1. bookVolume 12 (2022): Issue 1 (May 2022)
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eISSN
2674-4619
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18 Jun 2013
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2 times per year
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English
access type Open Access

The Kremlin’s Information Influence Campaigns in Estonia and Estonian Response in the Context of Russian-Western Relations

Published Online: 23 Jun 2022
Volume & Issue: Volume 12 (2022) - Issue 1 (May 2022)
Page range: 27 - 59
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2674-4619
First Published
18 Jun 2013
Publication timeframe
2 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The Russian Federation has developed a large number of instruments to put pressure on the West using non-conventional means such as cyber attacks, economic tools and information warfare. Using modern IT technologies in its hybrid activities, Russia, much like China or other authoritarian powers, is trying to challenge the current world order. These instruments are particularly evident in the Baltic States. This article uses Estonia as a case study to inquire into the political goals and strategic conduct of Russia. Specifically, the focus is on the political context, instruments of information war, and available countermeasures. As argued in the current study, the shift from European to Eurasian power, Russia’s careful management and success in avoiding crossing the “red lines” of its adversaries, as well as in exploiting the socioeconomic weaknesses and openness of the West, all play a relevant role in understanding the political context. As for instruments, Russia has developed strategic narratives and conspiracy theories, plus several channels next to media channels, and policy tools such as Pax Russica and the compatriot policy. These are deployed in its neighborhood and aimed at unintegrated segments of the Russophone populations.

Keywords

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