1. bookVolume 40 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

Being Dark is Better: A Feral Pigeon Plumage Polymorphism as a Response to Urban Environments in Slovakia

Published Online: 18 Apr 2021
Page range: 54 - 61
Received: 26 Jul 2020
Accepted: 03 Sep 2020
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the distribution and plumage phenotypes of the feral pigeon, Columba livia forma urbana (Gmelin, 1789), in Slovakia. Censuses carried out in the built-up areas of 16 towns and cities from November to February (2012–2018) counted and evaluated 3,123 individual birds. The most frequent were melanic colored birds (checker, T-pattern and spread phenotypes), which predominated in the population (51.6%, n = 1,613), followed by paler ones (42.1%, n = 1,316) and other types (6.2%, n = 194). A statistically significant difference was confirmed among the melanic and paler plumage phenotypes (χ2 = 81.49, df = 15, p < 0.0001). Correlation confirmed the different importance of city area and human density on the maintenance of dark and/or pale pigeons living in cities.

Keywords

Blumstein, D.T. (2014). Attention, habituation, and antipredator behaviour: implications for urban birds. In D. Gil & H. Brumm (Eds.), Avian urban ecology (pp. 41–53). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Burley, N. (1977). Parental investment, mate choice, and mate quality. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 74, 3476–3479.Search in Google Scholar

Chace, J.F. & Walsh J.J. (2006). Urban effects on native avifauna: a review. Landsc. Urban Plann., 74, 46–69. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurb-plan.2004.08.007.Search in Google Scholar

Chakarov, N., Boerner, M. & Krüger O. (2008). Fitness in common buzzards at the cross-point of opposite melaninparasite interactions. Funct. Ecol., 22, 1062–1066. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2435.2008.01460.x.Search in Google Scholar

Chatelain, M., Gasparini, J. & Frantz A. (2016). Do trace metals select for darker birds in urban areas? An experimental exposure to lead and zinc. Global Change Biol., 22, 2380–2391. DOI: 10.1111/gcb.13170.Search in Google Scholar

Chatelain, M., Gasparini, J., Jacquin, L. & Frantz A. (2014). The adaptive function of melanin-based plumage coloration to trace metals. Biol. Lett., 10(3), 20140164. DOI: 10.1098/rsbl.2014.0164.Search in Google Scholar

Čanády, A. & Mošanský L. (2013). Population size and plumage polymorphism of feral pigeon (Columba livia forma urbana) from urban environment of Kosice city (Slovakia). Zool. Ecol., 23(2), 104–110. DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2013.797149.Search in Google Scholar

Čanády, A. & Mošanský L. (2016). Plumage colour patterns and density of feral pigeon from urban areas of the Stropkov and Svidník cities (Ondavská Vrchovina Mts, Slovakia). Folia Oecologica – Acta Universitatis Prešoviensis, 8(2), 5–13.Search in Google Scholar

Čanády, A. & Mošanský L. (2017). Public Cemetery as a biodiversity hotspot for birds and mammals in the urban environment of Košice city (Slovakia). Zool. Ecol., 27(3–4), 185–195. DOI: 10.1080/21658005.2017.1366024.Search in Google Scholar

Díaz, M., M ller, A.P., Flensted-Jensen, E., Grim, T., Ibáñez-Álamo, J.D., Jokimäki, J., Markó, G. & Tryjanowski P. (2013). The geography of fear: A latitudinal gradient in anti-predator escape distances of birds across Europe. PloS One, 8, e64634. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0064634.Search in Google Scholar

Ducrest, A.L., Keller, L. & Roulin A. (2008). Pleiotropy in the melanocortin system, coloration and behavioural syndromes. Trends Ecol. Evol., 23(9), 502–510. DOI: 10.1016/j.tree.2008.06.001.Search in Google Scholar

Ferman, L.M., Peter, H.-U. & Montalti D. (2010). A study of feral pigeon Columba livia var. in urban and suburban areas in the city of Jena, Germany. Arx. de Misc. Zoo., 8, 1–8. DOI: 10.32800/amz.2010.08.0001.Search in Google Scholar

Gasparini, J., Bize, P., Piault, R., Wakamatsu, K., Blount, J.D., Ducrest, A.L. & Roulin A. (2009). Strength and cost of an induced immune response are associated with a heritable melanin-based colour trait in female tawny owls. J. Anim. Ecol., 78(3), 608–616. DOI: 10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01521.x.Search in Google Scholar

Gasparini, J., Erin, N., Bertin, C., Jacquin, L., Vorimore, F., Frantz, A., Lenouvel, P. & Laroucau K. (2011). Impact of urban environment and host phenotype on the epidemiology of Chlamydiaceae in feral pigeons (Columba livia). Environ. Microbiol., 13(12), 3186–3193. DOI: 10.1111/j.1462-2920.2011.02575.x.Search in Google Scholar

Haase, E., Ito, S., Sell, A. & Wakamatsu K. (1992). Melanin concentrations in feathers from wild and domestic pigeons. J. Hered., 83(1), 64–67.Search in Google Scholar

Hetmański, T. (2008). Variation in plumage colours and patterns of the Feral Pigeon Columba livia in Pomerian cities (in Polish). In P. Indykiewicz, L. Jerzak & T. Barczak (Eds.), Fauna Miast. Ochronić Różnorodność Bioticzną W Miastach (pp. 623–628). Bydgoszcz: Uniwersytet Technologiczno-Pryrodnoczy w Bydgoszcz oraz Uniwersytet Zielonogórski w Zielonej Górze.Search in Google Scholar

Hetmański, T. & Jarosiewicz A. (2008): Plumage polymorphism and breeding parameters of various feral pigeon (Columba livia GM.) morphs in urban area Gdańsk (Poland). Pol. J. Ecol., 56(4), 683–691.Search in Google Scholar

Jacquin, L., Cazelles, B., Prévot-Julliard, A.C., Leboucher, G. & Gasparini J. (2010). eproduction management affects breeding ecology and reproduction costs in feral urban pigeons (Columba livia). Can. J. Zool., 88(8), 781–787. DOI: 10.1139/Z10-044.Search in Google Scholar

Jacquin, L., Lenouvel, P., Haussy, C., Ducatez, S. & Gasparini J. (2011). Melanin-based coloration is related to parasite intensity and cellular immune response in an urban free living bird: the feral pigeon Columba livia. J. Avian Biol., 42, 11–15. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2010.05120.x.Search in Google Scholar

Jacquin, L., Récapet, C., Bouche, P., Leboucher, G. & Gasparini J. (2012). Melanin-based coloration reflects alternative strategies to cope with food limitation in pigeons. Behav. Ecol., 23, 907–913. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/ars055.Search in Google Scholar

Jacquin, L., C. Haussy, C., Bertin, C., Laroucau, K. & Gasparini J. (2013a). Darker female pigeons transmit more specific antibodies to their eggs than do paler ones. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 108, 647–675. DOI: 10.1111/bij.12001.Search in Google Scholar

Jacquin, L., Récapet, R.E., Prevot-Julliard, C., Leboucher, A.C., Lenouvel, G., Erin, P., Frantz, N., Corbel, A. & Gasparini J. (2013b). A potential role for parasites in the maintenance of bird color polymorphism in cities. Oecologia, 173, 1089–1099. DOI: 10.1007/s00442-013-2663-2.Search in Google Scholar

Janiga, M. (1991). Colour polymorphism in Feral Pigeons (Columba livia Gm. 1789). Acta Fac. Rerum Nat. Univ. Comenianae, Zool., 34, 31–36.Search in Google Scholar

Johnston, R.F. & Janiga M. (1995). Feral pigeons. New York: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Jokimäki, J. & Suhonenm J. (1998). Distribution and habitat selection of wintering birds in urban environments. Lands. Urban Plann., 34, 253–263. DOI: 10.1016/S0169-2046(97)00089-3.Search in Google Scholar

Kowalski, J., Indykiewicz, P. & Frieske A. (2011). Population size and plumage polymorphism in Feral Pigeon Columba livia var. urbana in the city of Bydgoszcz (Poland). In P. Indykiewicz, L. Jerzak, J. Böhner & B. Kavanagh (Eds.), Urban fauna. Studies of animal biology, ecology and conservation in European cities (pp. 435–447). Bydgoszc: University of Technology and Life Science in Bydgoszcz.Search in Google Scholar

Lofts, B., Murton, R.K. & Westwood N.J. (1966). Gonadal cycles and the evolution of breeding seasons in British Columbidae. J. Zool., 150, 249–272.Search in Google Scholar

Mikula, P. (2014). Pedestrian density influences flight distances of urban birds. Ardea 102(1), 53–61. DOI: 10.5253/078.102.0105.Search in Google Scholar

Mikula, P., Hromada, M. & Tryjanowski P. (2013). Bats and Swifts as food of the European Kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) in a small town in Slovakia. Ornis Fenn., 90, 178–185.Search in Google Scholar

Møller, A.P. (2008). Flight distance of urban birds, predation, and selection for urban life. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 63(1), 63–75. DOI: 10.1007/s00265-008-0636-y.Search in Google Scholar

Møller, A. P. & Ibáñez-Álamo,J. D. (2012). Escape behaviour of birds provides evidence of predation being involved in urbanization. Anim. Behav., 84(2), 341–348. DOI:10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.04.030.Search in Google Scholar

Obukhova, N.Y. (2001). Geographic variation of color in the synanthropic Blue Rock Pigeon. Russ. J. Genet., 37, 649–658.Search in Google Scholar

Obukhova, N.Y. (2007). Polymorphism and phene geography of the blue rock pigeon in Europe. Russ. J. Genet., 43(5), 492–501.Search in Google Scholar

Obukhova, N.Y. (2011). Dynamics of balanced polymorphism morphs in blue rock pigeon Columbia livia. Russ. J. Genet., 47(1), 83–89.Search in Google Scholar

Pardo, E., Bracamontes, J. & Begambre M. (2018). Variabilidad genética de las poblaciones de palomas domésticas (Columba livia) en Sincelejo, Sucre. Rev. de Investig. Vet. del Perú, 29(1), 55–63. DOI: 10.15381/rivep. v29i1.14198.Search in Google Scholar

Przybylska, K., Haidt, A., Myczko, Ł., Ekner, A., Rosin, Z.M., Kwieciński, Z., Tryjanowski, P., Suchodolska, J., Takacs, V., Jankowiak, Ł., Tobółka, M., Wasielewski, O., Graclik, A., Krawczyk, A. J., Kasprzak, A., Szwajkowski, P., Wylegała, P., Malecha, A.W., Mizera, T. & Skórka P. (2012).Local and landscape-level factors affecting the density and distribution of the Feral Pigeon Columba livia var. domestica in an urban environment. Acta Ornithol., 47, 37–45. DOI: 10.3161/000164512X653908.Search in Google Scholar

Récapet, C., Dauphin, L., Jacquin, L., Gasparini, J. & Prévot-Julliard A.C. (2013). Eumelanin-based colouration reflects local survival of juvenile feral pigeons in an urban pigeon house. J. Avian Biol., 44(6), 583–590. DOI: 10.1111/j.1600-048X.2013.00087.x.Search in Google Scholar

Roulin, A., Jungi, T.W., Pfister, H. & Dijkstra C. (2000). Female barn owls (Tyto alba) advertise good genes. Proc. R. Soc. B., 267(1446), 937–941. DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2000.1093.Search in Google Scholar

Roulin, A., Riols, C., Dijkstra, C. & Ducrest A.L. (2001). Female plumage spottiness signals parasite resistance in the barn owl (Tyto alba). Behav. Ecol., 12(1), 103–110. DOI: 10.1093/oxfordjournals.beheco.a000371.Search in Google Scholar

Roulin, A. (2004). The evolution, maintenance and adaptive function of genetic colour polymorphism in birds. Biol. Rev., 79(4), 815–848. DOI: 10.1017/S1464793104006487.Search in Google Scholar

Roulin, A. & Altwegg R. (2007). Breeding rate is associated with pheomelanism in male and with eumelanism in female barn owls. Behav. Ecol., 18, 563–570. DOI: 10.1093/beheco/arm015.Search in Google Scholar

Roulin, A., Gasparini, J., Bize, P., Ritschard, M. & Richner H. (2008). Melanin-based colorations signal strategies to cope with poor and rich environments. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol., 62, 507–519.Search in Google Scholar

Roulin, A. (2009). Melanin-based coloration covaries with ovary size in an age-specific manner in the barn owl. Naturwissenschaften, 96(10), 1177–1184.Search in Google Scholar

Roulin, A., Altwegg, R., Jensen, H., Steinsland, I. & Schaub M. (2010). Sex-dependent selection on an autosomal melanic female ornament promotes the evolution of sex ratio bias. Ecol. Lett., 13, 616–626. DOI: 10.1111/j.1461-0248.2010.01459.x.Search in Google Scholar

Saari, L. (1997). Columba livia. In W.J. Hagemeijer & M.J. Blair (Eds.), The EBCC Atlas of European breeding birds: their distribution and abundance (pp. 380–381). London: T & A.D. Poyser.Search in Google Scholar

Sacchi, R., Gentilli, A., Razzetti, E. & Barbieri F. (2002). Effects of building features on density and flock distribution of feral pigeons Columba livia var. domestica in an urban environment. Can. J. Zool., 80, 48–54. DOI: 10.1139/z01-202.Search in Google Scholar

Saino, N., Romano, M., Rubolini, D., Ambrosini, R., Caprioli, M., Milzani, A., Costanzo, A., Colombo, G., Canova, L. & Wakamatsu K. (2013). Viability is associated with melanin-based coloration in the barn swallow (Hirundo rustica). PLoS One, 8, e60426. DOI: 10.1371/journal. pone.0060426.Search in Google Scholar

Tryjanowski, P., Moller, A.P., Morelli, F., Biaduń, W., Brauze, T., Ciach, M., Czechowski, P., Czyż, S., Dulisz, B., Goławski, A., Hetmański, T., Indykiewicz, P., Mitrus, C., Myczko, Ł, Nowakowski, J.J., Polakowski, M., Takacs, V., Wysocki, D. & Zduniak P. (2016): Urbanization affects neophilia and risk-taking at bird-feeders. Sci. Rep., 6, e28575. DOI: 10.1038/srep28575.Search in Google Scholar

Tryjanowski, P., Morelli, F., Mikula, P., Krištín, A. Indykiewicz, P., Grzywaczewski, G., Kronenberg, J. & Jerzak L. (2017). Bird diversity in urban green space: A large-scale analysis of differences between parks and cemeteries in Central Europe. Urban For. Urban Green., 27, 264–271. DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2017.08.014.Search in Google Scholar

Van den Brink, V., Dreiss, A.N. & Roulin A. (2012). Melanin-based coloration predicts natal dispersal in the barn owl, Tyto alba. Anim. Behav., 84, 805–812. DOI: 10.1016/j.anbehav.2012.07.001.Search in Google Scholar

Vickrey, A.I., Bruders, R., Kronenberg, Z., Mackey, E., Bohlender, R.J., Maclary, E.T., Maynez, R., Osborne, E.J., Johnson, K.P., Huff, Ch.D., Yan-dell, M. & Shapiro M.D. (2018). Introgression of regulatory alleles and a missense coding mutation drive plumage pattern diversity in the rock pigeon. Elife, 7, e34803. DOI: 10.7554/eLife.34803.001.Search in Google Scholar

Vincze, E., Pipoly, I., Seress, G., Preiszner, B., Papp, S., Németh, B., Liker, A. & Bókony V. (2019). Great tits take greater risk toward humans and sparrowhawks in urban habitats than in forests. Ethology, 125(10), 686–701. DOI: 10.1111/eth.12922.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo