1. bookVolume 21 (2021): Issue 2 (April 2021)
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
access type Open Access

Replacement of fish meal with defatted and fermented soybean meals in pompano Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède, 1801) diets

Published Online: 08 May 2021
Volume & Issue: Volume 21 (2021) - Issue 2 (April 2021)
Page range: 575 - 587
Received: 17 May 2020
Accepted: 29 Jul 2020
Journal Details
First Published
25 Nov 2011
Publication timeframe
4 times per year

This study was conducted to examine the effects of the replacement of fish meal with defatted and fermented soybean meals on the growth performance, apparent nutrient digestibility, bile acid levels, and digestive enzyme activity of pompano Trachinotus blochii (Lacepède, 1801). Four diets were formulated to replace 40% of fish meal with defatted soybean meal (SBM), SBM fermented by Bacillus subtilis TH2 (FSBM1) or SBM fermented by B. subtilis B3 (FSBM2). The diets are denoted as follows: FMD (fish meal-based diet, used as a Control), SBMD (fish meal replaced by SBM diet), FSBM1D (fish meal replaced by FSBM1 diet), and FSBM2D (fish meal replaced by FSBM2 diet). Thirty fingerling pompanos with an initial body weight of 15.3 ± 0.3 g were allocated to each of eight indoor polyvinyl chloride tanks (500 L capacity), with two replicate tanks per dietary treatment. For 8 weeks, fish were hand-fed the experimental diets to apparent satiation twice daily. The final body weight, weight gain, specific growth rate, and feed conversion ratio of fish fed SBMD and FSBM1D were significantly inferior to those in fish fed FMD (P<0.05). These parameters were not significantly different between the FSBM2D and FMD experimental groups (P>0.05). Fish fed SBMD showed significantly lower plasma total cholesterol, whole body lipids, intestinal total bile acids and lipase activity than those fed FMD, whereas no significant differences were observed among fish fed FSBM1D, FSBM2D, and FMD. Trypsin activity and protein apparent digestibility coefficient were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. However, lipid apparent digestibility coefficient was significantly lower in fish fed SBMD and FSBM1D rather than FMD. There was no significant difference in lipid apparent digestibility coefficient between the FMD and FSBM2D experimental groups. The results indicated that SBM decreased bile acid levels, lipase activity, lipid digestibility, and growth performance in pompano fish. These parameters were increased by the inclusion of B. subtilis B3 fermented SBM in the diet, thus suggesting that fermentation of SBM with B. subtilis B3 may be an effective way to improve bile acid levels, lipase activity, lipid digestibility, and growth performance of pompano fed an SBM-based diet.


AOAC (2005). Official methods of analysis. Association of Official Analytical Chemists (AOAC), Gaithersburg, MD, USA, 18th ed. Search in Google Scholar

Boonyaratpalin M., Suraneiranat P., Tunpibal T. (1998). Replacement of fish meal with various types of soybean products in diets for the Asian seabass, Lates calcarifer. Aquaculture, 161: 67–78. Search in Google Scholar

Choi D. G, He M., Fang H., Wang X. L., Li X. Q., Leng X. J. (2020). Replacement of fish meal with two fermented soybean meals in diets for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Aquac. Nutr., 26: 37–46. Search in Google Scholar

Feng J., Liu X., Xu Z., Lu Y., Liu Y. (2007). The effect of Aspergillus oryzae fermented soybean meal on growth performance, digestibility of dietary components and activities of intestinal enzymes in weaned piglets. Anim. Feed Sci. Technol., 134: 295–303. Search in Google Scholar

Francis G., Makkar H. P., Becker K. (2001). Antinutritional factors present in plant-derived alternate fish feed ingredients and their effects in fish. Aquaculture, 199: 197–227. Search in Google Scholar

Gjellesvik D. R., Raae A. J., Walther B. T. (1989). Partial purification and characterization of a triglyceride lipase from cod (Gadus morhua). Aquaculture, 79: 177–184. Search in Google Scholar

Harwood C. R., Mouillon J. M., Pohl S., Arnau J. (2018). Secondary metabolite production and the safety of industrially important members of the Bacillus subtilis group. FEMS Microbiol. Rev., 42: 721–738. Search in Google Scholar

He M., Li X., Poolsawat L., Guo Z., Yao W., Zhang C., Leng X. (2020). Effects of fish meal replaced by fermented soybean meal on growth performance, intestinal histology and microbiota of largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides). Aquac. Nutr., 1–14. https://doi.org/10.1111/anu.13064.10.1111/anu.13064 Search in Google Scholar

Hernandez M. D., Martinez F. J., Jover M., Garcia B. G. (2007). Effects of partial replacement of fish meal by soybean meal in sharpsnout seabream (Diplodus puntazzo) diet. Aquaculture, 263: 159–167. Search in Google Scholar

Hong K. J., Lee C. H., Kim S. W. (2004). Aspergillus oryzae GB-107 fermentation improves nutritional quality of food soybeans and feed soybean meals. J. Med. Food, 7: 430–434. Search in Google Scholar

Hua K., Cobcroft J. M., Cole A., Condon K., Jerry D. R., Mangott A., Praeger C., Vucko M. J., Zeng C., Zenger K., Strugnell J. M. (2019). The future of aquatic protein: Implications for protein sources in aquaculture diets. One Earth, 1: 316–329. Search in Google Scholar

Iwashita Y., Yamamoto T., Furuita H., Sugita T., Suzuki N. (2008). Influence of certain soybean antinutritional factors supplemented to a casein-based semipurified diet on intestinal and liver morphology in fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish. Sci., 74: 1075–1082. Search in Google Scholar

Iwashita Y., Suzuki N., Matsunari H., Sugita T., Yamamoto T. (2009). Influence of soya saponin, soya lectin, and cholyltaurine supplemented to a casein-based semipurified diet on intestinal morphology and biliary bile status in fingerling rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Fish. Sci., 75: 1307–1315. Search in Google Scholar

Kapoor D., Dayal R., Ponniah A. G. (2002). Editors. Fish biodiversity of India. Lucknow, India, National Bureau of Fish Genetic Resources.10.1016/S1060-3743(02)00066-8 Search in Google Scholar

Krogdahl A., Bakke-Mc Kellep A. M., Baeverfjord G. (2003). Effects of graded levels of standard soybean meal on intestinal structure, mucosal enzyme activities, and pancreatic response in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar L.). Aquac. Nutr., 9: 361–371. Search in Google Scholar

Lee S. Y., Lee S., Lee S., Oh J. Y., Jeon E. J., Ryu H. S., Lee C.H. (2014 a). Primary and secondary metabolite profiling of doenjang, a fermented soybean paste during industrial processing. Food Chem., 165: 157–166.10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.05.08925038662 Search in Google Scholar

Lee S., Seo M. H., Oh D. K., Lee C.H. (2014 b). Targeted metabolomics for Aspergillus oryzae-mediated biotransformation of soybean isoflavones, showing variations in primary metabolites. Biosci. Biotechnol. Biochem., 78: 167–174.10.1080/09168451.2014.87782725036500 Search in Google Scholar

Li Y., Hu H., Liu J., Yang P., Zhang Y., Ai Q., Xu W., Zhang W., Mai K. (2017 a). Dietary soya allergen β-conglycinin induces intestinal inflammatory reactions, serum-specific antibody response and growth reduction in a carnivorous fish species, turbot Scophthalmus maximus L. Aquac. Res., 48: 4022–4037.10.1111/are.13224 Search in Google Scholar

Li Y., Yang P., Zhang Y., Ai Q., Xu W., Zhang W., Zhang Y., Hu H., Liu J., Mai K. (2017 b). Effects of dietary glycinin on the growth performance, digestion, intestinal morphology and bacterial community of juvenile turbot, Scophthalmus maximus L. Aquaculture, 479: 125–133.10.1016/j.aquaculture.2017.05.008 Search in Google Scholar

Lim S. J., Kim S. S., Yong G., Song J. W., Oh D. H., Kim J. D., Kim J. U., Lee K. J. (2011). Fish meal replacement by soybean meal in diets for Tiger puffer, Takifugu rubripes. Aquaculture, 313: 165–170. Search in Google Scholar

Matsunari H., Iwashita Y., Suzuki N., Saito T., Akimoto A., Okamatsu K., Sugita T., Yamamoto T. (2010). Influence of fermented soybean meal-based diet on the biliary bile status and intestinal morphology in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquac. Sci., 58: 243–252. Search in Google Scholar

Murashita K., Fukada H., Ronnestad I., Kurokawa T., Masumoto T. (2008). Nutrient control of release of pancreatic enzymes in yellowtail (Seriola quinqueradiata): Involvement of CCK and PY in the regulatory loop. Com. Biochem. Physiol. A, 150: 438–443. Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen H.P., Khaoian P., Fukada H., Nakamori T., Furuta H., Masumoto T. (2011 a). Effects of different soybean proteins on lipid digestion and growth of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Fish. Sci., 77: 357–365.10.1007/s12562-011-0338-7 Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen H.P., Khaoian P., Furutani T., Nagano J., Fukada H., Masumoto T. (2011 b). Effects of alcohol extract from soybean meal on pancreatic digestive enzyme and bile acid secretion in yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Aquac. Sci., 59: 465–472. Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen H.P., Khaoian P., Nagano J., Fukada H., Suzuki N., Masumoto T. (2013). Feeding fermented soybean meal diet supplemented with taurine to yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata affects growth performance and lipid digestion. Aquac. Res., 46: 1101–1110. Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen H.P., Khaoian P., Furutani T., Nagano J., Fukada H., Masumoto T. (2017). Effects of alcohol extract of defatted soybean meal on growth performance and digestive physiology of yellowtail Seriola quinqueradiata. Fish. Sci., 83: 99–106. Search in Google Scholar

Nguyen T. T., Nguyen V. N., Tran V. K., Le H. D. T. M., Nguyen T. T. H, Tran T. H. N., Le T. N. B., Vo T. C. T., Nguyen T. N. T. (2018). Optimizing fermentation conditions for soybean meal and the changes in intestine morphology as soybean meal is substituted for fish meal in white leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) diet (in Vietnamese with English abstract). J. Mekong Fish., 11: 43–58. Search in Google Scholar

Novriadi R., Rhodes M., Powell M., Hanson T., Davis D. A. (2018). Effects of soybean meal replacement with fermented soybean meal on growth, serum biochemistry and morphological condition of liver and distal intestine of Florida pompano Trachinotus carolinus. Aquac. Nutr., 24: 1066–1075. Search in Google Scholar

Olli J. J., Krogdahl A. (1995). Alcohol soluble components of soybeans seem to reduce fat digestibility in fish-meal-based diets for Atlantic salmon, Salmo salar L. Aquac. Res., 26: 831–835. Search in Google Scholar

Olsen R. L., Hasan M. R. (2012). A limited supply of fishmeal: Impact on future increases in global aquaculture production. Trends Food Sci. Technol., 27: 120–128. Search in Google Scholar

Othman M. F. (2006). The future of mariculture: a regional approach for responsible development in the Asia-Pacific region. In: FAO Fisheries Proceedings, Lovatelli A., Phillips M.J, Arthur J.R., Yamanoto K.Y. (eds.). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), United Nations, Rome, Italy, pp. 207–224. Search in Google Scholar

Porter M. A., Jones A. M. (2003). Variability in soy flour composition. J. Am. Oil Chem. Soc., 80: 557–562. Search in Google Scholar

Refstie S., Storebakken T., Roem A. J. (1998). Feed consumption and conversion in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fed diets with fish meal, extracted soybean meal or soybean meal with reduced content of oligosaccharides, trypsin inhibitors, lectins and soya antigens. Aquaculture, 162: 301–312. Search in Google Scholar

Refstie S., Sahlstrom S., Brathen E., Baeverfjord G., Krogedal P. (2005). Lactic acid fermentation eliminates indigestible carbohydrates and antinutritional factors in soybean meal for Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Aquaculture, 246: 331–345. Search in Google Scholar

Romarheim O.H., Skrede A., Penn M., Mydland T.L., Krogdahl A., Storebakken T. (2008). Lipid digestibility, bile drainage and development of morphological intestinal changes in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) fed diets containing defatted soybean meal. Aqua-culture, 274: 329–338. Search in Google Scholar

Rombensoa A., Crousea C., Trushenskia J. (2013). Comparison of traditional and fermen- ted soybean meals as alternatives to fish meal in hybrid striped bass feeds. N. Am. J. Aquacult., 75: 197–204. Search in Google Scholar

Setchell K. D. R., Lawson A. M., Tanida N., Sjovall J. (1983). General methods for the analysis of metabolic profiles of bile acids and related compounds in feces. J. Li. Res., 24: 1085–1100. Search in Google Scholar

Shimeno S., Hosokawa H., Kumon M., Masumoto T., Ukawa M. (1992). Inclusion of defatted soybean meal in diet for fingerlings yellowtail. Nippon Suisan Gakkaishi, 58: 1319–1325. Search in Google Scholar

Shiu Y. L., Hsieh S. L., Guei W. C., Tsai Y. T., Chiu C. H., Liu C. H. (2015). Using Bacillus subtilis E20-fermented soybean meal as replacement for fish meal in the diet of orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides, Hamilton). Aquac. Res., 46: 1403–1416. Search in Google Scholar

Sorensen M., Penn M., El-Mowafi A., Storebakken T., Chunfang C., Overland M., Krogdahl A. (2011). Effect of stachyose, raffinose and soya-saponins supplementation on nutrient digestibility, digestive enzymes, gut morphology and growth performance in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar, L). Aquaculture, 134: 145–152. Search in Google Scholar

Storebakken T., Refstie S., Ruyter B. (2000). Editors. Soy in animal nutrition: soy products as fat and protein sources in fish feeds for intensive aquaculture. Federation of Animal Science Societies, Savoy, pp. 127–170. Search in Google Scholar

Takagi S., Tiba K., Kuramoto T., Ukawa M., Goto T. (2002). Biliary bile salts reduction in red sea bream fed on soybean meal diet. Suisan Zosyoku, 50: 239–240. Search in Google Scholar

Tuchweber B., Yousef I. M., Ferland G., Perea A. (1996). Nutrition and bile formation. Nutr. Res., 16: 1041–1080. Search in Google Scholar

Wang L., Zhou H., He R., Xu W., Mai K., He G. (2016). Effects of soybean meal fermentation by Lactobacillus plantarum P8 on growth, immune responses, and intestinal morphology in juvenile turbot (Scophthalmus maximus L.). Aquaculture, 464: 87–94. Search in Google Scholar

Wang Y. R., Wang L., Zhang C. X., Song K. (2017). Effects of substituting fishmeal with soybean meal on growth performance and intestinal morphology in orange-spotted grouper (Epinephelus coioides). Aquac. Rep., 5: 52–57. Search in Google Scholar

Wang P., Zhou Q., Feng J., He J. J., Lou Y., Zhu J. (2019). Effect of dietary fermented soybean meal on growth, intestinal morphology and microbiota in juvenile large yellow croaker, Larimichthys crocea. Aquac. Res., 50: 748–757. Search in Google Scholar

Yamamoto T., Iwashita Y., Matsunari H., Sugita T., Furuita H., Akimoto A., Okamatsu K., Suzuki N. (2010). Influence of fermentation conditions for soybean meal in a non-fish meal diet on the growth performance and physiological condition of rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. Aquaculture, 309: 173–180. Search in Google Scholar

Zhang J. X., Guo L. Y., Feng L., Jiang W. D., Kuang S. Y., Liu Y., Hu K., Jiang J., Li S. H., Tang L., Zhou X. Q. (2013). Soybean β-conglycinin induces inflammation and oxidation and causes dysfunction of intestinal digestion and absorption in fish. Plos One, 8, e58115.10.1371/journal.pone.0058115359288523520488 Search in Google Scholar

Zhuo L. C., Liu K., Lin Y. H. (2016). Apparent digestibility of soybean meal and Lactobacillus spp. fermented soybean meal in diets of grouper, Epinephelus coioides. Aquac. Res., 47: 1009–1012. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo