1. bookVolume 11 (2021): Issue 2 (December 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2182-4924
First Published
30 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English
Open Access

The Importance of Intrinsic and Extrinsic Local Olive Oil Attributes for Tourists: Evidence from a Mediterranean Destination

Published Online: 29 Jun 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 11 (2021) - Issue 2 (December 2021)
Page range: 280 - 295
Received: 19 Jul 2020
Accepted: 30 Oct 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2182-4924
First Published
30 Apr 2016
Publication timeframe
3 times per year
Languages
English
Introduction

Locally produced products play an important role in tourist destinations. Local products in connection to the local territory make an authentic tourist product which fulfils the wishes of buyers/tourists for typical, traditional, or indigenous products produced in the destination (Littrell et al., 1993; Asplet and Cooper, 2000; Tosun et al., 2007). In tourism studies, the consumption of food during the summer season is increasingly seen as a strategic element in the marketing of a destination, since local quality products add to the travel experience (Cianflone and Cardile, 2014). Local products are also an added value to rural areas, connecting producers, tourists, providers, and visitors and supporting the economic growth and environmental sustainability of the region (Sims, 2009).

The impact of tourist consumption of local products can generate direct, indirect, and induced effects, to the benefit of the local economy (Tellstrom et al., 2005). Also, there is evidence indicating that inbound tourism is likely to influence the exports of local products (Gil-Alana and Fischer, 2010; Kavallari et al., 2011). Destinations with a high number of foreign tourist visits thus have the opportunity to promote their local products to a vast number of visitors, almost at their doorstep, without additional marketing costs.

The Mediterranean area, where land and sea environments meet, presents a unique combination of resources that have enabled Mediterranean destinations to offer various hospitality and tourism services and products and attract a growing number of international vacationers (mainly Europeans) to visit (Assaker and Hallak, 2012). The World Travel Organization indicates that 84% of tourists who visit the Mediterranean region come from northern and western Europe (UNWTO, 2008). Following EUROSTAT, in 2017 Adriatic Croatia, with 81.9 million nights spent in tourist accommodation, was the third most popular tourist region in the EU, after the Canarias (104 million nights) and Cataluña (83 million nights).

Mediterranean destinations are currently characterised by high numbers of repeat visitors (Butler, 1980; Oppermann, 1998; Assaker and Hallak, 2012), suggesting that tourists return to these destinations due to their satisfaction with their previous travel experience (Assaker and Hallak, 2012). It is found that the repeat vacation market could be more profitably served than the market of new buyers (Gyte and Phelps, 1989). Additionally, Meis et al. (1995), in their study of US tourists to Canada, concluded that repeaters spent more throughout their entire travel lifecycles compared to those who do not return to previous destinations. Lehto et al. (2004) concluded in their study that during repeat vacations, travelers’ interests become more focused on specific types of activities and places, and activity participation becomes the most engaging. This claim may correspond to repeat visitors’ greater focus on specific, regionally bound shopping activities, such as the purchase of local olive oil.

European Mediterranean countries are well known for their food products, especially as the leading producers of olive oil in the world, accounting for around two-thirds of world production. (See Market situation in the olive oil and table olives sectors, European Commission, for the period 2014/15 to 2019/20.) Croatia has a total of 18,683 hectares (ha) of olive trees (Croatian Bureau of Statistics, 2018) yielding 5,000 tonnes of olive oil (International Olive Oil Council, 2017). This data ranks Croatia sixth among Europe’s top olive oil producing countries (behind Spain, Greece, Italy, Portugal, and Cyprus). The northern part of the Croatian Adriatic coast is characterised by the specific pedoclimatic effect of the northern Mediterranean impact on olive trees, which results in high-quality and distinct olive oils, rich in unsaturated fatty acids (Benčić, 2000; Aparicio et al., 1994). This is one reason that Flos Olei, a guide to the world of extra virgin olive oil, declared the Croatian region of Istria one of the best olive oil regions in the world (Oreggia, 2019).

The connection between the Mediterranean region and olives is very long, dating from the early Bronze Age: evidence indicates the presence of olive plants along the eastern Mediterranean Coast dating back to this period (Vossen, 2007). Olive oil is a fundamental element of the “Mediterranean diet” (Erraach et al., 2014). Moreover, it is a healthy product which can prevent some cardiovascular diseases. Medical research has confirmed that regular consumption of olive oil contributes to lowering blood cholesterol, reducing the risk of certain kinds of cancer, and helping in calcium absorption (Owen et al., 2000; Sofi et al., 2008; Tuck and Hayball, 2002). The extensive dissemination of these findings supported by mass media has been a decisive help in creating an excellent image of olive oil as a healthy food product (Santosa et al., 2013; Xiong et al., 2014).

For sustainable destination management of the Mediterranean area, it is indispensable to take into account the connection between olive oil production and tourism, known as olive oil tourism or oleo tourism (Alonso and Northcote, 2010; Ruiz Guerra et al., 2011; Valentín et al., 2011; Murgado, 2013; Campón-Cerro et al., 2014; Vázquez de la Torre et al., 2017). Yet there are only a few studies on tourist habits in olive oil purchasing during vacations in a Mediterranean destination. In one of these studies, conducted by Sabbatini et al. (2016), the researchers explored the olive oil preferences of tourists during their visit to the island of Crete. In another context, Pineda et al. (2018) analysed foreign tourists’ behaviour and preferences at a destination to explore the foreign market potential for olive oil from local producers.

For this research, we aimed to explore the behaviour of tourists towards local olive oils during their visits to Croatia. The specific objectives of the study are:

a) Estimate a share of tourists purchasing local olive oil during their holiday in Croatia.

b) Explore differences between buyers and non-buyers of local olive oil regarding their socio-demographic characteristics and travel behaviour.

c) Examine the importance of extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of local olive oil for buyers (tourists) during their holiday in Croatia.

d) Identify tourist segments according to the importance they attach to attributes of local olive oil.

Theoretical Framework

Tourists are showing an increasing desire to purchase and bring home local products when visiting a destination (Ho et al., 2020). A similar impulse occurs with food products typical of a visited destination, because tourists perceive local food as a direct connection to the culture of the visited place (Chen and Huang, 2018).

Olive oil is a fascinating Mediterranean agricultural product. Nevertheless, it is rarely researched in tourism contexts in the scientific literature. Sabbatini et al. (2016) explored tourists’ interest in local olive oil. They concluded that the decisions on purchasing olive oil during tourists’ holidays in Create are affected by tourists’ length of stay (tourists who stay longer are more likely to buy olive oil) and family income (the higher income positively influences the decision of purchasing). Also, tourists who buy other traditional food products and tourists who visit the destination for gastronomic reasons are more likely to buy olive oil. Based on their research, the typical profile of a tourist who buys olive oil is characterised by provenance from Scandinavian countries (countries not producing olive oil), aged 45 and more, with a high income.

Pineda et al. (2018) analysed tourists as olive oil consumers from another point of view. They researched the preferences and behaviour of tourists in Sevilla, Spain, and found differences in the taste preferences for olive oil based on the tourist’s provenance, with tourists from Spain, Italy, and Portugal preferring more intense and spicy olive oils, and tourists from elsewhere preferring sweeter and milder olive oils.

Following Lancaster’s theory (1966), products can be seen as a bundle of attributes with different levels of each attribute, and the consumer’s choice is determined by a preference for specific product profile components. Thus, research on the importance of product attributes is fundamental for modelling the supply of the product. Product attributes refer to the various characteristics of a product that influence a customer’s decision to purchase or not to purchase the product (Turner and Reisinger, 2001; Swanson and Horridge, 2004). Eroglu and Machleit (1989), cited by Guerrero et al. (2012), describe attributes as evaluation criteria that consumers use to categorise different offerings and thus facilitate the development of purchasing decision processes.

Product attributes are classified as intrinsic or extrinsic, depending on their relationship with the product. Intrinsic cues involve the physical composition of the product and permit an objective measurement of quality (Cerjak et al., 2016). Intrinsic attributes cannot be changed without altering the nature of the product itself, and they are consumed as the product is consumed (composition, flavour, design, etc.). Intrinsic quality cues are related to technical specifications, which also involve physiological characteristics (Acebron and Dopico, 2000). Extrinsic cues, in contrast, are product-related attributes but not part of the physical product itself (Brečić et al., 2017); by definition, they exist outside the product (brand, price, country of origin, warranties, or services) and may be modified more easily.

Several previous studies explored the importance of olive oil attributes for consumers (Table 1).

Olive oil attributes researched in the scientific literature

Attributes Authors
Price; origin; type; taste; purchasing place Chan-Halbrendt et al., 2010
Price; origin; packaging; appearance; colour; production method Menapace et al., 2011
Country of origin; region of origin; price; brand; olive variety; producer; taste; “extra virgin” mention; colour; appearance; package; PDO label; “organic” label Dekhili et al., 2011
Area of origin; geographical designation (PDO and PGI); organic certification and price Di Vita et al., 2013
Type; taste; colour; packaging; region of origin; and price Mtimet et al., 2013
Price; origin; colour; packaging Erraach et al., 2014
Price; type (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, and olive oil); bottle (glass, plastic); and production system (organic, conventional) Bernabéu and Díaz, 2017

Source: Own contribution.

The most commonly analysed olive oil attributes are price, origin, packaging, type, taste, and colour. Production method, brand, PDO, PGI, and organic label are explored less often. The intrinsic attribute of aroma has not been researched in previous works (Table 1), which is surprising because the aroma is a critical quality parameter for extra virgin olive oil (Genovese et al., 2019).

Methodology

A quantitative research methodology was used, and survey data were collected on a convenience sample of 471 tourists of different nationalities during their holiday in Croatia. The study was conducted in two northern Adriatic counties in Croatia: Istria County and Primorje-Gorski Kotar County, in the period of July to October 2018. These counties were chosen because Istria County is the most developed touristic county in Croatia, and the neighbouring Primorje-Gorski Kotar County is the only county in Croatia with two olive oils with protected denomination of origin (Čehić et al. 2020).

At the beginning of the survey, respondents were asked if they purchased olive oil during their holiday in Croatia, and only those who bought olive oil proceeded with further questions on local olive oil. All respondents completed a questionnaire on their socio-demographic and travel behaviour characteristics.

A survey section on olive oil consisted of questions about the usual place of purchase, purchasing reasons, and the importance of different local olive oil intrinsic and extrinsic attributes. Based on previous research (see Table 1), three intrinsic and seven extrinsic attributes of local olive oil were chosen for this study. The importance of these attributes was measured using a semantic scale.

Our questionnaire was initially designed in the Croatian language and then translated into English, German, Italian, and Slovenian. These languages were chosen based on data on the country of origin of foreign tourists in Croatia (Croatian Bureau of Statistics, Tourist arrivals in 2017). The translated questionnaires were checked by native speakers of the four languages to ensure clarity.

Data were collected within tourist facilities: nine hotels (three hotels with three stars and six hotels with four stars) and three campsites (two with three stars and one with four stars). Tourists were approached by a trained interviewer and asked to participate in an anonymous survey. The questionnaire was handed out in the appropriate language selected by respondents.

During on-site data collection in hotels, the interviewer was stationed while respondents were mobile, and at campsites the interviewer was mobile while respondents were stationed. This approach is described by Veal (2006).

The obtained data were processed conducting univariate, bivariate, and multivariate statistical analyses in the statistical program SPSS, ver. 21. The variable country of origin was binary coded based on whether respondents’ country of origin was an olive oil producing country (Croatia, Italy, and Slovenia). This division was used because of existing differences between these two groups of consumers, primarily cultural and gastronomic aspects (Jiménez-Guerrero et al., 2012). Olive oil formerly has been consumed mainly by the olive oil producing countries, but in recent years consumption has grown faster in non-traditional, i.e., nonproducing, markets. These changing consumption patterns could be attributed to various campaigns for a healthier way of living, such as promoting meal preparation with olive oil instead of other fats and oils (Kavallari et al., 2011).

Univariate statistics were used for a description of the sample. A Chi-square test was used to explore the differences between consumers regarding their usual place of purchase and purchasing reasons, as wells as socio-demographic and travel behaviour variables. Multivariate statistics methods included binary logistic regression, principal component analysis, and two-step cluster analysis. The binary logistic regression has been used widely as a statistical method for analysing binary and binomial response data (Hatirli et al., 2004). We coded the binary data as 0=Non-buyers of olive oil, 1= Buyers of olive oil. In the binary logistics analysis, the enter method is employed to run a model predicting olive oil purchase (the outcome, dependent variable), using socio-demographic and travel behaviour variables as the predictor (independent) variables.

The segmentation of tourists was based on the principal component analysis (PCA) and the two-step cluster analysis, a methodology widely used in analyses of consumers’ preferences toward products/food attributes, such as Cheddar cheese (Murray and Delahunty, 2000), instant coffee (Geel et al., 2005), milk and dairy products (Haas et al., 2016), and local food (Aprile et al, 2016).

Principal component analysis and cluster analysis are used to partition the sample into groups with similar characteristics to help identify consumers segments. Principal component analysis (PCA) in this research was performed on the set of ten items, measuring the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic olive oil attributes. Varimax rotation was used in the principal component analysis in order to maximise the sum of the variances of the squared loadings. Among all the coefficients, we considered those that have assumed value greater than one (Kaiser, 1960). Standardised factor scores were used as the input for a two-step cluster analysis. Two-step cluster analysis is a statistical procedure that is employed to identify similar groups or “clusters” of people or objects within data sets. It is considered more reliable and accurate when compared to traditional clustering methods such as the k-means clustering algorithm (Norusis, 2007). We consider two-step cluster analysis the most appropriate technique for this research because it is the only type of cluster analysis that forms clusters based on both continuous and categorical data (Chiu et al., 2001; Norusis, 2007). The difference between clusters was tested with an ANOVA and with the HSD Tukey test.

Result

A total of 471 responses were collected, of which the 452 adequately completed questionnaires were included in the analyses. The remaining 19 responses were discarded because of insufficient answers. Out of the valid responses, 249 respondents stated they had purchased olive oil during their holiday in Croatia (55.1%).

The typical tourist who is also a customer of olive oil is a female who has a university education, is between 41 and 55 years old, has a monthly income between 1,501 and 2,500 euros, comes from a country that does not produce olive oil, lodges in a hotel, stays for seven days or more, and has visited the destination three or more times (see Table 2).

Socio-demographic characteristic and travelling behaviour of the sample

Socio-demographic characteristic (N=452) Total sample Non-buyers of olive oil at the destination Buyers of olive oil at the destination
N % N % N %
Variable Gender Male 152 36.9 59 34.7 93 38.6
Female 259 63.1 111 65.3 148 61.4
Elementary school 13 3.1 7 3.6 6 2.6
Education High school 134 31.8 71 36.4 63 27.8
University and more 275 65.1 117 60 158 69.6
Self-employed 74 17.4 37 18.9 37 15.9
Employed 306 71.8 140 71.8 166 71.8
Occupation Retired 26 6.1 10 5.1 16 6.9
Student 16 3.8 3 1.7 13 5.4
Unemployed 4 0.9 4 2.5 0 0
Up to 25 35 8.5 16 8.6 19 8.4
26–40 134 32.5 56 29.9 78 34.7
Age 41–55 181 43.9 86 46 95 42.2
56–66 46 11.2 23 12.3 23 10.2
67 and more 16 3.9 6 3.2 10 4.5
Income Up to 700 euro 18 5.2 6 4.1 12 6.0
700–1,000 euro 53 15.3 21 14.4 32 15.9
1,001–1,500 euro 84 24.2 41 28.1 43 21.4
1,501–2,500 euro 101 29.1 42 28.7 59 29.4
More than 2,500 euro 91 26.2 36 24.7 55 27.3
Country of origin Austria 101 23.8 38 19.7 63 25.3
Germany 90 21.2 37 19.1 53 21.3
Italy 86 20.2 65 33.7 21 8.4
Croatia 32 7.5 7 3.6 25 10
Slovenia 31 7.3 9 4.7 22 8.8
Other 85 20 37 19.2 48 26.2
Country producing or not producing of olive oil Producer 150 35.3 81 42.1 69 29.6
Nonproducer 275 64.7 111 57.9 164 70.4

Travel behaviour (N=452) N % N % N %

Variable Type of accommodation Hotel 338 74.8 161 79.9 177 71
Campsite 114 25.2 42 20.1 72 29
Length of stay 1–2 days 4 1 1 0.5 3 1.4
3–6 days 96 24.2 55 29.3 41 19.5
7 and more 298 74.8 132 70.2 166 79.1
Number of previous visits No previous visits 84 21.6 44 23.9 40 19.2
1–2 times 56 14.4 35 19 24 11.5
3 or more times 249 64.0 105 57.1 144 69.3

Source: Own elaboration.

In order to explore the influence of socio-demographic and travelling behaviour variables on the purchase of local olive oil, a binary logistic regression was used with “purchased olive oil” as a dependent variable.

R2 measures of the model were 0.121 for the Cox & Snell R2 and 0.162 for the Nagelkerke R2 (Table 3). Both Cox & Snell R2 value and Nagelkerke R2 value indicated modest improvement in fit over the baseline model. The result of Hosmer and Lemeshow chi-square test was not significant (p>0.05), which indicates that the model fits better than the baseline model with no predictors. The correct initial classification was 54.7%. When the independent variables entered the model, the correct classification was increased from 54.7% to 62.6%. This finding can also be interpreted as an indicator of model-data fit. The results showed that the impacts of Number of previous visits—3 or more times and Country nonproducer of olive oil (Tourists country of origin) on buying local olive oil were statistically significant (p<0.05). Tourists who previously visited the destination three or more times are more likely to buy olive oil, as are tourists coming from countries that do not produce olive oil. These findings are in line with previous results stating the impact of prior experience on participation in tourist activities and expenditure patterns (Lehto et al., 2004; Wang, 2004; Skuras et al., 2006). Tourist’s country of origin or nationality was found to influence tourist behaviour (Thrane and Farstad, 2012), in line with our results regarding buying or not buying olive oil in a tourist destination. Other socio-demographic and travel behaviour variables showed non-significant results in the model. Wang also found that the effects of socio-demographic variables on the shopping behavior of tourists are not significant (2004).

The impact of socio-demographic and travel behaviour variables on the purchase of local olive oil using binary logistic regression analysis

Variables Not in the Equation

Step 0 Variables Score df Sig
Gender 1.243 1 .537
Age 1.331 1 .856
Education 2.390 1 .495
Occupation 1.783 1 .776
Income 3.686 1 .450
Type of accommodation 1.751 1 .186
Length of stay 2.294 1 .318
Number of previous visits 5.408 1 .020
From a country producing or not producing olive oil 10.066 1 .002
Overall statistics 31.639 9 .084
Overall percentage correct 54.7%
The cut value 0.500

Variables in the Equation

Step 1 Variables B SE. Wald df Sig. Exp (B)
Gender .229 .297 .592 1 .442 1.257
Age .273 .642 .181 1 .671 1.314
Education 1.083 .951 1.299 1 .254 2.955
Occupation .776 .770 1.015 1 .314 1.072
Income −.947 .956 .981 1 .322 2.181
Type of accommodation −.294 .315 .869 1 .351 .738
Length of stay −.197 .338 .339 1 .560 .821
Number of previous visits: 3 or more times .894 .351 6.488 1 .011 2.318
Provenance from a country producing or not producing olive oil 1.059 .324 10.713 1 .001 2.828
Constant −2.052 1.420 2.086 1 .149 .129

Model diagnostics Classification of variables in equation results

Overall percentage correct 62.6%
The cut value 0.500
Omnibus test of model coefficients Chi-Square: 34.175 Sig: .047
Hosmer and Lemeshow test Chi-Square: 9.209 Sig: .325
Cox and Snell R square .121
Nagelkerke R square .162

Note: STEP 0 shows the results of a score test. The column labelled “Score” gives the estimated change in the model fit if the term is added to the model, the other two columns give the degrees of freedom (df) and p-value (Sig.).

STEP 1 shows the regression coefficients (B), their standard errors (SE), the Wald test statistic with associated degrees of freedom (df) and p-values (Sig.), and the Exp (B) (exponentiated coefficient).

Place of purchase of local olive oil

Tourists most commonly chose olive farms as a purchasing place for olive oil during their holiday (29.5%; Figure 1). Olive farms are mainly situated in small villages, and Murphy et al. (2013) suggest that providing shopping points in such areas is a way to support local producers. The second most common place of purchase was road stands (25%), followed by supermarkets (24.1%). Some less frequently chosen places of purchase were delicatessen shops (11.8%) and, especially, fairs and olive mills (5.1% and 4.5%, respectively).

Figure 1

Usual place of olive oil purchase

Source: Own elaboration.

The Chi-square test was used to test the relationship between socio-demographic characteristics and travel behaviour of respondents, on the one hand, and their usual place of purchase of local olive oil, on the other. Tourists staying one to two days in a destination are more likely to choose supermarkets as a place of purchase; tourists staying three to six days prefer olive farms; and tourists staying seven days or longer in a destination are more likely to buy olive oil in olive mills (Pearson’s Chi-square coefficient = 19.672; p = 0.033). This result could be explained by the fact that tourists who make a short stay at a destination do not have time to search for alternative places of purchase and therefore choose supermarkets as accessible points of purchase. In contrast, tourists staying longer in the destination have enough time to search for a specific place of purchase. The store location is the most important store attribute because of the considerable amount of time first-time visitors spend orienting themselves to a tourist area (Vogt and Fesenmaier, 1995). Whether customers select a particular store or not depends on how well retail competitors satisfy various store attributes (Swanson and Horridge, 2002).

Tourists coming from countries which are nonproducers of olive oil prefer to buy olive oil in delicatessen shops and at olive farms, as opposed to tourists coming from olive oil producing countries, who instead chose supermarkets and road stands (Pearson’s Chi-square coefficient = 14.740; p = 0.012). The reason for such behaviours could be that that tourists from countries that are nonproducers of olive oil are not very familiar with olive oil production and quality. Therefore, they are looking for more information about the product directly from experts, such as producers or employees of delicatessen shops, in contrast to tourists from countries where olive oil is produced, who are already familiar with the product.

The other socio-demographic characteristics, namely gender, age, education, occupation, income, type of accommodation, and number of previous visits are not significant in relation to the most used place of purchase.

Reason for purchasing local olive oil

The highest percentage of respondents stated they had purchased olive oil at the destination in order to bring it home (54.9%). One-fourth of the respondents stated that they purchased olive oil to consume during their holiday in the destination (24.7%), and the remainder (20.4%) purchased olive oil for both reasons: to consume it in the destination and to bring it home (Figure 2).

Figure 2

Reasons for olive oil purchase

Source: Own elaboration.

As expected, tourists staying in campsites are more likely to purchase olive oil for consumption in a destination compared to tourists staying in hotels (Pearson’s Chi-square coefficient = 5.977; p = 0.050), as tourists in campsites often prepare their own meals.

The socio-demographic characteristics of gender, age, education, occupation, income, country of origin, and other travel behaviour characteristics (number of previous visits and length of stay) were not significant in relation to reasons for olive oil purchase.

Importance of the intrinsic and extrinsic local olive oil attributes

Respondents (buyers) of local olive oil evaluated the importance of ten olive oil characteristics with a semantic scale. The Cronbach’s alpha value for the evaluated item pool of attributes of olive oil was 0,841. All three intrinsic attributes are evaluated as important, with taste and aroma evaluated as more important than the colour of olive oil. The olive oil category and method of production are the most important extrinsic olive oil attributes, with price and packaging least important, as valued by tourists (Table 4).

Importance of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of olive oil for tourists (buyers) of olive oil in Croatia

Intrinsic attributes Mean (M) SD
Taste 4.62 0.680
Aroma 4.51 0.744
Colour 3.84 0.995
Extrinsic attributes
Olive oil category (virgin, extra virgin) 4.21 0.907
Method of production (cold-pressed) 4.12 1.035
Protected designation of origin (PDO)/protected geographical indication (PGI) 3.90 1.043
Product eco-label 3.90 1.007
Country of origin 3.82 1.037
Price 3.44 0.883
Packaging 3.18 1.112

Source: Own elaboration.

Goeldner et al. (2000) suggested that a product’s relationship to the local area and its authenticity were the most important product attributes (Swanson, 2004). The attributes PDO/PGI and country of origin were evaluated medium to high by respondents, as was the eco-label. The eco-label provides useful information for tourists in differentiating the nature of the products (Chin et al., 2018). Further, several studies found a positive and significant relationship between eco-labels and green purchasing behaviour in tourism (Chin et al., 2018; Chekima et al., 2016; Dekhili and Achabou, 2014).

Price and value for money are commonly high on the list of factors influencing the choice of most commercial products (Steenhuis et al., 2011). However, previous research showed that price was less important to tourists at a destination as a specific consumer group (Altintzoglou et al., 2016). The attribute packaging of olive oil was the least important attribute; the same result was obtained by Altintzoglou et al. (2016) in a study examining factors that influence tourists when considering buying food.

Components of local olive olive oil attributes

The sample size of 249 respondents is acceptable for PCA technique application, as the preferable sample size is 100 participants or more (Hair et al., 1995, cited by Williams et al., 2010). The Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin (KMO) test result was sufficient at 0.758 (Tabachnick and Fidell, 2013), indicating that the PCA may be useful with this data set based on the ability of the underlying components to explain common variance in the data. Bartlett’s test of sphericity showed that the overall correlation matrix was significant (p < .000). For results interpretation, PCA uses a components requirement for eigenvalues greater than 1. After Varimax rotation, nine items were retained in a three-component solution, representing a total of 70.504% cumulative variance (Table 5). The item colour was eliminated for the low loading of 0.409.

Principal component analysis for the importance of local olive oil attributes

Component/item (% of explained variance) Mean (M) SD Factor loading Cronbach α
Component 1: Information (40.651%) .845
Protected designation (origin, geographical indication) 3.90 1.043 0.828
Product eco-label 3.90 1.007 0.798
Country of origin 3.82 1.037 0.759
Method of production (cold pressed) 4.12 1.035 0.757
Olive oil category (virgin, extra virgin) 4.21 0.907 0.654
Component 2: Flavour (15.247%) .844
Taste 4.62 0.680 0.900
Aroma 4.51 0.744 0.891
Component 3: Price and packaging (14.606%) .681
Price 3.44 0.883 0.856
Packaging 3.18 1.112 0.800

Source: Own elaboration.

The first component dimension, Information, explains 40.651% of the total variance. The component consists of five items describing different pieces of information that may be used concerning olive oil. The most important olive oil attributes in the component Information were “method of production” and “olive oil category.” These two attributes can directly inform the customer about the quality of the product.

The second component, Flavour, explains 15.247% of the total variance. This factor consists of two intrinsic items concerning olive oil: taste and aroma. Taste and aroma are properties used for organoleptic evaluations of olive oil. Olive oil can be described with positive (“fruity,” “bitter,” and “pungent”) and negative (for instance, “rancid,” “fusty,” “musty,” and “winey”) attributes (Circi et al., 2017). Another important function of taste and smell for food souvenirs is the possibility that they will evoke for the tourist the taste or smell of a vacation destination after the return home (Lin and Mao, 2015).

The last component, Price and packaging, explains 14.606% of the total variance. This factor consists of the two named extrinsic attributes, that is, “price” and “packaging.”

Segmentation of local olive oil consumers

Three components identified in the PCA were used as input variables to a two-step cluster analysis. The silhouette measure of cohesion and separation is above 0.5, showing a fair separation distance between clusters (Tkaczynski, 2017). Four clusters were revealed within the data set (Table 6).

Final cluster centers

Component Cluster F – value
1 2 3 4
The exterior lovers The labels lovers The indifferent consumers The experts
Information .551127 .637358 −.793931 −.997363 96.276**
Flavour −.008902 .138469 −2.067185 .623947 107.501**
Price and packaging .823677 −1.150956 −.433139 .055069 98.627**
Sample size (%) 37.4%, n=86 24.3%, n=56 10%, n=23 28.3%, n=65

Significant at level p<0,001. Source:

Own elaboration.

The average member of each of the four clusters is a woman, with a faculty degree, employed, aged between 41 and 55 years old, from a country that does not produce olive oil, is staying at the destination seven or more days, has visited the destination three or more times, and commonly purchases olive oil to bring home.

Cluster 1 The exterior lovers

The first cluster is the largest one, with 37.4% respondents. Members of this cluster most value component number three, Price and packaging, and component number one, Information; the second component, Flavour, is not important for the respondent in this cluster.

Members of this cluster most valued the product eco-label (M=4.47), country of origin (M=4.45), and PDO/PGI (M=4.43) to a statistically different degree from other three clusters (F= 47.240, p=0.000, F=4.45, p=0.000, F=48.471, p=0.000). It is also interesting to highlight that the highest score addressed the attributes packaging (M=4.15) and price (M=3.99), thus differing significantly from the other three clusters (F=66.549, p=0.000, F=55.104, p=0.000). Despite the high rates for intrinsic attributes of taste and aroma, members of this cluster give a high score to the attribute of colour (M=4.28), a result statistically different in comparison to the other three clusters (F=19.733, p=0.000).

Members of this cluster have a monthly income from 1,501 to 2,500 euros, stay in a hotel, and purchase olive oil at olive farms and supermarkets.

Cluster 2 The labels lovers

The second cluster represents 24.3% of respondents. The members of this cluster are most influenced by the labels and information on the bottle of olive oil. Somewhat less important to them is the component Flavour. Price and packaging are irrelevant for respondents of this cluster.

For the members of this cluster, the most important olive oil attributes are the extrinsic ones: olive oil category (M=4.71) and method of production (M=4.70). Regarding these two attributes, the members of this cluster are statistically different from members of cluster three (The indifferent consumers) (F=26.013, p=0.000, F=45.783, p=0.000). In comparison to the members of the other clusters, the members of cluster two give the lowest value to price (M=2.64) and packaging (M=2.34). This profile feature is statistically different from clusters one (The exterior lovers) and four (The expert) (F=55.104, p=0.000, F=66.549, p=0.000). Of the intrinsic olive oil attributes, the members of this cluster focus on taste (M=4.71), aroma (M=4.70) and, to some degree, colour (M=3.66).

Members of this cluster show similarities with cluster one regarding monthly income, type of accommodation, and place of purchase.

Cluster 3 The indifferent consumers

The indifferent consumers is the smallest cluster, representing just 10% of the total sample. Respondents in this cluster showe the least interest in all proposed attributes. They are indifferent toward all three identified components of olive oil attributes. Members of this cluster give the smallest score to the colour of olive oil (M=2.74, F=19.733, p=0.000). They differ statistically from the other three clusters in this rating, as well as in their ratings of the other two intrinsic olive oil attributes. From the list of extrinsic olive oil attributes, the olive oil category (M=3.17) is regarded as the most important and is statistically different from the other three clusters, who all rate this attribute higher than cluster three members do (F=26.013, p=0.000). Members of this cluster have an average monthly income between 1,001 and 1,500 euros, are situated in campsites, and predominantly purchase olive oil at olive farms and road stands.

Cluster 4 The expert

This cluster contains 28.3% of the respondents. Cluster members focus on the intrinsic product attributes for evaluation of olive oil. They gave a higher score to taste (M=4.89) and aroma (M=4.75) and were statistically differ from cluster three (The indifferent consumers) (F=19.066, P=0.000), who rated these two attributes with relatively low grades. Of the extrinsic olive oil attributes, the members of this cluster are most influenced by the olive oil category (M=3.86) and price (M=3.69). The difference from the other three clusters is statistically significantly (F=26.013, p=0.000 and F=55.104, p=0.000).

The lowest interest rate is for PDO and PGI (M = 3.09) and country of origin (M = 3.09); this shows a statistically significant difference for these two attributes compared to cluster two (The labels lover), whose members rate these attributes as somewhat more important (F=48.471, p=0.000 and F=46.045, p=0.000).

Members of this cluster have an average monthly income between 1,500 and 2,500 euros, are situated in a hotel, and predominantly purchase olive oil at olive farms and road stands.

Overall, concerning the socio-demographic and travel behaviour variables, the segments do not significantly differ from each other, except regarding the type of accommodation. The members belonging to clusters one, two, and four are mainly situated in hotels, while the members of cluster three are predominantly situated in a campsite (x2 = 20.038, p=0.000).

Another difference found regarding cluster membership concerned the usual place of olive oil purchase. Members of all four segments like to buy olive oil at olive farms, but The exterior lovers and The labels lovers additionally prefer supermarkets, while The indifferent consumers, as well as the experts, like to buy olive oil at road stands (x2 =22.734, p=0.015).

Discussion and Conclusion

During their stay in a destination, tourists represent a very interesting market niche for local agricultural products, especially for olive oil in Mediterranean destinations, where olive oil represents a typical and traditional Mediterranean product. Nevertheless, tourists’ shopping behaviour and the importance of olive oil attributes are not much researched in scientific literature.

One of the few papers investigating tourist’s preferences regarding olive oil was a study conducted by Sabbatini et al. (2016), which explored the olive oil preferences of tourists during their visits to the island of Crete. The results of the study demonstrated that the tourists’ country of origin is one of the most important drivers in olive oil choice. Also, tourists who stay longer at a destination are more likely to buy olive oil.

In our research, a total of 55.1% of the surveyed tourists stated they had purchased local olive oil during their holiday in Croatia. Such a high share of tourists interested in local olive oil could help in the further development of the olive oil sector; this market segment can represent a great opportunity, especially for small olive oil producers. Further, these findings could be used in marketing efforts to establish diverse offerings at other Mediterranean tourist destinations.

As in the study by Sabbatini et al. (2016), we found that both the number of previous visits to the destination and the tourists’ country of origin are significant predictors of local olive oil purchases. Specifically, tourists who come back to a destination several times are more likely to buy local olive oil. This tourist profile represents a strategic segment of interest to local olive oil producers. Therefore, olive oil producers could establish a closer connection with tourist accommodation providers to more easily target this tourist segment. Traditionally, Mediterranean destinations are characterised by the phenomenon of repeat visitation (Alegre and Cladera, 2006), providing an additional incentive to help olive oil producers develop an olive oil market in a destination.

Tourists coming from traditional olive oil producing countries are less likely to buy local olive oil, as they come from markets saturated with olive oil supplies, including local olive oils. On the contrary, tourists coming from countries that do not produce olive oil have shown a high interest in local olive oils; this finding is in line with Sabbatini et al. (2016). This is favourable for local producers, as consumption of olive oil in nonproducing countries or emerging markets shows an increasing trend (Karanikolas et al., 2018; Roselli et al., 2016; Sayadi et al., 2016).

Therefore, the primary focus for local olive oil stake-holders at the destination should be on tourists from non-producing countries. Additionally, national tourism associations could include the promotion of local olive oils in their strategic marketing plans for Mediterranean destinations, especially in nonproducing countries.

No other socio-demographic characteristic or travel behaviour variable influences the purchasing behaviour of tourists, indicating that a unique marketing strategy may be used to target repeat visitors, especially those coming from nonproducing countries. The most appreciated olive oil attributes were taste and aroma (intrinsic attributes), followed by the olive oil category and the method of production (extrinsic attributes). The extrinsic attributes of price and packaging were shown to be the least important.

In the past, the intrinsic olive oil attributes of taste and colour mostly influenced consumers’ choices (Monteleone et al., 1997; Cicia et al., 2002; Finotti et al., 2007). However, in the last two decades, the production system in the olive oil industry has changed, which has led to the production of oils with specific sensory characteristics (pungent, bitter, fruity, etc.). Some consumers accepted these changes well, while some remained traditionally connected to taste and colour (Leonetti et al., 2009; Delgado et al., 2013). In the literature, the geographical origin of the olive oil is one of the extrinsic attributes most valued by consumers (Dekhili et al., 2011; Aprile et al., 2012). At the same time, PDO/PGI, which shows a connection with a specific area of production, is also important to consumers (Scarpa and Del Giudice, 2004; Menapace et al., 2008). Consumer preferences for olive oil category and method of production are less researched. In the research by Aprile et al. (2012), a category of extra virgin olive oil evoked a willingness to pay more for this category of oils. In their research, Panico et al. (2014) stated that production method, information on the origin, and organoleptic characteristics play a major role in determining the value of extra virgin olive oil. Price is a particular product attribute, which consumers often relate to product quality. However, Martínez et al. (2002) stated that olive oil is not a price-sensitive product category. Dekhili et al. (2011) founded that packaging, colour, and brand of olive oil are less important than intrinsic qualities for surveyed responders in Tunisia and France.

Foreign tourists, like those researched in this paper, form a heterogeneous group, coming from different countries with different eating habits and product preferences. Therefore, olive oil producers targeting foreign tourists should provide complex olive oil or a wider range of oils with regard to their sensory properties. However, oil quality and sensory properties depend on the olive variety and the traditional production method. A pleasant appearance, as well as direct communication with tourists, with an emphasis on local attributes, should help promote both local olive oils and the whole destination.

For tourists, the most usual places for making purchases of olive oil are olive farms, followed by road stands and supermarkets. More than half of respondents stated they habitually bought olive oil directly from producers, either at a farm gate or at road stands. This result shows the tourists’ interest in communicating with producers, which allows them to get direct, accurate information on the product and its production. Therefore, local olive oil producers should intensively use direct communication with tourists, presenting not only their oil and its production methods but also implementing storytelling strategies presenting the whole farm and the olive oil destination. In addition to direct communication, olive oil producers should take the opportunity to organize oil tastings, to take advantage of the importance placed on intrinsic olive oil attributes.

The study identified four distinct consumer segments based on the importance of intrinsic and extrinsic olive oil attributes: The exterior lovers (37.4%), The labels lover (24.3%), The indifferent consumers (10%), and The experts (28.3%). The first segment (The exterior lovers) was the biggest and was significantly more affected by price and packaging compared to the other clusters. This group was also affected by the information on the label, especially the country of origin and PDO/PGI certification. Members of this cluster do not attach importance to the flavour of olive oil. The label lover is primarily attracted by available information and seals on the product label. Some attention is also directed at the flavour of olive oil. Concurrently, members of this cluster aren’t affected by the price and packaging of the product. The indifferent consumers, cluster three, was the smallest, and tourists from this segment did not particularly care about intrinsic or extrinsic olive oil attributes. The experts focused on the intrinsic olive oil attributes of taste and aroma, the main organoleptic characteristics for evaluating olive oil quality. They are predominantly indifferent regarding packaging and price and are not affected by available information on the label.

Apart from differences regarding important of olive oil attributes, it was found that The Indifferent consumers were mainly situated in campsites, while the others were accommodated in hotels. The experts chose olive farms as a usual purchasing place more often than all other consumers.

A common conclusion for building good, sustainable management practices for tourist destinations, especially in Mediterranean areas characterised by repeated visitors, is to achieve a direct and easy contact between tourists and stakeholders involved in olive oil production. There is a need to develop a complex tourist product—local olive oil with particular sensorial attributes related to autochthonous olive varieties, location, and methods of production. It is also important to adequately incorporate the information and labels on the bottle as promotional tools. At the same time, it is very important to offer tasting possibilities and education for the tourists in the destination.

Limitations and Future Directions

The limitation of this study primarily regards the structure of the sample and data collection. The sample contains a higher percentage of female respondents. Also, data collection was not performed in private accommodations (apartments, holiday homes, etc.), a very common type of tourist accommodation in Croatia. These limitations should be addressed in subsequent studies. To verify the credibility of the results obtained in this study, we recommend repeating the study in other Mediterranean tourist destinations.

Future research could focus on analysing attributes of the most common places of olive oil purchase in a destination (olive farms, road stands, and supermarkets) to identify the attributes that are most important to tourists/buyers.

Figure 1

Usual place of olive oil purchaseSource: Own elaboration.
Usual place of olive oil purchaseSource: Own elaboration.

Figure 2

Reasons for olive oil purchaseSource: Own elaboration.
Reasons for olive oil purchaseSource: Own elaboration.

Socio-demographic characteristic and travelling behaviour of the sample

Socio-demographic characteristic (N=452) Total sample Non-buyers of olive oil at the destination Buyers of olive oil at the destination
N % N % N %
Variable Gender Male 152 36.9 59 34.7 93 38.6
Female 259 63.1 111 65.3 148 61.4
Elementary school 13 3.1 7 3.6 6 2.6
Education High school 134 31.8 71 36.4 63 27.8
University and more 275 65.1 117 60 158 69.6
Self-employed 74 17.4 37 18.9 37 15.9
Employed 306 71.8 140 71.8 166 71.8
Occupation Retired 26 6.1 10 5.1 16 6.9
Student 16 3.8 3 1.7 13 5.4
Unemployed 4 0.9 4 2.5 0 0
Up to 25 35 8.5 16 8.6 19 8.4
26–40 134 32.5 56 29.9 78 34.7
Age 41–55 181 43.9 86 46 95 42.2
56–66 46 11.2 23 12.3 23 10.2
67 and more 16 3.9 6 3.2 10 4.5
Income Up to 700 euro 18 5.2 6 4.1 12 6.0
700–1,000 euro 53 15.3 21 14.4 32 15.9
1,001–1,500 euro 84 24.2 41 28.1 43 21.4
1,501–2,500 euro 101 29.1 42 28.7 59 29.4
More than 2,500 euro 91 26.2 36 24.7 55 27.3
Country of origin Austria 101 23.8 38 19.7 63 25.3
Germany 90 21.2 37 19.1 53 21.3
Italy 86 20.2 65 33.7 21 8.4
Croatia 32 7.5 7 3.6 25 10
Slovenia 31 7.3 9 4.7 22 8.8
Other 85 20 37 19.2 48 26.2
Country producing or not producing of olive oil Producer 150 35.3 81 42.1 69 29.6
Nonproducer 275 64.7 111 57.9 164 70.4

Travel behaviour (N=452) N % N % N %

Variable Type of accommodation Hotel 338 74.8 161 79.9 177 71
Campsite 114 25.2 42 20.1 72 29
Length of stay 1–2 days 4 1 1 0.5 3 1.4
3–6 days 96 24.2 55 29.3 41 19.5
7 and more 298 74.8 132 70.2 166 79.1
Number of previous visits No previous visits 84 21.6 44 23.9 40 19.2
1–2 times 56 14.4 35 19 24 11.5
3 or more times 249 64.0 105 57.1 144 69.3

Importance of intrinsic and extrinsic attributes of olive oil for tourists (buyers) of olive oil in Croatia

Intrinsic attributes Mean (M) SD
Taste 4.62 0.680
Aroma 4.51 0.744
Colour 3.84 0.995
Extrinsic attributes
Olive oil category (virgin, extra virgin) 4.21 0.907
Method of production (cold-pressed) 4.12 1.035
Protected designation of origin (PDO)/protected geographical indication (PGI) 3.90 1.043
Product eco-label 3.90 1.007
Country of origin 3.82 1.037
Price 3.44 0.883
Packaging 3.18 1.112

The impact of socio-demographic and travel behaviour variables on the purchase of local olive oil using binary logistic regression analysis

Variables Not in the Equation

Step 0 Variables Score df Sig
Gender 1.243 1 .537
Age 1.331 1 .856
Education 2.390 1 .495
Occupation 1.783 1 .776
Income 3.686 1 .450
Type of accommodation 1.751 1 .186
Length of stay 2.294 1 .318
Number of previous visits 5.408 1 .020
From a country producing or not producing olive oil 10.066 1 .002
Overall statistics 31.639 9 .084
Overall percentage correct 54.7%
The cut value 0.500

Variables in the Equation

Step 1 Variables B SE. Wald df Sig. Exp (B)
Gender .229 .297 .592 1 .442 1.257
Age .273 .642 .181 1 .671 1.314
Education 1.083 .951 1.299 1 .254 2.955
Occupation .776 .770 1.015 1 .314 1.072
Income −.947 .956 .981 1 .322 2.181
Type of accommodation −.294 .315 .869 1 .351 .738
Length of stay −.197 .338 .339 1 .560 .821
Number of previous visits: 3 or more times .894 .351 6.488 1 .011 2.318
Provenance from a country producing or not producing olive oil 1.059 .324 10.713 1 .001 2.828
Constant −2.052 1.420 2.086 1 .149 .129

Model diagnostics Classification of variables in equation results

Overall percentage correct 62.6%
The cut value 0.500
Omnibus test of model coefficients Chi-Square: 34.175 Sig: .047
Hosmer and Lemeshow test Chi-Square: 9.209 Sig: .325
Cox and Snell R square .121
Nagelkerke R square .162

Olive oil attributes researched in the scientific literature

Attributes Authors
Price; origin; type; taste; purchasing place Chan-Halbrendt et al., 2010
Price; origin; packaging; appearance; colour; production method Menapace et al., 2011
Country of origin; region of origin; price; brand; olive variety; producer; taste; “extra virgin” mention; colour; appearance; package; PDO label; “organic” label Dekhili et al., 2011
Area of origin; geographical designation (PDO and PGI); organic certification and price Di Vita et al., 2013
Type; taste; colour; packaging; region of origin; and price Mtimet et al., 2013
Price; origin; colour; packaging Erraach et al., 2014
Price; type (extra virgin olive oil, virgin olive oil, and olive oil); bottle (glass, plastic); and production system (organic, conventional) Bernabéu and Díaz, 2017

Principal component analysis for the importance of local olive oil attributes

Component/item (% of explained variance) Mean (M) SD Factor loading Cronbach α
Component 1: Information (40.651%) .845
Protected designation (origin, geographical indication) 3.90 1.043 0.828
Product eco-label 3.90 1.007 0.798
Country of origin 3.82 1.037 0.759
Method of production (cold pressed) 4.12 1.035 0.757
Olive oil category (virgin, extra virgin) 4.21 0.907 0.654
Component 2: Flavour (15.247%) .844
Taste 4.62 0.680 0.900
Aroma 4.51 0.744 0.891
Component 3: Price and packaging (14.606%) .681
Price 3.44 0.883 0.856
Packaging 3.18 1.112 0.800

Final cluster centers

Component Cluster F – value
1 2 3 4
The exterior lovers The labels lovers The indifferent consumers The experts
Information .551127 .637358 −.793931 −.997363 96.276**
Flavour −.008902 .138469 −2.067185 .623947 107.501**
Price and packaging .823677 −1.150956 −.433139 .055069 98.627**
Sample size (%) 37.4%, n=86 24.3%, n=56 10%, n=23 28.3%, n=65

Acebron, L. B., and Dopico, D. C. (2000). The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic cues to expected and experienced quality: An empirical application for beef. Food Quality and Preference, 11(3), 229–238. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(99)00059-2. AcebronL. B. DopicoD. C. 2000 The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic cues to expected and experienced quality: An empirical application for beef Food Quality and Preference 11 3 229 238 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(99)00059-2. 10.1016/S0950-3293(99)00059-2 Search in Google Scholar

Alegre, J., and Cladera, M. (2006). Repeat visitation in mature sun and sand holiday destinations. Journal of Travel Research, 44(3), 288–297. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287505279005. AlegreJ. CladeraM. 2006 Repeat visitation in mature sun and sand holiday destinations Journal of Travel Research 44 3 288 297 https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287505279005. 10.1177/0047287505279005 Search in Google Scholar

Alonso, A. D., and Northcote, J. (2010). The development of olive tourism in Western Australia. International Journal of Tourism Research, 12(6), 696–708. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.786. AlonsoA. D. NorthcoteJ. 2010 The development of olive tourism in Western Australia International Journal of Tourism Research 12 6 696 708 https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.786. 10.1002/jtr.786 Search in Google Scholar

Altintzoglou, T., Heide, M., and Borch, T. (2016). Food souvenirs: Buying behaviour of tourists in Norway. British Food Journal, 118(1), 119–131. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-05-2015-0190. AltintzoglouT. HeideM. BorchT. 2016 Food souvenirs: Buying behaviour of tourists in Norway British Food Journal 118 1 119 131 https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-05-2015-0190. 10.1108/BFJ-05-2015-0190 Search in Google Scholar

Aparicio, A., Ferpeiro, L., and Alonso, V. (1994). Effect of climate on the chemical composition of virgin olive oil. Analytica Chimica Acta, 292(3), 235–241. https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(94)00065-4. AparicioA. FerpeiroL. AlonsoV. 1994 Effect of climate on the chemical composition of virgin olive oil Analytica Chimica Acta 292 3 235 241 https://doi.org/10.1016/0003-2670(94)00065-4. 10.1016/0003-2670(94)00065-4 Search in Google Scholar

Aprile, M. C., Caputo, V., and Nayga Jr., R. M. (2016). Consumers’ preferences and attitudes toward local food products. Journal of food products marketing, 22(1), 19–42. https://doi.org/10.1080/10454446.2014.949990. AprileM. C. CaputoV. NaygaR. M.Jr. 2016 Consumers’ preferences and attitudes toward local food products Journal of food products marketing 22 1 19 42 https://doi.org/10.1080/10454446.2014.949990. 10.1080/10454446.2014.949990 Search in Google Scholar

Aprile, M. C., Caputo, V., and Nayga, R. M., Jr. (2012). Consumers’ valuation of food quality labels: The case of the European geographic indication and organic farming labels. International Journal of Consumer Studies 36(2), 158–165. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01092.x. AprileM. C. CaputoV. NaygaR. M.Jr. 2012 Consumers’ valuation of food quality labels: The case of the European geographic indication and organic farming labels International Journal of Consumer Studies 36 2 158 165 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01092.x. 10.1111/j.1470-6431.2011.01092.x Search in Google Scholar

Asplet, M., and Cooper, M. (2000). Cultural designs in New Zealand souvenir clothing: The question of authenticity. Tourism Management 21(3), 307–312. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00061-8. AspletM. CooperM. 2000 Cultural designs in New Zealand souvenir clothing: The question of authenticity Tourism Management 21 3 307 312 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00061-8. 10.1016/S0261-5177(99)00061-8 Search in Google Scholar

Assaker, G., and Hallak, R. (2012). European travelers’ return likelihood and satisfaction with Mediterranean sun-and-sand destinations: A Chi-square Automatic Identification Detector−based segmentation approach. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 18(2), 105–120. https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766711435977. AssakerG. HallakR. 2012 European travelers’ return likelihood and satisfaction with Mediterranean sun-and-sand destinations: A Chi-square Automatic Identification Detector−based segmentation approach Journal of Vacation Marketing 18 2 105 120 https://doi.org/10.1177/1356766711435977. 10.1177/1356766711435977 Search in Google Scholar

Benčić, Đ. (2000). Čimbenici kvalitete maslinovaulja. Agronomski glasnik, 5 (6), 259–279. BenčićĐ. 2000 Čimbenici kvalitete maslinovaulja Agronomski glasnik 5 6 259 279 Search in Google Scholar

Bernabéu, R., and Díaz, M. (2017). Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 14(4), 1–11. http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2016144-10200. BernabéuR. DíazM. 2017 Preference for olive oil consumption in the Spanish local market Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 14 4 1 11 http://dx.doi.org/10.5424/sjar/2016144-10200. 10.5424/sjar/2016144-10200 Search in Google Scholar

Brečić, R., Mesić, Ž., and Cerjak, M. (2017). Importance of intrinsic and extrinsic quality food characteristics by different consumer segments. British Food Journal, 119(4), 845–862. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-06-2016-0284. BrečićR. MesićŽ. CerjakM. 2017 Importance of intrinsic and extrinsic quality food characteristics by different consumer segments British Food Journal 119 4 845 862 https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-06-2016-0284. 10.1108/BFJ-06-2016-0284 Search in Google Scholar

Butler, R. W. (1980). The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources. Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 24(1), 5–12. ButlerR. W. 1980 The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: Implications for management of resources Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien 24 1 5 12 10.21832/9781845410278-007 Search in Google Scholar

Campón-Cerro, A. M., Di-Clemente, E., Hernández-Mogollón, J. M., De Salvo, P., and Calzati V. (2014). Olive oil tourism in southern Europe: Proposals for tourism development of olive grove rural areas. Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento, 21(22), 63–73. Campón-CerroA. M. Di-ClementeE. Hernández-MogollónJ. M. De SalvoP. CalzatiV. 2014 Olive oil tourism in southern Europe: Proposals for tourism development of olive grove rural areas Revista Turismo & Desenvolvimento 21 22 63 73 Search in Google Scholar

Čehić, A., Mesić, Ž., and Oplanić, M. (2020). Requirements for development of olive tourism: The case of Croatia. Tourism and Hospitality Management, 26(1), 1–14. https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.26.1.1. ČehićA. MesićŽ. OplanićM. 2020 Requirements for development of olive tourism: The case of Croatia Tourism and Hospitality Management 26 1 1 14 https://doi.org/10.20867/thm.26.1.1. 10.20867/thm.26.1.1 Search in Google Scholar

Cerjak, M., Tomić, M., Fočić, N., and Brkić, R. (2016). The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic sparkling wine characteristics and behavior of sparkling wine consumers in Croatia. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 28(2), 191–201. https://doi.org/10.1080/08974438.2015.1053162. CerjakM. TomićM. FočićN. BrkićR. 2016 The importance of intrinsic and extrinsic sparkling wine characteristics and behavior of sparkling wine consumers in Croatia Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing 28 2 191 201 https://doi.org/10.1080/08974438.2015.1053162. 10.1080/08974438.2015.1053162 Search in Google Scholar

Chan-Halbrendt, C., Zhllima, E., Sisior, G., Imani, D., Leonetti, L. (2010). Consumer preferences for olive oil in Tirana. International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 13(3), 55–74. Chan-HalbrendtC. ZhllimaE. SisiorG. ImaniD. LeonettiL. 2010 Consumer preferences for olive oil in Tirana International Food and Agribusiness Management Review 13 3 55 74 Search in Google Scholar

Chekima, B., Wafa, S. A. W. S. K., Igau, O. A., Chekima, S., and Sondoh, S. L., Jr. (2016). Examining green consumerism motivational drivers: Does premium price and demographics matter to green purchasing? Journal of Cleaner Production, 112, 3436–3450. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.102. ChekimaB. WafaS. A. W. S. K. IgauO. A. ChekimaS. SondohS. L.Jr. 2016 Examining green consumerism motivational drivers: Does premium price and demographics matter to green purchasing? Journal of Cleaner Production 112 3436 3450 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.102. 10.1016/j.jclepro.2015.09.102 Search in Google Scholar

Chen, Q., and Huang, R. (2018). Local food in China: A viable destination attraction. British Food Journal, 120(1), 146–157. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-03-2017-0135. ChenQ. HuangR. 2018 Local food in China: A viable destination attraction British Food Journal 120 1 146 157 https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-03-2017-0135. 10.1108/BFJ-03-2017-0135 Search in Google Scholar

Chin, C. H., Chin, C. L., and Wong, W. P. M. (2018). The implementation of green marketing tools in rural tourism: The readiness of tourists? Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management, 27(3), 261–280. https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2017.1359723. ChinC. H. ChinC. L. WongW. P. M. 2018 The implementation of green marketing tools in rural tourism: The readiness of tourists? Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management 27 3 261 280 https://doi.org/10.1080/19368623.2017.1359723. 10.1080/19368623.2017.1359723 Search in Google Scholar

Chiu, T., Fang, D.-P., Chen, J., Wang, Y., and Jeris, C. (2001). A robust and scalable clustering algorithm for mixed type attributes in large database environment. Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGKDDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining, ACM SIGKDDD, San Francisco, CA, 263–268. ChiuT. FangD.-P. ChenJ. WangY. JerisC. 2001 A robust and scalable clustering algorithm for mixed type attributes in large database environment Proceedings of the 7th ACM SIGKDDD International Conference on Knowledge Discovery and Data Mining ACM SIGKDDD, San Francisco, CA 263 268 10.1145/502512.502549 Search in Google Scholar

Cianflone, E., and Cardile, G. (2014). Local agricultural products in tourism: AJ Strutt’s account of Sicilian prickly pears. GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites, 13(1), 10–16. CianfloneE. CardileG. 2014 Local agricultural products in tourism: AJ Strutt’s account of Sicilian prickly pears GeoJournal of Tourism and Geosites 13 1 10 16 Search in Google Scholar

Cicia, G., Del Giudice, T., and Scarpa, R. (2002). Consumers’ perception of quality in organic food: A random utility model under preference heterogeneity and choice correlation from rank-orderings. British Food Journal 104(3/4/5), 200–213. https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700210425660. CiciaG. Del GiudiceT. ScarpaR. 2002 Consumers’ perception of quality in organic food: A random utility model under preference heterogeneity and choice correlation from rank-orderings British Food Journal 104 3/4/5 200 213 https://doi.org/10.1108/00070700210425660. 10.1108/00070700210425660 Search in Google Scholar

Circi, S., Capitani, D., Randazzo, A., Ingallina, C., Mannina, L., and Sobolev, A. P. (2017). Panel test and chemical analyses of commercial olive oils: A comparative study. Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture, 4(1), 18. CirciS. CapitaniD. RandazzoA. IngallinaC. ManninaL. SobolevA. P. 2017 Panel test and chemical analyses of commercial olive oils: A comparative study Chemical and Biological Technologies in Agriculture 4 1 18 10.1186/s40538-017-0101-0 Search in Google Scholar

Croatian Bureau of Statistics. (2018). Crop Production, 2013–2017. Accessed 15 February 2019; available at https://www.dzs.hr/Hrv_Eng/publication/2018/01-01-14_01_2018.htm. Croatian Bureau of Statistics 2018 Crop Production, 2013–2017 Accessed 15 February 2019; available at https://www.dzs.hr/Hrv_Eng/publication/2018/01-01-14_01_2018.htm. Search in Google Scholar

Croatian Bureau of Statistics. (2017). Tourist arrivals in 2017. Viewed 15 March 2018; available at https://www.dzs.hr/Hrv_Eng/publication/2017/04-03-02_01_2017.htm. Croatian Bureau of Statistics 2017 Tourist arrivals in 2017 Viewed 15 March 2018; available at https://www.dzs.hr/Hrv_Eng/publication/2017/04-03-02_01_2017.htm. Search in Google Scholar

Dekhili, S., and Achabou, M. A. (2014). Eco-labelling brand strategy: Independent certification versus self-declaration. European Business Review, 26(4), 305–329. DekhiliS. AchabouM. A. 2014 Eco-labelling brand strategy: Independent certification versus self-declaration European Business Review 26 4 305 329 10.1108/EBR-06-2013-0090 Search in Google Scholar

https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-06-2013-0090. https://doi.org/10.1108/EBR-06-2013-0090 10.1108/EBR-06-2013-0090 Search in Google Scholar

Dekhili, S., Sirieix, L., and Cohen, E. (2011). How consumers choose olive oil: The importance of origin cues. Food quality and preference, 22(8), 757–762. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2011.06.005. DekhiliS. SirieixL. CohenE. 2011 How consumers choose olive oil: The importance of origin cues Food quality and preference 22 8 757 762 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2011.06.005. 10.1016/j.foodqual.2011.06.005 Search in Google Scholar

Delgado C., Gómez-Rico, A., and Guinard, J.-X. (2013). Evaluating bottles and labels versus tasting the oils blind: Effects of packaging and labeling on consumer preferences, purchase intentions and expectations for extra virgin olive oil. Food Research International, 54(2), 2112–2121. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.10.021. DelgadoC. Gómez-RicoA. GuinardJ.-X. 2013 Evaluating bottles and labels versus tasting the oils blind: Effects of packaging and labeling on consumer preferences, purchase intentions and expectations for extra virgin olive oil Food Research International 54 2 2112 2121 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.10.021. 10.1016/j.foodres.2013.10.021 Search in Google Scholar

Di Vita, G., D’Amico, M., La Via, G., and Caniglia, E. (2013). Quality perception of PDO extra-virgin olive oil: Which attributes most influence Italian consumers? Agricultural Economics Review, 14(389-2016-23498), 46–58. Di VitaG. D’AmicoM. La ViaG. CanigliaE. 2013 Quality perception of PDO extra-virgin olive oil: Which attributes most influence Italian consumers? Agricultural Economics Review 14 (389-2016-23498), 46 58 Search in Google Scholar

Eroglu, S. A., and Machleit, K. A. (1989). Effects of individual and product-specific variables on utilising country-of-origin as a product quality cue. International Marketing Review, 6(6), 27–41. https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001525. ErogluS. A. MachleitK. A. 1989 Effects of individual and product-specific variables on utilising country-of-origin as a product quality cue International Marketing Review 6 6 27 41 https://doi.org/10.1108/EUM0000000001525. 10.1108/EUM0000000001525 Search in Google Scholar

Erraach, Y., Sayadi, S., Gomez, A. C., and Parra-Lopez, C. (2014). Consumer-stated preferences towards Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) labels in a traditional olive-oil-producing country: The case of Spain. New Medit, 13(4), 11–19. ErraachY. SayadiS. GomezA. C. Parra-LopezC. 2014 Consumer-stated preferences towards Protected Designation of Origin (PDO) labels in a traditional olive-oil-producing country: The case of Spain New Medit 13 4 11 19 Search in Google Scholar

EUROSTAT. Tourism statistic at regional level. Viewed 6 February 2020; available at https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Tourism_statistics_at_regional_level. EUROSTAT Tourism statistic at regional level Viewed 6 February 2020; available at https://ec.europa.eu/eurostat/statisticsexplained/index.php/Tourism_statistics_at_regional_level. Search in Google Scholar

Finotti E., Bersani A. M., and Bersani, E. (2007). Total quality indexes for extra-virgin olive oils. Journal of Food Quality 30(6), 911–931. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00159.x. FinottiE. BersaniA. M. BersaniE. 2007 Total quality indexes for extra-virgin olive oils Journal of Food Quality 30 6 911 931 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00159.x. 10.1111/j.1745-4557.2007.00159.x Search in Google Scholar

Geel, L., Kinnear, M., and De Kock, H. L. (2005). Relating consumer preferences to sensory attributes of instant coffee. Food Quality and Preference, 16(3), 237–244. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2004.04.014. GeelL. KinnearM. De KockH. L. 2005 Relating consumer preferences to sensory attributes of instant coffee Food Quality and Preference 16 3 237 244 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2004.04.014. 10.1016/j.foodqual.2004.04.014 Search in Google Scholar

Genovese, A., Caporaso, N., Leone, T., Paduano, A., Mena, C., Perez-Jimenez, M. A., and Sacchi, R. (2019). Use of odorant series for extra virgin olive oil aroma characterisation. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 99(3), 1215–1224. GenoveseA. CaporasoN. LeoneT. PaduanoA. MenaC. Perez-JimenezM. A. SacchiR. 2019 Use of odorant series for extra virgin olive oil aroma characterisation Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture 99 3 1215 1224 10.1002/jsfa.929330066487 Search in Google Scholar

https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9293. https://doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.9293 10.1002/jsfa.9293 Search in Google Scholar

Gil-Alana, L. A., and Fischer, C. (2010). International travelling and trade: Further evidence for the case of Spanish wine based on fractional vector autoregressive specifications. Applied Economics, 42(19), 2417–2434. https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840701858083. Gil-AlanaL. A. FischerC. 2010 International travelling and trade: Further evidence for the case of Spanish wine based on fractional vector autoregressive specifications Applied Economics 42 19 2417 2434 https://doi.org/10.1080/00036840701858083. 10.1080/00036840701858083 Search in Google Scholar

Goeldner, R., Ritchie, J., and McIntosh, R. (2000). Tourism: Principles, Practices, Philosophies. GoeldnerR. RitchieJ. McIntoshR. 2000 Tourism: Principles, Practices Philosophies Search in Google Scholar

Guerrero, J. F. J., Abad, J. C. G., García, R. H., and Jiménez, J. A. M. (2012). Estimating consumer preferences for extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of vegetables: A study of German consumers. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, (3), 539–551. GuerreroJ. F. J. AbadJ. C. G. GarcíaR. H. JiménezJ. A. M. 2012 Estimating consumer preferences for extrinsic and intrinsic attributes of vegetables: A study of German consumers Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research 3 539 551 10.5424/sjar/2012103-342-11 Search in Google Scholar

Gyte, D., and Phelps, A. (1989). Patterns of Destination Repeat Business: British Tourists in Mallorca. John Wiley & Sons, New York. GyteD. PhelpsA. 1989 Patterns of Destination Repeat Business: British Tourists in Mallorca John Wiley & Sons New York 10.1177/004728758902800105 Search in Google Scholar

Haas, R., Canavari, M., Imami, D., Gjonbalaj, M., Gjokaj, E., and Zvyagintsev, D. (2016). Attitudes and preferences of Kosovar consumer segments toward quality attributes of milk and dairy products. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 28(4), 407–426. HaasR. CanavariM. ImamiD. GjonbalajM. GjokajE. ZvyagintsevD. 2016 Attitudes and preferences of Kosovar consumer segments toward quality attributes of milk and dairy products Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing 28 4 407 426 10.1080/08974438.2016.1163311 Search in Google Scholar

Hair, J., Anderson, R. E., Tatham, R. L., and Black, W. C. (1995). Multivariate Data Analysis. 4th ed. Prentice-Hall, New Jersey. HairJ. AndersonR. E. TathamR. L. BlackW. C. 1995 Multivariate Data Analysis 4th ed. Prentice-Hall New Jersey Search in Google Scholar

Hatirli, S. A., Ozkan, B., and Aktas, A. R. (2004). Factors affecting fluid milk purchasing sources in Turkey. Food Quality and Preference 15(6), 509–515. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2003.11.002. HatirliS. A. OzkanB. AktasA. R. 2004 Factors affecting fluid milk purchasing sources in Turkey Food Quality and Preference 15 6 509 515 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodqual.2003.11.002. 10.1016/j.foodqual.2003.11.002 Search in Google Scholar

Ho, C. I., Liu, L. W., Yuan, Y., and Liao, H. H. (2020). Perceived food souvenir quality as a formative second-order construct: How do tourists evaluate the quality of food souvenirs? Current Issues in Tourism, 1–24. https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1715928. HoC. I. LiuL. W. YuanY. LiaoH. H. 2020 Perceived food souvenir quality as a formative second-order construct: How do tourists evaluate the quality of food souvenirs? Current Issues in Tourism 1 24 https://doi.org/10.1080/13683500.2020.1715928. 10.1080/13683500.2020.1715928 Search in Google Scholar

International Olive Oil Council (IOOC). (2018). Viewed 17 January, 2019; available at http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/. International Olive Oil Council (IOOC) 2018 Viewed 17 January, 2019 available at http://www.internationaloliveoil.org/ Search in Google Scholar

Jiménez-Guerrero, J. F., Gázquez-Abad, J. C., Mondéjar-Jiménez, J. A., and Huertas-García, R. (2012). Consumer preferences for olive-oil attributes: A review of the empirical literature using a conjoint approach: Olive oil-constituents, quality, health properties and bioconversions. Croatia: InTech Europe, 233–247. Jiménez-GuerreroJ. F. Gázquez-AbadJ. C. Mondéjar-JiménezJ. A. Huertas-GarcíaR. 2012 Consumer preferences for olive-oil attributes: A review of the empirical literature using a conjoint approach: Olive oil-constituents, quality, health properties and bioconversions Croatia: InTech Europe 233 247 Search in Google Scholar

Kaiser, H. F. (1960). The application of electronic computers to factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, n. 20. KaiserH. F. 1960 The application of electronic computers to factor analysis Educational and Psychological Measurement 20 10.1177/001316446002000116 Search in Google Scholar

Karanikolas, P., Correia, T. P., Martinez-Gomez, V., Galli, F., Hernandez, P. A., Fastelli, L., and Goussios, G. (2018). Food system integration of olive oil producing small farms: A comparative study of four Mediterranean regions. Retrieved from http://www.ifsa2018.gr/uploads/attachments/197/Theme5_Karanikolas.pdf, 20. KaranikolasP. CorreiaT. P. Martinez-GomezV. GalliF. HernandezP. A. FastelliL. GoussiosG. 2018 Food system integration of olive oil producing small farms: A comparative study of four Mediterranean regions Retrieved from http://www.ifsa2018.gr/uploads/attachments/197/Theme5_Karanikolas.pdf, 20. Search in Google Scholar

Kavallari, A., Maas, S., and Schmitz, P. M. (2011). Examining the determinants of olive oil demand in nonproducing countries: Evidence from Germany and the UK. Journal of Food Products Marketing, 17(2–3), 355–372. https://doi.org/10.1080/10454446.2011.548721. KavallariA. MaasS. SchmitzP. M. 2011 Examining the determinants of olive oil demand in nonproducing countries: Evidence from Germany and the UK Journal of Food Products Marketing 17 2–3 355 372 https://doi.org/10.1080/10454446.2011.548721. 10.1080/10454446.2011.548721 Search in Google Scholar

Lancaster, K. (1966). Change and innovation in the technology of consumption. The American Economic Review, 56(1/2), 14–23. LancasterK. 1966 Change and innovation in the technology of consumption The American Economic Review 56 1/2 14 23 Search in Google Scholar

Lehto, X. Y., O’Leary, J. T., and Morrison, A. M. (2004). The effect of prior experience on vacation behavior. Annals of Tourism Research, 31(4), 801–818. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.02.006. LehtoX. Y. O’LearyJ. T. MorrisonA. M. 2004 The effect of prior experience on vacation behavior Annals of Tourism Research 31 4 801 818 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.annals.2004.02.006. 10.1016/j.annals.2004.02.006 Search in Google Scholar

Leonetti, L., Imami, D., Stefanllari, A., and Zhllima, E. (2009). The olive and olive oil value chain in Albania. Development Solutions Associates. Available via EastAgri. http://www.eastagri.org/files/Oil-Albania.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2020. LeonettiL. ImamiD. StefanllariA. ZhllimaE. 2009 The olive and olive oil value chain in Albania Development Solutions Associates. Available via EastAgri. http://www.eastagri.org/files/Oil-Albania.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2020. Search in Google Scholar

Lin, L., and Mao, P. C. (2015). Food for memories and culture—A content analysis study of food specialties and souvenirs. Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management, 22, 19–29. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2014.12.001. LinL. MaoP. C. 2015 Food for memories and culture—A content analysis study of food specialties and souvenirs Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management 22 19 29 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhtm.2014.12.001. 10.1016/j.jhtm.2014.12.001 Search in Google Scholar

Littrell, M. A., Anderson, L. F., and Brown, P. J. (1993). What makes a craft souvenir authentic? Annals of Tourism Research 20(1), 197–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(93)90118-M. LittrellM. A. AndersonL. F. BrownP. J. 1993 What makes a craft souvenir authentic? Annals of Tourism Research 20 1 197 215 https://doi.org/10.1016/0160-7383(93)90118-M. 10.1016/0160-7383(93)90118-M Search in Google Scholar

Martínez, M. G., Aragonés, Z., and Poole, N. (2002). A repositioning strategy for olive oil in the UK market. Agribusiness: An International Journal, 18(2), 163–180. https://doi.org/10.1002/agr.10016. MartínezM. G. AragonésZ. PooleN. 2002 A repositioning strategy for olive oil in the UK market Agribusiness: An International Journal 18 2 163 180 https://doi.org/10.1002/agr.10016. 10.1002/agr.10016 Search in Google Scholar

Meis, S., Joyal, S., and Trites, A. (1995). The US repeat and VFR visitor to Canada. Journal of Tourism Studies 6(1), 27–37. MeisS. JoyalS. TritesA. 1995 The US repeat and VFR visitor to Canada Journal of Tourism Studies 6 1 27 37 Search in Google Scholar

Menapace, L., Colson, G., Grebitus, C., and Facendola, M. (2011). Consumers’ preferences for geographical origin labels: Evidence from the Canadian olive oil market. European Review of Agricultural Economics 38(2), 193–212. https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbq051. MenapaceL. ColsonG. GrebitusC. FacendolaM. 2011 Consumers’ preferences for geographical origin labels: Evidence from the Canadian olive oil market European Review of Agricultural Economics 38 2 193 212 https://doi.org/10.1093/erae/jbq051. 10.1093/erae/jbq051 Search in Google Scholar

Menapace, L., Colson, G., Grebitus, C., and Facendola, M. (2008). Consumer preferences for extra virgin olive oil with country-of-origin and geographical indication labels in Canada. American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting. 10.22004/ag.econ.6430. MenapaceL. ColsonG. GrebitusC. FacendolaM. 2008 Consumer preferences for extra virgin olive oil with country-of-origin and geographical indication labels in Canada American Agricultural Economics Association Annual Meeting 10.22004/ag.econ.6430 Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Monteleone, E., Carlucci, A., Caporale, G., and Wakeling, I. (1997). Analisi della preferenza dei consumatori per l’olio extra vergine di oliva. Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse 74(9), 415–421. MonteleoneE. CarlucciA. CaporaleG. WakelingI. 1997 Analisi della preferenza dei consumatori per l’olio extra vergine di oliva Rivista Italiana delle Sostanze Grasse 74 9 415 421 Search in Google Scholar

Mtimet, N., Zaibet, L., Zairi, C., and Hzami, H. (2013). Marketing olive oil products in the Tunisian local market: The importance of quality attributes and consumers’ behavior. Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing, 25(2), 134–145. https://doi.org/10.1080/08974438.2013.736044. MtimetN. ZaibetL. ZairiC. HzamiH. 2013 Marketing olive oil products in the Tunisian local market: The importance of quality attributes and consumers’ behavior Journal of International Food & Agribusiness Marketing 25 2 134 145 https://doi.org/10.1080/08974438.2013.736044. 10.1080/08974438.2013.736044 Search in Google Scholar

Murgado, E. M. (2013). Turning food into a gastronomic experience: Olive oil tourism. Options Méditerranéennes, Série A, Séminaires Méditerranéens, Conference paper No. 106, 97–109. MurgadoE. M. 2013 Turning food into a gastronomic experience: Olive oil tourism Options Méditerranéennes Série A, Séminaires Méditerranéens, Conference paper No. 106, 97 109 Search in Google Scholar

Murphy, L., Moscardo, G., and Benckendorff, P. (2013). Understanding tourist shopping village experiences on the margins. Tourism and Souvenirs: Glocal Perspectives from the Margins, 33, 132. MurphyL. MoscardoG. BenckendorffP. 2013 Understanding tourist shopping village experiences on the margins Tourism and Souvenirs: Glocal Perspectives from the Margins 33 132 10.21832/9781845414078-010 Search in Google Scholar

Murray, J. M., and Delahunty, C. M. (2000). Mapping consumer preference for the sensory and packaging attributes of Cheddar cheese. Food Quality and Preference, 11(5), 419–435. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(00)00017-3. MurrayJ. M. DelahuntyC. M. 2000 Mapping consumer preference for the sensory and packaging attributes of Cheddar cheese Food Quality and Preference 11 5 419 435 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0950-3293(00)00017-3. 10.1016/S0950-3293(00)00017-3 Search in Google Scholar

Norusis, M. J. (2007). SPSS 15.0 advanced statistical procedures companion. Prentice Hall, Chicago, IL. NorusisM. J. 2007 SPSS 15.0 advanced statistical procedures companion Prentice Hall Chicago, IL Search in Google Scholar

Oppermann, M. (1998). Destination threshold potential and the law of repeat visitation. Journal of Travel Research 37(2), 131–137. https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759803700204. OppermannM. 1998 Destination threshold potential and the law of repeat visitation Journal of Travel Research 37 2 131 137 https://doi.org/10.1177/004728759803700204. 10.1177/004728759803700204 Search in Google Scholar

Oreggia, M. (2019). FlosOlei (2019). A Guide to the World of Extra Virgin Olive Oil. OreggiaM. 2019 FlosOlei 2019 A Guide to the World of Extra Virgin Olive Oil Search in Google Scholar

Owen, R. W., Giacosa, A., Hull, W. E., Haubner, R., Wurtele, G., Spiegelhalder, B., and Bartsch, H. (2000). Olive-oil consumption and health: The possible role of antioxidants. The Lancet Oncology, 1(2), 107–112. https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(00)00015-2. OwenR. W. GiacosaA. HullW. E. HaubnerR. WurteleG. SpiegelhalderB. BartschH. 2000 Olive-oil consumption and health: The possible role of antioxidants The Lancet Oncology 1 2 107 112 https://doi.org/10.1016/S1470-2045(00)00015-2. 10.1016/S1470-2045(00)00015-2 Search in Google Scholar

Panico, T., Del Giudice, T., and Caracciolo, F. (2014). Quality dimensions and consumer preferences: A choice experiment in the Italian extra-virgin olive oil market. Agricultural Economics Review, 15(389-2016-23511), 100–112. 10.22004/ag.econ.253685. PanicoT. Del GiudiceT. CaraccioloF. 2014 Quality dimensions and consumer preferences: A choice experiment in the Italian extra-virgin olive oil market Agricultural Economics Review 15 (389-2016-23511) 100 112 10.22004/ag.econ.253685 Open DOISearch in Google Scholar

Pineda, J. M. B., Florencio, B. P., and Roldán, L. S. (2018). Foreign tourists as external-market information source for SMEs. Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism, 19(3), 341–357. https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2017.1418701. PinedaJ. M. B. FlorencioB. P. RoldánL. S. 2018 Foreign tourists as external-market information source for SMEs Journal of Quality Assurance in Hospitality & Tourism 19 3 341 357 https://doi.org/10.1080/1528008X.2017.1418701. 10.1080/1528008X.2017.1418701 Search in Google Scholar

Roselli, L., Carlucci, D., and Gennaro, B. C. D. (2016). What is the value of extrinsic olive oil cues in emerging markets? Empirical evidence from the US e-commerce retail market. Agribusiness 32 (3), 329–342. https://doi.org/10.1002/agr.21454. RoselliL. CarlucciD. GennaroB. C. D. 2016 What is the value of extrinsic olive oil cues in emerging markets? Empirical evidence from the US e-commerce retail market Agribusiness 32 3 329 342 https://doi.org/10.1002/agr.21454. 10.1002/agr.21454 Search in Google Scholar

Ruiz Guerra, I., Molina, M.V., and Martín López, V. M. (2011). El oleoturismo como atractivo turístico en el medio rural español. Papers de Turisme, 49–50, 89–103. Ruiz GuerraI. MolinaM.V. Martín LópezV. M. 2011 El oleoturismo como atractivo turístico en el medio rural español Papers de Turisme 49–50 89 103 Search in Google Scholar

Sabbatini, V., Manthoulis, G., Baourakis, G., Drakos, P., Angelakis, G., and Zopounidis, C. (2016). Tourists’ behavioural analysis on olive oil consumption: Empirical results. International Journal of Tourism Policy, 6(2), 136–146. https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTP.2016.077968. SabbatiniV. ManthoulisG. BaourakisG. DrakosP. AngelakisG. ZopounidisC. 2016 Tourists’ behavioural analysis on olive oil consumption: Empirical results International Journal of Tourism Policy 6 2 136 146 https://doi.org/10.1504/IJTP.2016.077968. 10.1504/IJTP.2016.077968 Search in Google Scholar

Santosa, M., Clow, E. J., Sturzenberger, N. D., and Guinard, J. X. (2013). Knowledge, beliefs, habits and attitudes of California consumers regarding extra virgin olive oil. Food Research International, 54(2), 2104–2111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.051. SantosaM. ClowE. J. SturzenbergerN. D. GuinardJ. X. 2013 Knowledge, beliefs, habits and attitudes of California consumers regarding extra virgin olive oil Food Research International 54 2 2104 2111 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.051. 10.1016/j.foodres.2013.07.051 Search in Google Scholar

Sayadi, S., Erraach, Y., and Parra-Lopez, C. (2016). Translating consumers’ olive-oil quality attribute requirements into optimal olive-growing practices: A quality function deployment (QFD) approach. British Food Journal, 119 (1), 190–214. https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-05-2016-0228. SayadiS. ErraachY. Parra-LopezC. 2016 Translating consumers’ olive-oil quality attribute requirements into optimal olive-growing practices: A quality function deployment (QFD) approach British Food Journal 119 1 190 214 https://doi.org/10.1108/BFJ-05-2016-0228. 10.1108/BFJ-05-2016-0228 Search in Google Scholar

Scarpa, R., and Del Giudice, T. (2004). Market segmentation via mixed logic: Extra-virgin olive oil in urban Italy. Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization, 2(1). https://doi.org/10.2202/1542-0485.1080. ScarpaR. Del GiudiceT. 2004 Market segmentation via mixed logic: Extra-virgin olive oil in urban Italy Journal of Agricultural & Food Industrial Organization 2 1 https://doi.org/10.2202/1542-0485.1080. 10.2202/1542-0485.1080 Search in Google Scholar

Sims, R. (2009). Food, place and authenticity: Local food and the sustainable tourism experience. Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 17(3), 321–336. https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802359293. SimsR. 2009 Food, place and authenticity: Local food and the sustainable tourism experience Journal of Sustainable Tourism 17 3 321 336 https://doi.org/10.1080/09669580802359293. 10.1080/09669580802359293 Search in Google Scholar

Skuras, D., Dimara, E., and Petrou, A. (2006). Rural tourism and visitors’ expenditures for local food products. Regional Studies, 40(7), 769–779. https://doi.org/10.1080/00343400600660771. SkurasD. DimaraE. PetrouA. 2006 Rural tourism and visitors’ expenditures for local food products Regional Studies 40 7 769 779 https://doi.org/10.1080/00343400600660771. 10.1080/00343400600660771 Search in Google Scholar

Sofi, F., Cesari, F., Abbate, R., Gensini, G. F., and Casini, A. (2008). Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: Meta-analysis. British Medical Journal, 337 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a1344. SofiF. CesariF. AbbateR. GensiniG. F. CasiniA. 2008 Adherence to Mediterranean diet and health status: Meta-analysis British Medical Journal 337 https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.a1344. 10.1136/bmj.a1344253352418786971 Search in Google Scholar

Steenhuis, I. H., Waterlander, W. E., and Mul, A. D. (2011). Consumer food choices: The role of price and pricing strategies. Public Health Nutrition, 14(12), 2220–2226. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001637. SteenhuisI. H. WaterlanderW. E. MulA. D. 2011 Consumer food choices: The role of price and pricing strategies Public Health Nutrition 14 12 2220 2226 https://doi.org/10.1017/S1368980011001637. 10.1017/S136898001100163721752312 Search in Google Scholar

Swanson, K. K. (2004). Tourists’ and retailers’ perceptions of souvenirs. Journal of Vacation Marketing, 10(4), 363–377. https://doi.org/10.1177/135676670401000407. SwansonK. K. 2004 Tourists’ and retailers’ perceptions of souvenirs Journal of Vacation Marketing 10 4 363 377 https://doi.org/10.1177/135676670401000407. 10.1177/135676670401000407 Search in Google Scholar

Swanson, K. K., and Horridge, P. E. (2004). A structural model for souvenir consumption, travel activities, and tourist demographics. Journal of Travel Research, 42(4), 372–380. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287504263031. SwansonK. K. HorridgeP. E. 2004 A structural model for souvenir consumption, travel activities, and tourist demographics Journal of Travel Research 42 4 372 380 https://doi.org/10.1177/0047287504263031. 10.1177/0047287504263031 Search in Google Scholar

Swanson, K., and Horridge, P. (2002). Tourists’ souvenir purchase behavior and retailers’ awareness of tourists’ purchase behavior in the southwest. Clothing and Textiles Research Journal, 20(2), 62–76. https://doi.org/10.1177/0887302X0202000202. SwansonK. HorridgeP. 2002 Tourists’ souvenir purchase behavior and retailers’ awareness of tourists’ purchase behavior in the southwest Clothing and Textiles Research Journal 20 2 62 76 https://doi.org/10.1177/0887302X0202000202. 10.1177/0887302X0202000202 Search in Google Scholar

Tabachnick, B., and Fidell, G. (2013). Using Multivariate Statistics, 6th ed. Pearson Education, Boston. Tellstrom, R., Gustafsson, I. B., and Mossberg, L. (2005). Local food cultures in the Swedish rural economy. Sociologia Ruralis, 45(4), 346–359. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2005.00309.x. TabachnickB. FidellG. 2013 Using Multivariate Statistics 6th ed. Pearson Education Boston 10.1111/j.1467-9523.2005.00309.x TellstromR. GustafssonI. B. MossbergL. 2005 Local food cultures in the Swedish rural economy Sociologia Ruralis 45 4 346 359 https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9523.2005.00309.x. Search in Google Scholar

Thrane, C., and Farstad, E. (2012). Nationality as a segmentation criterion in tourism research: The case of international tourists’ expenditures while on trips in Norway. Tourism Economics, 18(1), 203–217. https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2012.0110. ThraneC. FarstadE. 2012 Nationality as a segmentation criterion in tourism research: The case of international tourists’ expenditures while on trips in Norway Tourism Economics 18 1 203 217 https://doi.org/10.5367/te.2012.0110. 10.5367/te.2012.0110 Search in Google Scholar

Tkaczynski, A. (2017). Segmentation using two-step cluster analysis. In Segmentation in social marketing (109–125). Springer, Singapore. TkaczynskiA. 2017 Segmentation using two-step cluster analysis In Segmentation in social marketing 109 125 Springer Singapore 10.1007/978-981-10-1835-0_8 Search in Google Scholar

Tosun, C., Temizkan, S. P., Timothy, D. J., and Fyall, A. (2007). Tourist shopping experiences and satisfaction. International Journal of Tourism Research, 9(2), 87–102. https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.595. TosunC. TemizkanS. P. TimothyD. J. FyallA. 2007 Tourist shopping experiences and satisfaction International Journal of Tourism Research 9 2 87 102 https://doi.org/10.1002/jtr.595. 10.1002/jtr.595 Search in Google Scholar

Tuck, K. L., and Hayball, P. J. (2002). Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: Metabolism and health effects. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, 13(11), 636–644. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00229-2. TuckK. L. HayballP. J. 2002 Major phenolic compounds in olive oil: Metabolism and health effects Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry 13 11 636 644 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00229-2. 10.1016/S0955-2863(02)00229-2 Search in Google Scholar

Turner, L., and Reisinger, Y. (2001). Shopping satisfaction for domestic tourists. Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 8(1), 15–27. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6989(00)00005-9. TurnerL. ReisingerY. 2001 Shopping satisfaction for domestic tourists Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services 8 1 15 27 https://doi.org/10.1016/S0969-6989(00)00005-9. 10.1016/S0969-6989(00)00005-9 Search in Google Scholar

UNWTO. (2008). Tourism market trends. Viewed 8 February 2020; available at https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284413560. UNWTO 2008 Tourism market trends Viewed 8 February 2020; available at https://www.e-unwto.org/doi/pdf/10.18111/9789284413560. Search in Google Scholar

Valentín, M. M., Quesada, R., and Ruiz Guerra, I. J. M. (2011). Potencial del oleoturismo como diversificación económica del sector cooperativo agrario: el caso español. Revista de Ciencias Sociales, 17(3), 533–541. ValentínM. M. QuesadaR. Ruiz GuerraI. J. M. 2011 Potencial del oleoturismo como diversificación económica del sector cooperativo agrario: el caso español Revista de Ciencias Sociales 17 3 533 541 Search in Google Scholar

Vázquez de la Torre, G. M., Arjona-Fuentes, M. J., and Hidalgo, L. A. (2017). Olive oil tourism: Promoting rural development in Andalusia (Spain). Tourism management perspectives, 21, 100–108. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.12.003. Vázquez de la TorreG. M. Arjona-FuentesM. J. HidalgoL. A. 2017 Olive oil tourism: Promoting rural development in Andalusia (Spain) Tourism management perspectives 21 100 108 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tmp.2016.12.003. 10.1016/j.tmp.2016.12.003 Search in Google Scholar

Veal, A. J. (2006). Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: A Practical Guide. Pearson Education, Essex. VealA. J. 2006 Research Methods for Leisure and Tourism: A Practical Guide Pearson Education Essex Search in Google Scholar

Vogt, C., and Fesenmaier, D. (1995). Tourists’ and retailers’ perceptions of services. Annals of Tourism Research, 22(4), 763–780. VogtC. FesenmaierD. 1995 Tourists’ and retailers’ perceptions of services Annals of Tourism Research 22 4 763 780 10.1016/0160-7383(95)00039-9 Search in Google Scholar

Vossen, P. (2007). Olive oil: History, production, and characteristics of the world’s classic oils. HortScience, 42(5), 1093–1100. https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.42.5.1093. VossenP. 2007 Olive oil: History, production, and characteristics of the world’s classic oils HortScience 42 5 1093 1100 https://doi.org/10.21273/HORTSCI.42.5.1093. 10.21273/HORTSCI.42.5.1093 Search in Google Scholar

Wang, D. (2004). Tourist behaviour and repeat visitation to Hong Kong. Tourism Geographies, 6(1), 99–118. WangD. 2004 Tourist behaviour and repeat visitation to Hong Kong Tourism Geographies 6 1 99 118 10.1080/14616680320001722355 Search in Google Scholar

Williams, B., Onsman, A., and Brown, T. (2010). Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices. Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care, 8(3), 1–13. http://dx.doi.org/10.33151/ajp.8.3.93. WilliamsB. OnsmanA. BrownT. 2010 Exploratory factor analysis: A five-step guide for novices Journal of Emergency Primary Health Care 8 3 1 13 http://dx.doi.org/10.33151/ajp.8.3.93. 10.33151/ajp.8.3.93 Search in Google Scholar

Xiong, B., Sumner, D., and Matthews, W. (2014). A new market for an old food: The US demand for olive oil. Agricultural Economics, 45 (S1), 107–118. https://doi.org/10.1111/agec.12133. XiongB. SumnerD. MatthewsW. 2014 A new market for an old food: The US demand for olive oil Agricultural Economics 45 S1 107 118 https://doi.org/10.1111/agec.12133. 10.1111/agec.12133 Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo