1. bookVolume 40 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Distribution and Population Structure of Avicennia marina (Forssk.) Vierh in Relation to the Environmental Gradient Along the Red Sea Coast of Egypt

Published Online: 18 Apr 2021
Page range: 48 - 53
Received: 22 Aug 2020
Accepted: 04 Nov 2020
Journal Details
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

This paper presents an assessment of changes in Avicennia marina population along the Egyptian coasts of the Red Sea. A retrospective analysis of the mangrove cover and distribution was carried out. The populations in Sharm El-Bahary and wadi El-Gimal lack at least one or more volume class stages, while all volume classes are represented in the last two populations occurring in wadi Al-Qu’lan and Sharm El-Madfa’a. The relationships between the individual diameter and canopy volume of A. marina population are simply linear. Strong correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.92) for the population of Sharm El-Bahry and the weak correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.63) for the population of wadi El-Gimal. On the other hand, the relationships between the individual heights and canopy volume of A. marina population are simply linear. Strong correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.72) for the population of Sharm El-Bahry and the weak correlation coefficients are obtained (r2=0.46) for the population of wadi El-Gimal. All growth performance of A. marina species differ significantly at the four localities except the circumference. The comparison of soil characteristics A. marina populations in the four study localities showed significant variations in all variables except the silt content and SO4.


Alatar, A.A., El-Sheikh, M.A, Thomas, J. Hegazy, A.K. & El Adawy H.A. (2015). Vegetation, floristic diversity and size-classes of Acacia gerrardii in an arid wadi ecosystem, Arid Land Res. Manag., 29(3), 335–359. DOI: 10.1080/15324982.2014.968692.Search in Google Scholar

Alcorn, P.J., Dingle, J.K. & Hickey J.E. (2001). Age and stand structure in a multi-aged wet eucalypt forest at the Warra silvicultural systems trial. Tasforests, 13, 245‒259.Search in Google Scholar

Allen, S.E., Grimshaw, H.M., Parkinson, J.A. & Quarmky C. (1989). Chemical analysis of ecological materials. London: Blackwell.Search in Google Scholar

Al-Mutairi, Kh.A. (2017). Influence of soil physical and chemical variables on species composition and richness of plants in the arid region of Tabuk, Saudi Arabia. Ekológia (Bratislava), 36(2), 112–120. DOI: 10.1515/eko-2017-0010.Search in Google Scholar

Baker, P.J., Buyavejchewin, S., Oliver, C.D. & Ashton P.S. (2005). Disturbance history and historical stand dynamics of a seasonal tropical forest in western Thailand. Ecol. Monogr., 75, 317–343. DOI: 10.1890/04-0488.Search in Google Scholar

Ball, M.C., Cowan, I.R. & Farquhar C.D. (1988). Maintenance of leaf temperature and the optimization of carbon gain in relation to water loss in a tropical mangrove forest. Aust. J. Plant Physiol., 15, 263–276. DOI: 10.1071/PP9880263.Search in Google Scholar

Bastian, O., Cudlín, P., Pechanec, V., Brzoska, P., Štěrbová, L., Včeláková, R., Purkyt, J. & Grunewald K. (2020). Assessments of biodiversity and habitat services in cities – exemplified by Dresden (Germany) and Liberec (Czech Republic). Ekológia (Bratislava), 39(2), 174–189. DOI: 10.2478/eko-2020-0013.Search in Google Scholar

Buyavejchewin, S., LaFrankie, J.V., Baker, P.J., Kanzaki, M., Ashton, P.S. & Yamakura T. (2003). Spatial distribution patterns of the dominant canopy dipterocarp species in a seasonal dry evergreen forest in western Thailand. For. Ecol. Manag., 175, 87–101. DOI: 10.1016/S0378-1127(02)00126-3.Search in Google Scholar

Crisp, M.D. & Lange R.T. (1976). Age structure, distribution and survival under grazing of the arid–zone shrub Acacia burkitti. Oikos, 27, 86–92. DOI: 10.2307/3543436.Search in Google Scholar

Curtis, J.T. & McIntosh R.P. (1951). An upland forest continuum in the prairie-forest border region of Wisconsin. Ecology, 32, 476–496. DOI: 10.2307/1931725.Search in Google Scholar

El-Ghonemy, A.A., Wallace, A. & Romney E.M. (1980). Frequency distribution of numbers of perennial shrubs in the northern Mojave Desert. Great Basin Naturalist Memoirs, 40, 34–38. https://www.jstor.org/stable/23376657.Search in Google Scholar

El-Khouly, A.A. & Khedr A.A. (2007). Zonation pattern of Avicennia marina and Rhizophora mucronata along the Red Sea Coast, Egypt. World Applied Sciences Journal, 2(4), 283–288.Search in Google Scholar

Goldberg, D.E. & Turner R.M. (1986). Vegetation change and plant demography in permanent plots in the Sonoran Desert. Ecology, 67, 695–712. DOI: 10.2307/1937693.Search in Google Scholar

Harper, J.L. & White J. (1974). The demography of plants. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 5, 419–463. DOI: 10.1146/annurev.es.05.110174.002223.Search in Google Scholar

Harper, J.L. (1977). Population biology of plants. London: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Hay, J.D. (2002). Aspectos da ecologia de populações de plantas nativas no cerrado do Brasil. In Araújo, E.L., Moura, A.N., Sampaio, E.V.S.B., Gestinari, L.M.S. & Carneiro J.M.T. (Eds.), Biodiversidade, conservação euso sustentável da flora do Brasil (pp. 153–157). Recife: Imprensa Universitária UFRPE.Search in Google Scholar

Hegazy, A.K. & Elhag M. (2006). Considerations of demography and life table analysis for conservation of Acacia tortilis in South Sinai. World Applied Sciences Journal, 1, 97–106.Search in Google Scholar

Hutchings, M.J. (1997). The structure of plant populations. In Crawley, M.J. (Ed.), Plant ecology (pp. 325‒358). Oxford: Blackwell Scientific Company.Search in Google Scholar

Kassas, M. & Zahran M.A. (1965). Studies on the ecology of the Red Sea coastal land. II. The district from El-Galala El-Qibliya to Hurghada. Bulletin of Social Geography, Egypt, 38, 185‒193.Search in Google Scholar

Kassas, M. & Zahran M.A. (1967). On the ecology of the Red Sea littoral salt marsh, Egypt. Ecol. Monogr., 37, 297–316. DOI: 10.2307/1942326.Search in Google Scholar

Leak, W.B. (1965). The J–shaped probability distribution. For. Sci., 11, 405–409. DOI: 10.1093/forestscience/11.4.405.Search in Google Scholar

Mckee, K.L. (1993). Determination of Mangrove species distribution patterns in Neotropical forests: biotic and abiotic factors affecting seedling survival and growth. Ph.D. dissertation, Louisiana state University. Historical Dissertations and Theses. 5656. https://digitalcommons.lsu.edu/grad-school_disstheses/5656.Search in Google Scholar

Moore, P.D. & Bhadresa R. (1978). Population structure, biomass and pattern in a semi–desert shrub Zygophyllum eurypterum, in the Turan Biosphere Reserve of northeastern Iran. J. Appl. Ecol., 15, 837–845. DOI: 10.2307/2402779.Search in Google Scholar

Mosallam, H.A., Shawky, R.A & Hashim A.A. (2018). Size structure and floristic diversity of Acacia trees population in Taif Area, Saudi Arabia. Journal of Biodiversity Endangered Species, 6(1), 1–7. DOI: 10.4172/2332-2543.1000210.Search in Google Scholar

Pickett, S.T.A. & White P.S. (1985). The ecology of natural disturbance and patch dynamics. San Diego: Academic Press.Search in Google Scholar

Pickett, S.T.A., Kolasa, J., Armesto, J.J. & Collins S.L. (1989). The ecological concept of disturbance and its expression at various hierarchical levels. Oikos, 54, 129–136. DOI: 10.2307/3565258.Search in Google Scholar

Rayan, J., Garabet, S., Harmson, K. & Rashid A. (2001). Soil and plant analysis laboratory manual. Aleppo: ICARDA.Search in Google Scholar

Saenger, P. (2002). Ecological assessment of mangroves in Egypt. Cairo: FAO.Search in Google Scholar

Saxena, A.K. & Singh J.S. (1984). Tree population structure of certain Himalayan forest association and implications concerning their future composition. Plant Ecol., 58, 61–69. DOI: 10.1007/BF00044928.Search in Google Scholar

Shaltout, K.H. & Ayyad M.A. (1988). Structure and standing crop of Egyptian Thymelaea hirsuta populations. Vegetatio, 74, 137–142. DOI: 10.1007/BF00044738.Search in Google Scholar

Ukpong, I.E. (1995). An ordination study of mangrove swamp communities in West Africa. Vegetatio, 116, 147–159. DOI: 10.1007/BF00045305.Search in Google Scholar

van Rooyen, N., Theron, G.K. & Breedenkamp G.J. (1994). Population trends of woody species in the Kalahari Gemsbok National Park from 1978 to 1994. Arid Zone Ecology Forum (AZEF). National Research Foundation, Pretoria, Karoo National Park, Beaufort West.Search in Google Scholar

Ward, D. & Roher C. (1997). Anthropogenic causes of high mortality and low recruitment in the three Acacia tree taxa in the Negev desert Israel. Biodivers. Conserv., 6, 877–893. DOI: 10.1023/B:BIOC.0000010408.90955.48.Search in Google Scholar

Weiner, J. (1985). Size hierarchies in experimental populations of annual plants. Ecology, 66, 743–752. DOI: 10.2307/1940535.Search in Google Scholar

Wiegand, K., Jeltsch, F. & Ward D. (1999). Analysis of the population dynamics of Acacia trees in the Negev desert, Israel with a spatially explicit computer simulation model. Ecol. Model., 117, 203–224. DOI: 10.1016/S0304-3800(98)00199-9.Search in Google Scholar

Zahran, M.A. (1977). Wet formations of the African Red Sea coast. In Chapman, V.J. (Ed.), Wet coastal ecosystem (pp. 215–231). Amsterdam: Elsevier.Search in Google Scholar

Zahran, M.A. (1982). Ecology of the halophytic vegetation of Egypt. In D.N. Sen & K.S. Rajpurohit (Eds.), Tasks for vegetation science (pp. 3‒20). The Hague: Dr. Junk.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo