoplasia in dogs and relationship of neoplasm with breed, age, and body weight. J. Vet. Intern. Med., 27, 1143—1152. DOI: 10. 1111/jvim.12136.10.1111/jvim.1213623865437 Search in Google Scholar

52. Sturges, B. K., Dickinson, P. J., Bollen, A. W., Koblik, P. D., Kass, P. H., Kortz, G. D., et al., 2008: Magnetic resonance imaging and histological classification of intracranial meningiomas in 112 dogs. J. Vet. Intern. Med., 22, 586—595. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.00042.x.10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.00042.x18466258 Search in Google Scholar

53. Suñol, A., Mascort, J., Font, C., Bastante, A. R., Pumarola, M., Feliu-Pascual, A. L., 2017: Long-term follow-up of surgical resection alone for primary intracranial rostrotentorial tumours in dogs: 29 cases (2002—2013). Open Vet. J., 7, 375—383. DOI: 10.4314/ovj.v7i4.14.10.4314/ovj.v7i4.14576892529392117 Search in Google Scholar

54. Swayne, D. E., Tyler, D. E., Batker, J., 1988: Cerebral infarction with associated venous thrombosis in a dog. Vet. Pathol., 25, 317—320. DOI.org/10.1177/030098588802500413.10.1177/0300985888025004133407103 Search in Google Scholar

55. Šulla, I., Vanický, I., 2003: Experience with frontoparietal craniotomy in a dog—an experimental model and possible clinical implications. Folia Vet., 47, 95—98. Search in Google Scholar

56. Uriante, A., Moissonnier, P., Thibaud, J.-L., Reyes-Gomez, E., Devauchelle, P., Blot, S., 2011: Surgical treatment and radiation therapy of frontal lobe meningiomas in 7 dogs. Can. Vet. J., 52, 748—752. Search in Google Scholar

57. Wall, M., 2010: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension. Neurol. Clin., 28, 593—617. DOI: 10.1016/j.ncl.2010. Search in Google Scholar

58. Wang, J., Tan, H.-Q., Li, M.-H., Sun, X.-J., Fu, C.-M., Zhu, Y.-Q., et al., 2010: Development of a new model of transvenous thrombosis in the pig superior sagittal sinus using thrombin injection and balloon occlusion. J. Neuroradiol., 37, 109—115. DOI: 10.1016/j.neurad.2009. Search in Google Scholar

59. Westworth, D. R., Dickinson, P. J., Vernau, W., Johnson, E. G., Bollen, A. W., Kass, P. H., et al., 2008: Choroid plexus tumours in 56 dogs (1985—2007). J. Vet. Intern. Med., 22, 1157—1165. DOI: 10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0170.x.10.1111/j.1939-1676.2008.0170.x18691364 Search in Google Scholar

60. Wilson, M. H., 2016: Monro-Kellie 2.0: The dynamic vascular and venous pathophysiological components of intracranial pressure. J. Cer. Blood Flow Metab., 36, 1338—1350. DOI: 10.1177/0271678X16648711.10.1177/0271678X16648711497160827174995 Search in Google Scholar

61. Wisocki, J., Kobryň, H., Bubrowski, M., Kwiatkowski, J., Reymond, J., Skarzyňska, B., 2004: The morphology of the hypoglossal canal and its size in relation to skull capacity in man and other mammal species. Folia Morphol., 63, 11—17. Search in Google Scholar

62. Yenigün, M., Jünemann, M., Gerriets, T., Stolz, E., 2015: Sinus thrombosis—do animal models really cover the clinical syndrome ? Ann. Transl. Med., 3, 10, 138, DOI: 10.3978/j. issn.2305-5839.2015.05.14. Search in Google Scholar

63. Zamboni, P., Menegatti, E., Pomidori, L., Morovicz, S., Taibi, A., Malagoni, A. M., et al., 2012: Does thoracic pump influence the cerebral venous return ? J. Appl. Physiol., 112, 904—910. DOI: 10.1152/japplphysiol.00712.2011.10.1152/japplphysiol.00712.201122174396 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo