Open Access

An Observational Study of Glycemic Status in New Onset Acute Stroke and Their Clinical Outcome in a Tertiary Care Teaching Hospital



The study was aimed to test the blood glucose level in acute stroke patients to find out any correlation with types and prognosis of different glycaemic groups.


It was a prospective observational study of patients admitted to hospital in Nizamabad due to an acute ischemic or hemorrhagic stroke (<24Hrs after the onset). Clinical parameters including history and clinical examination findings were recorded. CT scan of brain, blood glucose level, HbA1c, and other laboratory tests were taken in all the patients. 2D echocardiography (2D-ECHO) and X-Ray chest picture were also performed. According to glycaemia, the patients were classified into four groups such as Nondiabetic/euglycemic, known Diabetics on glycemic control therapy with or without glycemic control, Newly detected diabetics, and Stress hyperglycemia patients. On the day 1 and 15 National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) was calculated to evaluate the severity of stroke and its outcome. Good prognosis was considered when NIHSS 5, moderate prognosis when NIHSS was 6–15, and poor prognosis when NIHSS was 16–20. Patients with NIHSS 20 died within 3 days of admission.


Finally, 158 patients with acute stroke were included. Hemorrhagic stroke was seen in 43 (27.2%) and ischaemic stroke in 115 (72.8%) patients. Maximum cases were found in 51–60 years age group (37.9%) followed by 41–50 (20.3%) and 61–70 years age group (20.3%). Majority of study subjects were males, 65.8 % (n=104). Maximum cases were Euglycemics (44.3%), followed by stress hyperglycemic (27.8%), known diabetes (15.9%), and newly diagnosed diabetes (12%) presenting with acute stroke. Higher NIHSS score was found in stress hyperglycemic patients (19.4%) followed by known diabetics (17.3%), newly detected diabetics (16.3%), and euglycemics (9.5%). Maximum proportion (81.8%) of ischaemic stroke cases were found with stress hyperglycemia compared to other glycemic conditions but in hemorrhagic stroke maximum proportion (47.3%) were newly diagnosed diabetics. Maximum proportion of large size of lesion (47.4%) was found in newly diagnosed diabetes followed by stress hyperglycemia (45.55). Medium size of the lesions was found more in newly diagnosed diabetes (52.6%) followed by known diabetes cases (52%). Good outcome was found in 51 cases (32.2%), moderate outcome in 34 (21.5%), and poor outcome was in 30 (18.9%). 43 patients with NIHSS score >20 died within 3 days of admission (27.2%). Maximum proportion of death cases in ischemic group those belongs to newly diagnosed diabetes cases (8/9=88.8%). Higher deaths were found in blood sugar <110 mg/dl and blood sugar >199 mg/dl with an incidence rates of 41.2% and 53.4%.


Hyperglycaemia in non-diabetic patients after acute stroke is a stress response reflecting more severe neurological damage. Elevated HbA1c presenting stroke glycaemia status has a significant trend in increasing the risk of cause mortality. The management of hyperglycaemia in patients with diabetes and non-diabetes is an important aspect of the emergency management of stroke.

Publication timeframe:
3 times per year
Journal Subjects:
Medicine, Clinical Medicine, Internal Medicine, Cardiology