1. bookVolume 21 (2021): Issue 3 (July 2021)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

A mixture of β-Glucan and Mannanoligosaccharide Ameliorated the Growth Rate, Digestive Enzyme Activity, Intestinal Morphometry, and Immunity of Common Carp (Cyprinus carpio)

Published Online: 05 Aug 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 21 (2021) - Issue 3 (July 2021)
Page range: 1027 - 1041
Received: 13 Oct 2020
Accepted: 08 Jan 2021
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2300-8733
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The feasible strategies to keep up the growth and wellbeing of aquatic organisms by using beneficial dietary additives are highly recommended. Among these additives, β-glucan (BG) and mannanoligosaccharide (MOS) were examined on common carp performances in the current experiment. For 80 days, carps were fed four diets with 0%, 1%, 2%, and 3% BG/MOS (1:1) and distributed in four groups (triplicates). Higher final weight and weight gain (P<0.05) were detected in carps fed 1%, 2%, and 3% of BG/MOS than the control group. The feed conversion ratio showed lower values (P<0.05) in carps fed BG/MOS mixture at 2%, and 3% than 0% and 1% levels. The activities of amylase, lipase, and protease were higher in fish fed BG/MOS mixture than in the control group. Interestingly, fish fed BG/MOS mixture had markedly increased villi length and width with branched villi integrity. Further, the count of goblet cells was increased (P<0.05) in groups fed BG/MOS mixture than in carps fed the basal diet. The hemoglobin and hematocrit levels and the counts of red and white blood cells were higher in carps fed BG/MOS mixture than the control with the highest counts in 3% level. Additionally, the blood total protein, globulin, and phagocytic activity were higher (P<0.05) in groups that received BG/MOS mixture at 3% than the control. The lysozyme had a higher value in 1% group than the control (P<0.05). Therefore, using the mixture of BG/MOS at 2–3% is suggested for improving the growth rate, intestinal health, blood health, and immunity of common carp.

Keywords

Ahmed N., Thompson S., Glaser M.(2019). Global aquaculture productivity, environmental sustainability, and climate change adaptability. Environ. Manag., 63: 159-–172. Search in Google Scholar

Amenyogbe E., Chen G., Wang Z., Huang J., Huang B., Li H.(2020). The exploitation of probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics in aquaculture: present study, limitations and future directions: a review. Aquacult. Int., 1–25.10.1007/s10499-020-00509-0 Search in Google Scholar

AOAC(2007). Method 2007-04. Association of Official Analytical Chemists. Washington, DC. Search in Google Scholar

Bancroft J., Stevens A., Turner D.(1996). Theory and practice of histological techniques. Churchill Livingstone, New York, 766 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Blaxhall P.C., Daisley K.W.(1973). Routine haematological methods for use with fish blood. J. Fish Biol., 5: 771–781. Search in Google Scholar

Borlongan I.G.(1990). Studies on the digestive lipases of milkfish, Chanos chanos. Aquaculture, 89: 315–325. Search in Google Scholar

Cao H., Yu R., Zhang Y., Hu B., Jian S., Wen C., Kajbaf K., Kumar V., Yang G.(2019). Effects of dietary supplementation with β-glucan and Bacillus subtilis on growth, fillet quality, immune capacity, and antioxidant status of Pengze crucian carp (Carassius auratus var. Pengze). Aquaculture, 508: 106–112. Search in Google Scholar

Coulombe J.J., Favreau L.(1963). A new simple semimicro method for colorimetric determination of urea. Clin. Chem., 9: 102–108. Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O.(2021). Nutritional immunity of fish intestines: important insights for sustainable aquaculture. Rev. Aquacult., 13: 642–663. Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O., Koshio S.(2016). Recent advances in the role of probiotics and prebiotics in carp aquaculture: a review. Aquaculture, 454: 243–251. Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O., Koshio S.(2018). Vitamin C supplementation to optimize growth, health and stress resistance in aquatic animals. Rev. Aquacult., 10: 334–350. Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O., Koshio S., Ishikawa M., El-Sabagh M., Esteban M.A., Zaineld-in A.I. (2016). Probiotics as an environment-friendly approach to enhance red sea bream, Pagrus major growth, immune response and oxidative status. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 57: 170–178. Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O., Koshio S., Esteban M.Á.(2018). Beneficial roles of feed additives as immunostimulants in aquaculture: a review. Rev. Aquacult., 10: 950–974. Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O., Abo-Al-Ela H.G., Hasan M.T.(2020 a). Modulation of transcriptomic profile in aquatic animals: Probiotics, prebiotics and synbiotics scenarios. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 97: 268–282.10.1016/j.fsi.2019.12.05431863903 Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O., Eweedah N.M., Moustafa E.M., Shahin M.G.(2020 b). Synbiotic effects of Aspergillus oryzae and β-glucan on growth and oxidative and immune responses of Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Prob. Antimicrob. Proteins., 12: 172–183.10.1007/s12602-018-9513-930617951 Search in Google Scholar

Dawood M.A.O., Metwally A.E.S., El-Sharawy M.E., Atta A.M., Elbialy Z.I., Ab-del-Latif H.M.R., Paray B.A. (2020 c). The role of β-glucan in the growth, intestinal morphometry, and immune-related gene and heat shock protein expressions of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) under different stocking densities. Aquaculture, 523: 735205–735205.10.1016/j.aquaculture.2020.735205 Search in Google Scholar

DobšíkováR., BlahováJ., MikulíkováI., ModráH., PráškováE., SvobodováZ., ŠkoričM., JarkovskýJ., Siwicki A.-K. (2013). The effect of oyster mushroom β-1.3/1.6-D-glucan and oxytetracycline antibiotic on biometrical, haematological, biochemical, and immunological indices, and histopathological changes in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.). Fish Shellfish Immunol., 35: 1813–1823. Search in Google Scholar

Doumas B.T., Bayse D.D., Carter R.J., Peters T., Schaffer R.(1981). A candidate reference method for determination of total protein in serum. I. Development and validation. Clin. Chem., 27: 1642–1650. Search in Google Scholar

Doumas B.T., Biggs H.G.(1972). Standard methods of clinical chemistry. Academic Press, New York. Search in Google Scholar

Ebrahimi G., Ouraji H., Khalesi M.K., Sudagar M., Barari A., Zarei Dangesara-ki M., Jani Khalili K.H. (2012). Effects of a prebiotic, Immunogen®, on feed utilization, body composition, immunity and resistance to Aeromonas hydrophila infection in the common carp Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus) fingerlings. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 96: 591–599. Search in Google Scholar

Encarnação P.(2016). Functional feed additives in aquaculture feeds. In: Aquafeed Formulation, Nates S.F. (ed.). Academic Press, San Diego, pp. 217–237.10.1016/B978-0-12-800873-7.00005-1 Search in Google Scholar

Falco A., Frost P., Miest J., Pionnier N., Irnazarow I., Hoole D.(2012). Reduced inflammatory response to Aeromonas salmonicida infection in common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fed with β-glucan supplements. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 32: 1051–1057. Search in Google Scholar

FAO(2020). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2020. Sustainability in Action. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. Search in Google Scholar

Fazio F.(2019). Fish hematology analysis as an important tool of aquaculture: A review. Aquaculture, 500: 237–242. Search in Google Scholar

Fiertak A., Kilarski W.M.(2002). Glycoconjugates of the intestinal goblet cells of four cyprinids. Cell. Mol. Life Sci., 59: 1724–1733. Search in Google Scholar

Geda F., Rekecki A., Decostere A., Bossier P., Wuyts B., Kalmar I.D., Jans-sens G.P.J. (2012). Changes in intestinal morphology and amino acid catabolism in common carp at mildly elevated temperature as affected by dietary mannanoligosaccharides. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 178: 95–102. Search in Google Scholar

Gu M., Ma H., Mai K., Zhang W., Bai N., Wang X.(2011). Effects of dietary β-glucan, mannan oligosaccharide and their combinations on growth performance, immunity and resistance against Vibrio splendidus of sea cucumber, Apostichopus japonicus. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 31: 303–309. Search in Google Scholar

Harris S.J., Bray D.P., Adamek M., Hulse D.R., Steinhagen D., Hoole D.(2020). Effect of β-1/3,1/6-glucan upon immune responses and bacteria in the gut of healthy common carp (Cyprinus carpio). J. Fish Biol., 96: 444–455. Search in Google Scholar

Heinegård D., Tiderström G.(1973). Determination of serum creatinine by a direct colorimetric method. Clin. Chim. Acta, 43: 305–310. Search in Google Scholar

Houston A.(1990). Blood and circulation/Methods for fish biology. NY. Amer. Fish. Society. Search in Google Scholar

Jain N.C.(1986). Schalm’s veterinary hematology. Lea & Febiger. Search in Google Scholar

Jiang C.(1982). Activity measuring for implemental enzyme. Science and Technology Press, Shanghai. Search in Google Scholar

Jin Z.(1995). The evaluation principle and method of functional food. Beijing: Beijing Publishers. Search in Google Scholar

Jung-Schroers V., Adamek M., Jung A., Harris S., DózaÖ.S., Baumer A., Stein-hagen D. (2016). Feeding of β-1,3/1,6-glucan increases the diversity of the intestinal microflora of carp (Cyprinus carpio). Aquacult. Nutr., 22: 1026–1039. Search in Google Scholar

Jung-Schroers V., Adamek M., Harris S., Syakuri H., Jung A., Irnazarow I., Steinhagen D. (2018). Response of the intestinal mucosal barrier of carp (Cyprinus carpio) to a bacterial challenge by Aeromonas hydrophila intubation after feeding with β-1,3/1,6-glucan. J. Fish Dis., 41: 1077–1092. Search in Google Scholar

Kawahara E., Ueda T., Nomura S.(1991). In vitro phagocytic activity of white-spotted char blood cells after injection with Aeromonas salmonicida extracellular products. Fish Path., 26: 213–214. Search in Google Scholar

Lara-Flores M., Olvera-Novoa M.A., Guzmán-Méndez B.Z.E., López-Mad-rid W. (2003). Use of the bacteria Streptococcus faecium and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae as growth promoters in Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Aquaculture, 216: 193–201. Search in Google Scholar

Lucky Z.(1977). Methods for the diagnosis of fish diseases. Amerind. Publishing Co. PV T. Ltd., New Delhi, Bombay, India. Search in Google Scholar

Magouz F.I., Essa M., Mansour M., Dawood M.A.O.(2020 a). Supplementation of AQUAGEST®as a source of medium-chain fatty acids and taurine improved the growth performance, intestinal histomorphology, and immune response of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fed low fish meal diets. Ann. Anim. Sci., 20: 1453–1469.10.2478/aoas-2020-0046 Search in Google Scholar

Magouz F.I., Dawood M.A.O., Salem M.F.I., Mohamed A.I.(2020 b). The effects of fish feed supplemented with Azolla meal on the growth performance, digestive enzyme activity, and health condition of genetically-improved farmed tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). Ann. Anim. Sci., 20: 1029–1045.10.2478/aoas-2020-0016 Search in Google Scholar

Mehrabi F., Khalesi M., Hazaie K.(2018). Effects of pre-and probiotics on growth, survival, body composition, and hematology of common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) fry from the Caspian Sea. Turkish J. Fish. Aquat. Sci., 18: 597–602. Search in Google Scholar

Mohammadian T., Nasirpour M., Tabandeh M.R., Mesbah M.(2019). Synbiotic effects of β-glucan, mannan oligosaccharide and Lactobacillus casei on growth performance, intestine enzymes activities, immune-hematological parameters and immune-related gene expression in common carp, Cyprinus carpio: An experimental infection with Aeromonas hydrophila. Aquaculture, 511: 634197. Search in Google Scholar

Momeni-Moghaddam P., Keyvanshokooh S., Ziaei-Nejad S., Parviz Salati A., Pasha-Zanoosi H. (2015). Effects of mannan oligosaccharide supplementation on growth, some immune responses and gut lactic acid bacteria of common carp (Cyprinus carpio) fingerlings. Vet. Res. Forum, 6: 239–244. Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen T.M., Mandiki S.N.M., Tran T.N.T., Larondelle Y., Mellery J., Migno-let E., Cornet V., Flamion E., Kestemont P. (2019). Growth performance and immune status in common carp Cyprinus carpio as affected by plant oil-based diets complemented with β-glucan. Fish Shellfish Immunol., 92: 288–299. Search in Google Scholar

Parry J., Richard M., Chandan R.C., Shahani K.M.(1965). A rapid and sensitive assay of muramidase. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., 119: 384–386. Search in Google Scholar

Petit J., Wiegertjes G.F.(2016). Long-lived effects of administering β-glucans: Indications for trained immunity in fish. Dev. Comp. Immunol., 64: 93–102. Search in Google Scholar

Reitman S., Frankel S.(1957). A colorimetric method for the determination of serum glutamic oxalacetic and glutamic pyruvic transaminases. Am. J. Clin. Pathol., 28: 56–63. Search in Google Scholar

Selim K.M., Reda R.M.(2015). Beta-glucans and mannan oligosaccharides enhance growth and immunity in Nile tilapia. N. Am. J. Aquac., 77: 22–30. Search in Google Scholar

Siwicki A., Studnicka M.(1987). The phagocytic ability of neutrophils and serum lysozyme activity in experimentally infected carp, Cyprinus carpio L. J. Fish Biol., 31: 57–60. Search in Google Scholar

Tothova C., Nagy O., Kovac G.(2016). Serum proteins and their diagnostic utility in veterinary medicine: a review. Vet. Med., 61: 475–496. Search in Google Scholar

Wang W., Sun J., Liu C., Xue Z.(2017). Application of immunostimulants in aquaculture: current knowledge and future perspectives. Aquacult. Res., 48: 1–23. Search in Google Scholar

Worthington V.(1993). Worthington enzyme manual: enzymes and related biochemicals. Worthingthon Chemical, New Jersey, 399 pp. Search in Google Scholar

Xiao R., Wei Y., An D., Li D., Ta X., Wu Y., Ren Q.(2019). A review on the research status and development trend of equipment in water treatment processes of recirculating aquaculture systems. Rev. Aquacult., 11: 863–895. Search in Google Scholar

Ye J.D., Wang K., Li F.D., Sun Y.Z.(2011). Single or combined effects of fructo- and mannan oligosaccharide supplements and Bacillus clausii on the growth, feed utilization, body composition, digestive enzyme activity, innate immune response and lipid metabolism of the Japanese flounder Paralichthys olivaceus. Aquacult. Nutr., 17: e902–e911. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo