1. bookVolume 40 (2021): Issue 1 (March 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Some Population Aspects of Common Tern Sterna hirundo Breeding in Algeria at a Small Mediterranean Island (East Coast of Algeria)

Published Online: 18 Apr 2021
Page range: 62 - 69
Received: 15 Aug 2019
Accepted: 01 Jan 2019
Journal Details
First Published
24 Aug 2013
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

We present the first detailed study of population dynamics, breeding biology and egg measurement of Common Terns. During six years (from 2004 to 2009) of monitoring, from mid-May to mid-August, 74 Common Terns individual were recorded at Laouinet small island, El Tarf, northeast of Algeria, witha finite population growth rate that indicated an alarming population decline(λ = -0.62: Lambda). Sterna hirundo build its nests (n = 37) in the northeast at a mean distance of 7.58 m from the closest edge of rocks. The nests were closed and ovoid, constituted mainly of mussel shells Sandpit, stems and leaves. Incubation was performed by pairs of common tern and lasted 25.5 ±3.4 days. We recorded a clutch size of 1 to 3 eggs with mean clutch size of 2.45±0.65 (41.24±0.83 × 30.46±0.62 mm). The egg parameters (volume, mass, shape index) varied between the six years of the study. The egg volume (19.24±0.87) depended more on egg width (30.46±0.62), however the egg shape (0.73±0.20) depended negatively on the egg length (41.24±0.83) but not on the egg width. Our results also showed a stabilized hatching success and a best estimation of breeding success. The hatching success did not vary between years: 70.5% in 2004, 68.75% in 2005, 71.42% in 2006, 71.42% in 2007, 69.23% in 2008 and 69.23% in 2009.


Adamou, A.E., Kouidri, M., Chabi, Y., Skwarska, J. & Bańbura J. (2009). Egg size variation and breeding characteristics of the Black-Winged Stilt Himantopus himantopus in a Saharan Oasis. Acta Ornithol., 44(1), 1−7. DOI: 10.3161/000164509X464821.Search in Google Scholar

Ar, A. & Sidis Y. (2002). Nest microclimate during incubation. In D.C. Deeming (Ed.), Avian incubation: behaviour, environment, and evolution (pp. 143–160). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Arnold, T.W. (1999). What limits clutch size in waders? J. Avian Biol., 30(2), 216−220. DOI: 10.2307/3677131.Search in Google Scholar

Axell, H.E. & Hosking E. (1977). Minsmere: Portrait of a bird reserve. London: Hutchinson.Search in Google Scholar

Baaloudj, A., Bouzid, A., Nedjah, R., Samraoui, F. & Samraoui B. (2018). Distribution and breeding of the Slender-billed Gull Chroicocephalus genei, Common Tern Sterna hirundo and Little Tern Sternula albifrons in Algeria. Revue d’Ecologie (Terre et Vie), 73(3), 385−395. http://hdl.handle.net/2042/68149.Search in Google Scholar

Baccetti, N., Capizzi, D., Corbi, F., Massa, B., Nissardi, S., Spano, G. & Sposimo P. (2009). Breeding shearwaters on Italian islands: population size, island selection and co-existence with their main alien predator, the black rat. Rivista Italiana di Ornitologia, 78(2), 83−100.Search in Google Scholar

Beaud, M. (2001). Quelques expériences dans le domaine de la protection de la Sterne Pierregarin Sterna hirundo en période de nidification. Actes du 39e colloque interrégional d’ornithologie, Yverdon-les-Bains (Suisse), 1999. Nos Oiseaux, Suppl. 5, 73−80.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, P.H. (1985). Common Tern breeding success and nesting ecology under predation pressure of Herring Gulls. In V.D. Ilyichev & V.M. Gavrilov (Eds.), Proceedings of the XVIII International Ornithological Congress (pp. 1198–1205). Nauka, Moscow.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, P.H. & Anlauf A. (1988). Nistplatzwahl und Bruterfolg der Flußseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo) im Deichvorland. I. Nestdichte. Ökologische Vögel, 10, 27−44.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, P.H. (1996). Flußseeschwalben (Sterna hirundo) in Wilhelmshaven. Oldenburger Jahrbuch, 96, 263−296.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, P.H., Frank, D. & Wagener M. (1997).Luxury in freshwaterand stress at sea? The foraging of the Common Tern Sterna hirundo. Ibis, 139(2), 264−269. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1997.tb04624.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, P.H. (1998). Langzeittrends des Bruterfolgs der Flußseeschwalbeundseiner EinflußgrößenimWattenmeer. Vogelwelt, 119, 223−234.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, P.H. & Sudmann S.R. (1998).Quo vadis Sterna hirundo? Schluß-folgerungenfür den Schutz der Flussseeschwalbe. Vogelwelt, 119, 293−304.Search in Google Scholar

Becker, P.H. & Ludwigs J.-D. (2004). Sterna hirundo Common Tern. Birds of the Western Palearctic Update, 6(1−2), 91−137.Search in Google Scholar

Belopol’skii, L.O. (1957). Ecology of sea colony birds of the Barents Sea. Moscow, Leningrad: Izdatel’stvo Akad. Nauk SSSR.Search in Google Scholar

Blondel, J. & Aronson J. (1999). Biology and wildlife of the Mediterranean region. New York: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Bocheński, Z. (1966). Nesting of Common and Black Terns. Acta Zool. Cracov., 11, 423−449.Search in Google Scholar

Borodulina, T.L. (1960). Biology and economic importance of gulls and terns of Southern-USSR water bodies. In Proceedings of the Institution of Animal Morphology of the Academy for Sciences USSR.Search in Google Scholar

Brenninkmeijer, A., Klaassen, M. & Stienen W.M. (1997). Sandwich Terns Sterna sandvicensis feeding on shell fractions. Ibis, 139(2), 397−400. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1997.tb04641.x.Search in Google Scholar

Bullock, I.D. & Gomersall C.H. (1981). The breeding populations of Terns in Orkney and Shetland in 1980. Bird Study, 28, 187–200. DOI: 10.1080/00063658109476723.Search in Google Scholar

Chaoui, L., Kara, M.H., Faure, E. & Quignard J-P. (2006). L’ichtyofaune de la lagune du Mellah (Algérie Nord-Est): diversité, production et analyse des captures commerciales. Cybium, 30(2), 123−132.Search in Google Scholar

Chokri, M.A.,Selmi, S., Sadoul, N. & Béchet A. (2010). Nidification des sternes naines Sterna albifrons, Pierregarin Sterna hirundo et Hansel, Sterna nilotica dans le Salin de Sfax, Tunisie: Chronologie, effectifs et succès reproducteur. Alauda, 78(1), 51−60.Search in Google Scholar

Croxall, J.P. & Prince P.A. (1980). Food, feeding ecology and ecological segregation of seabirds at South Georgia. Biol. J. Linn. Soc., 14(1), 103−131. DOI: 10.1111/j.1095-8312.1980.tb00101.x.Search in Google Scholar

Croxall, J.P., Butchart, S.H.M., Lascelles, B., Stattersfield, A.J., Sullivan, B., Symes, A. & Taylor P. (2012). Seabird conservation status, threats and priority actions: a global assessment. Bird Conserv. Int., 22, 1−34. DOI: 10.1017/S0959270912000020.Search in Google Scholar

Deeming, D.C. (2002). Importance and evolution of incubation in avian reproduction. In D.C. Deeming (Ed.), Avian incubation: behaviour, environment, and evolution (pp. 1–7). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Defos du Rau, P., Bourgeois, K., Ruffino, L., Dromzée, S., Ouni, R., Abiadh, A., Estève, R., Durand, J-P., Anselme, L., Faggio, G., Yahya, J.M., Peters, P., Rguibi, H., Renda, M., Miladi, B., Hamrouni, H., Alilech, S., Ben Dhafer, A., Nefla, A., Jaouadi, W., Agrebi, S. & Renou S. (2012). New assessment of the world’s largest colony of Scopoli’s Shearwater Calonectris diomedea. In P. Yésou, N. Baccetti & J. Sultana (Eds.), Ecology and conservation of Mediterranean Sea birds and other bird species under the Barcelona Convention (pp. 26–28). Proceedings of the 13th Medmaravis Pan-Mediterranean Symposium. Alghero (Sardinia) 14–17 Oct. 2011. Medmaravis, Alghero.Search in Google Scholar

Del Hoyo, J., Elliot, A & Sargatal J. (Eds.) (1994). Handbook of the birds of the World. Vol.2. New World Vultures to Guineafowl. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.Search in Google Scholar

Del Hoyo, J., Elliott, A. & Sargatal J. (1996). Handbook of the birds of the world. Vol. 3. Hoatzinto Auks. Barcelona: Lynx Edicions.Search in Google Scholar

Diamond, A.W. & Devlin C.M. (2003). Seabirds as indicators of changes in marine ecosystems: ecological monitoring on Machias Seal Island. Environ. Monit. Assess., 88(1−3), 153−175. DOI: 10.1023/A:1025560805788.Search in Google Scholar

Erwin, R.M., Brinker, D.F., Watts, B.D., Costanzo, G.R. & Morton D.D. (2011). Islands at bay: rising seas, eroding islands, and waterbird habitat loss in Chesapeake Bay (USA). J. Coast. Conserv.,15(1), 51−60. DOI: 10.1007/s11852-010-0119-y.Search in Google Scholar

Fasola, M.& Bogliani G. (1990). Foraging ranges of an assemblage of mediterranean seabirds. Colonial Waterbirds, 13(1), 72−74. DOI: 10.2307/1521424.Search in Google Scholar

Fasola, M. (1993). Distribution, population and habitat requirements of the Common Tern (Sterna hirundo) and the Little Tern (Sterna albifrons) breeding in the Mediterranean. In J.S. Aguilar, X. Monbailliu & A.M. Paterson (Eds.), Estatus y Conservación de Aves Marinas (pp. 97–106). Madrid: Sociedad Española de Ornitología.Search in Google Scholar

Fasola, M. & Canova L. (1996). Conservation of Gull and Tern Colony Sites in Northeastern Italy, an Internationally Important Bird Area. Colonial Waterbirds, 19(Special Publication 1), 59−67. DOI: 10.2307/1521946.Search in Google Scholar

Frick, S. & Becker P.H. (1995). Unterschiedliche Ernährungsstrategien von Fluß-und Küstenseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo und S. paradisaea) im Wattenmeer. J. Ornithol., 136, 47−63.Search in Google Scholar

Glutz von Blotzheim, U.N. & Bauer K.M. (1982). Handbuch der Vögel Mitteleuropas, 8 (II). Akad. Verlagsges.,Wiesbaden Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland, Leiden.Search in Google Scholar

Gochfeld, M. (1979). Group adherence in emigration of Common Terns. Bird-Banding, 50, 365−366.Search in Google Scholar

Greenhalgh, M.E. & Greenwood M.J. (1975). Foods of an estuarine Common Tern colony. Naturalist, 935, 145−146.Search in Google Scholar

Hakala, T. & Jokinen M. (1971). Pesivä kalatiirapopulaatio tehdashallin katola. Ornis Fenn., 48, 135−137.Search in Google Scholar

Hays, H. (1978). Timing and breeding success in three- to seven-year- old Common Terns. Ibis, 120, 127−128.Search in Google Scholar

Hoyt, D.F. (1979). Practical methods of estimating volume and fresh weight of bird eggs. The Auk, 96(1), 73−77. DOI: 10.1093/auk/96.1.73.Search in Google Scholar

Hunt, G.L., Eppley, Z., Burgeson, B. & Squibb R. (1981). Reproductive ecology, foods and foraging areas of seabirds nesting on the Pribilof Islands, 1975–1979. Environmental assessment of the Alaskan Continental Shelf.Final reports of principal investigators. Boulder Colorado, National Oceanic Atmospheric Administration, Office of Marine Pollution Assessment, Juneau, Alaska. Biological Studies, 12, 1–258.Search in Google Scholar

International union for conservation of nature, Red listwww.uicn.org, consulted April 2018Search in Google Scholar

Janžekovič, F., Štumberger, B. & Denac D. (2003). Common Tern’s Sterna hirundo clutch size, egg dimensions and phenology of its arrival to the breeding site in NE Slovenia. Acrocephalus, 24(117), 61−66.Search in Google Scholar

Kildaw, S.D., Irons, D.B., Nysewander, D.R. & Buck C.L. (2005). Formation and growth of new seabird colonies: the significance of habitat quality. Mar. Ornithol., 33, 49−58.Search in Google Scholar

Konigstedt, D.G.W., Robel, D. & Gottschalk W. (1991). Brutbiologishe, okologishe und faunistische UntersuchungenzueinigenVogelarten der Salinen von Burgas (Bulgarien). Zool. lb. Syst., 118, 117−146.Search in Google Scholar

Lack, D. (1947). The significance of clutch size.I- II. Ibis, 89(2), 302−352. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1947.tb04155.x.Search in Google Scholar

Lack, D. (1968). Ecological adaptations for breeding in birds. London: Methuen.Search in Google Scholar

Langham, N.P.E. (1972). Chick survival in Terns Sterna spp. With particular reference to the Common Tern. J. Anim. Ecol., 41, 385−395.Search in Google Scholar

Leibak, E., Lilleleht, V. & Veromann H. (1994). Birds of Estonia. Status distribution and numbers. Tallinn: Estonian Academy Publishers.Search in Google Scholar

Lemmetyinen, R. (1973). Feeding ecology of Sterna paradisaea Pontopp. and S.hirundo L. in the archipelago of southwestern Finland. Ann. Zool. Fenn., 10(4), 507−525.Search in Google Scholar

LoValvo, F. & Massa B. (2000). Some aspects of the population structure of Storm Petrels Hydrobates pelagicus breeding on a Mediterranean island. Ringing & Migration, 20(2), 125−128. DOI: 10.1080/03078698.2000.9674233Search in Google Scholar

Maclean, G.L. (1972). Clutch size and evolution in Charadrii. The Auk, 89, 299−324. DOI: 10.2307/4084208.Search in Google Scholar

Makatsch, W. (1974). Die Eier der Vogel Europas. Vol. 1. Radebeul: Neumann Verlag.Search in Google Scholar

Martínez-Abraín, A. (2003). Research applied to the conservation of seabird breeding on Islands of the Western Mediterranean. PhD Thesis, Universitat de Barcelona.Search in Google Scholar

McNicholl, M.K. (1975). Larid site tenacity and group adherence in relation to habitat. The Auk, 92(1), 98−104. DOI: 10.2307/4084420.Search in Google Scholar

Michelot, J.L. & Laurent L. (1992). Sternes en Algérie. Alauda, 60, 114−115.Search in Google Scholar

Michelot, J.L. & Laurent L. (1993). Observations estivales d’oiseaux marins sur les plages algériennes et marocaines. Le Bièvre, 13, 109−117.Search in Google Scholar

Monbailliu, X. (Ed.) (2013). Mediterranean marine avifauna: population studies and conservation (Vol. 12). Springer Science & Business Media.Search in Google Scholar

Morris, R.D., Pekarik, C. & Moore D.J. (2012). Current status and abundance trends of Common Terns breeding at known coastal and inland nesting regions in Canada. Waterbirds, 35(2), 194−207.DOI: 10.1675/063.035.0202.Search in Google Scholar

Muselet, D. (1982). Les quartiers d’hivernage des Sternes pierregarins (Sterna hirundo) européennes. L’Oiseau et R.F.O., 52, 219−235.Search in Google Scholar

Nisbet, I.T.C. & Drury W.H. (1972). Measuring breeding success in Common and Roseate Terns. Bird-Banding, 43, 97−106. DOI: 10.2307/4511853.Search in Google Scholar

Nisbet, I.C.T. & Cohen M.E. (1975). Asynchronous hatching in Common and Roseate Terns Sterna hirundo and S. dougallii. Ibis, 117, 374−379. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1975.tb04225.x.Search in Google Scholar

Nisbet, I.C.T. & Welton M.J. (1984). Seasonal variations in breeding success of Common terns: consequences of predation. The Condor, 86(1), 53−60. DOI: 10.2307/1367345.Search in Google Scholar

Nisbet, I.C.T., Winchell, J.M. & Heise A.E. (1984). Influence of age on the breeding biology of Common terns. Colonial Waterbirds, 7, 117–126. DOI: 10.2307/1521090.Search in Google Scholar

Nisbet, I.T.C. (1997). Female Common terns Sterna hirundo eating mollusc shells: evidence for calcium deficits during egg laying. Ibis, 139(2), 400−401. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1997.tb04642.x.Search in Google Scholar

Nisbet, I.C.T., Veit, R.R., Auer, S.A. &. White T.P. (2013). Marine birds of the Eastern United States and the Bay of Fundy: distribution, numbers, trends, threats, and management. Nuttall Ornithological Monographs, No. 29. Cambridge: Nuttall Ornithological Club.Search in Google Scholar

Nisbet, I.C.T., Arnold, J.M., Oswald, S.A., Pyle, P. & Patten M.A. (2017). Common tern (Sterna hirundo), version 3.0. In P.G. Rodewald (Ed.), The birds of North America. Ithaca: Cornell Lab of Ornithology. DOI: 10.2173/bna.comter.03.Search in Google Scholar

Noll, H. (1943). Die Flussseeschwaibe am Untersee. Ornithologisher Beobachter, 40, 101−109.Search in Google Scholar

Page, D.A. (2014). Use of Coastal Islands by Seabirds: A tool to guide future Marine Protected Areas in California. Master’s Projects and Capstones.Search in Google Scholar

Palestis, B.G. (2009). Use of artificial eelgrass mats by saltmarsh-nesting Common terns (Sterna hirundo). In Vivo, 30(3), 11−16.Search in Google Scholar

Panda, P.C. (1996). Shape and texture. In Textbook on egg and poultry technology. New Delhi, India.Search in Google Scholar

Pearson, T.H. (1968). The feeding biology of sea-bird species breeding on the FarneIslands, Northumberland. J. Anim. Ecol., 37(3), 521−552. DOI: 10.2307/3073.Search in Google Scholar

Priednieks, J. & Viksne J. (1989). Latvijas ligzdojošo putnu atlants, 1980−1984. Zinātne, Latviešuval.Search in Google Scholar

Rutkowska, J. & Cichon M. (2005). Egg size, offspring sex and hatching asynchrony in zebra finchesTaeniopygia guttata. J. Avian Biol., 36(1), 12−17. DOI: 10.1111/j.0908-8857.2005.03469.x.Search in Google Scholar

Safina, C., Witting, D. & Smith K. (1989). Viability of salt marshes as nesting habitat for Common terns in New York. The Condor, 91(3), 571−584. DOI: 10.2307/1368107.Search in Google Scholar

Scarton, F. (2010). Long term decline of a Common tern (Sterna hirundo) population nesting in Salt Marshes in Venice Lagoon, Italy. Wetlands, 30(6), 1153−1159. DOI: 10.1007/s13157-010-0106-y.Search in Google Scholar

Shurulinkov, P., Daskalova, G., Michov, S. & Koev V. (2016). The distribution, numbers, and breeding of terns and waders on the sand islands along the Bulgarian-Romanian section of the Danube. North-Western Journal of Zoology, 12(1), 65−77.Search in Google Scholar

Skinner, N. (1998). Common terns nesting on roofs in Suffolk. British Birds, 91, 140−141.Search in Google Scholar

Snow, D.W. & Perrins C.M. (1998). The birds of the Western Palearctic: concise edition.Vols 1−2. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Stienen, E. (2002). Visdief Sterna hirundo. In Sovon Vogelonderzoek Nederland 2002. Atlas van de Nederlandse Broedvogels 1998−2000 (pp. 248−249). Nederlandse Fauna 5. Leiden: Nationaal Natuurhistorisch Museum Naturalis, KNNV Uitgeverij & European Invertebrate Survey-Nederland.Search in Google Scholar

Stokland, J.N. & Amundsen T. (1988). Initial size hierarchy in broods of the shag: Relative significance of egg size and hatching asynchrony. The Auk, 105, 308−315. DOI:10.2307/4087495.Search in Google Scholar

Strazds, M. (2002). Zīriņi uz jumta. Fragmenti no kādastāsta. Putnidabā, 11(3), 20−22.Search in Google Scholar

Sudmann, S.R., Boschert, M. & Zintl H. (2003). Hat die Flussseeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo) an Flüssen noch eine Überlebenschance? Charadrius, 39, 48−57.Search in Google Scholar

Szostek, K.L. & Becker P.H. (2012). Terns in trouble: demographic consequences of low breeding success and recruitment on a Common Tern population in the German Wadden Sea. Journal of Ornithology, 153(2), 313−326. DOI: 10.1007/s10336-011-0745-7.Search in Google Scholar

Šúr, M., Bunbury, N. & Crommenacker J.V.D. (2013). Frigatebirds on Aldabra Atoll: population census, recommended monitoring protocol and sustainable tourism guidelines. Bird Conserv. Int., 23(2), 214−220. DOI: 10.1017/S0959270913000087.Search in Google Scholar

Taibi, A., Ghermaoui, M. & Oubaziz B. (2014). First study of the reproduction of Cory’s shearwater Calonectris diomedea (Procellariidae, Aves) at the Rachgoun Island (BeniSaf, Algeria). Advances in Environmental Biology, 8(10), 15−20.Search in Google Scholar

Telailia, S., Boutabia, L., Bensouilah, M.A, & Houhamdi M. (2014). Breeding biology of Cory’s Shearwater (Calonectris diomedea) in North East Algeria. International Journal of Current Science, 11, 120−127.Search in Google Scholar

Telailia, S., Boutabia, L., Khemis, M.D.E, Elafri, A. & Djebbari N. (2017). Multi-annual and Seasonal patterns of waterbird assemblages in a Mediterranean coastal lagoon (El Mellahlagoon) of Northeastern Algeria. Ekológia (Bratislava), 36(2), 146−157. DOI: 10.1515/eko-2017-0013.Search in Google Scholar

Thomas, C.S. (1983). The relationship between breeding experience, egg volume and reproductive success of the kittiwake Rissa tridactyla. Ibis, 125(4), 567−574. DOI: 10.1111/j.1474-919X.1983.tb03151.x.Search in Google Scholar

Turner, J.S. (2002). Maintenance of egg temperature. In D.C. Deeming (Ed.), Avian incubation: behaviour, environment, and evolution (pp. 119–142). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Search in Google Scholar

Vaisanen, R.A. (1969). Evolution of the Ringed plover (Charadrius luaticula L.) during the last hundred years in Europe. Ann. Acad. Sci. Fenn., 149, 1–90.Search in Google Scholar

Vogrin, M. (1998). Egg size of the Common tern Sterna hirundo in Slovenia. Ornis Svecica, 8, 87–90.Search in Google Scholar

Weimerskirch, H., Inchausti, P., Guinet, C. & Barbraud C. (2003). Trends in bird and seal populations as indicators of a system shift in the Southern Ocean. Antarct. Sci., 15(2), 249–256. DOI: 10.1017/S0954102003001202.Search in Google Scholar

Wendeln, H. & Becker P.H. (2000). Does disturbance by nocturnal predators affect bodymass of adult Common terns? Waterbirds, 22 (3): 401–410. DOI: 10.2307/1522116.Search in Google Scholar

Wetlands International (2006). Waterbird population estimates. Wageningen: Wetlands International.Search in Google Scholar

Williams, T.D. (1994). Intraspecific variation in egg size and egg composition in birds: effects on offspring fitness. Biol. Rev. Camb. Philos. Soc., 68(1), 35–59.Search in Google Scholar

Witt, K. (1970). Bestandsentwicklung und daten zur brutbiologie der Fluß-seeschwalbe (Sterna hirundo) am Oberrhein. Vogelwelt, 91, 24–8.Search in Google Scholar

Yésou, P., Bernard, F., Marquis, J. & Nisser J. (2005). Biologie de reproduction de la sterne Pierregarin Sterna hirundo sur l’île de Béniguet, Finistère. Alauda, 73(2), 107–118.Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo