1. bookVolume 60 (2015): Issue 4 (December 2015)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1508-5791
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
access type Open Access

The dose of gamma radiation from building materials and soil

Published Online: 30 Dec 2015
Volume & Issue: Volume 60 (2015) - Issue 4 (December 2015)
Page range: 951 - 958
Received: 02 Apr 2015
Accepted: 17 Sep 2015
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
1508-5791
First Published
25 Mar 2014
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The radioactivity of some structural building materials, rows, binders, and final construction products, originating from Serbia or imported from other countries, was investigated in the current study by using the standard HPGe gamma spectrometry. The absorbed dose in the air was computed by the method of buildup factors for models of the room with the walls of concrete, gas-concrete, brick and stone. Using the conversion coefficients obtained by interpolation of the International Commission on Radiobiological Protection (ICRP) equivalent doses for isotropic irradiation, the corresponding average indoor effective dose from the radiation of building materials of 0.24 mSv·y−1 was determined. The outdoor dose of 0.047 mSv·y−1 was estimated on the basis of values of the specific absorbed dose rates calculated for the radiation of the series of 238U, 232Th and 40K from the ground and covering materials. The literature values of the effective dose conversion coefficients for ground geometry were applied as well as the published data for content of the radionuclides in the soil.

Keywords

1. International Atomic Energy Agency. (2003). Guidelines for radioelement mapping using gamma ray spectrometry data. Vienna: IAEA. (IAEA-TECDOC-1363).Search in Google Scholar

2. Bell, K. G. (1963). Uranium in carbonate rocks. Geological Survey professional paper 474 - A. Geological Survey (U.S.).10.3133/pp474ASearch in Google Scholar

3. Egidi, P., & Hull, C. (1999). Naturally occurring and technologically enhanced naturally occurring radioactive material. In Producers, users and proposed regulations, PEP Course 1.A Notes, Health Physics Society, 32nd Midyear Topical Meeting, Albuquerque, New Mexico.Search in Google Scholar

4. Vesić, D. (1987). The gamma spectrometry determination of uranium, thorium and potassium in geologically defi ned samples. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Science, Belgrade, Serbia. (in Serbian).Search in Google Scholar

5. Nikezić, D. (1990). The contribution to the experimental and theoretical study of indoor irradiation of the population and individuals. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Science, Kragujevac, Serbia. (in Serbian).Search in Google Scholar

6. Pavlić, B., Čonkić, Lj., Bikit, I., Slivka, J., Krmar, M., & Žikić, N. (2000). Estimation of the indoor exposure to external radiation from natural radionuclides in building materials in Vojvodina. In Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium and Exhibition on Environmental Contamination in Central and Eastern Europe. Prague.Search in Google Scholar

7. Popović, D., & Todorović, D. (2006). Radon indoor concentrations and activity of radionuclides in building materials in Serbia. Facta Universitatis, Series: Physics, Chemistry and Technology, 4, 11-20.10.2298/FUPCT0601011PSearch in Google Scholar

8. Krstić, D., Nikezić, D., Stevanović, N., & Vučić, D. (2007). Radioactivity of some domestic and imported building materials from south eastern Europe. Radiat. Meas., 42, 1731-1736.10.1016/j.radmeas.2007.09.001Search in Google Scholar

9. Ujić, P., Čeliković, I., Kandić, A., Vukanac, I., Đurašević, M., Dragosavac, D., & Žunić, Z. S. (2010). Internal exposure from building materials exhaling 222Rn and 220Rn as compared to external exposure due to their natural radioactivity content. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 68, 201-206.10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.10.003Search in Google Scholar

10. Manić, V., Manić, G., Nikezic, D., & Krstic, D. (2012). Calculation of dose rate conversion factors for 238U, 232Th and 40K in concrete structures of various dimensions, with application to Niš, Serbia. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 152, 361-368.10.1093/rpd/ncs058Search in Google Scholar

11. National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements. (1994). Exposure of the population in the United States and Canada from natural background radiation. Bethesda, Maryland. (NCRP Report 94).Search in Google Scholar

12. United Nations Scientific Committee on Effects of Atomic Radiation. (2000). Sources, effects and risks of ionizing radiation. UNSCEAR 2000 Report. New York: United Nations.Search in Google Scholar

13. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Environmental Protection Agency, Department of Energy. (2009). Multi-Agency radiation survey and assessment of materials and equipment (MARSAME). USA. (NUREG-1575, Suppl. 1, EPA 402-R-09-001, DOE/HS-0004).Search in Google Scholar

14. European Commission. (1999). Radiological protection principles concerning the natural radioactivity of building materials. Radiation Protection 112. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Search in Google Scholar

15. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia. (2009). The law on protection against ionizing radiation and nuclear safety. Official Gazette of the Republic of Serbia no. 36/2009 of 15 May 2009. (in Serbian).Search in Google Scholar

16. The Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority (STUK). (2010). The radioactivity of building materials and ash. (Guide ST 12.2). Helsinki.Search in Google Scholar

17. Koblinger, L. (1978). Calculation of exposure rates from gamma sources in walls of dwelling rooms. Health Phys., 34, 459-463.10.1097/00004032-197805000-00006Search in Google Scholar

18. Risica, S., Bolzan, C., & Nuccetelli, C. (2001). Radioactivity in building materials: room model analysis and experimental methods. Sci. Total. Environ., 272, 119-126.10.1016/S0048-9697(01)00675-1Search in Google Scholar

19. Maduar, M. F., & Hiromoto, G. (2004). Evaluation of indoor gamma radiation dose in dwellings. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 111, 221-228.10.1093/rpd/nch32915266071Search in Google Scholar

20. Beck, H. L. (1975). The physics of environmental gamma radiation fi elds. In The natural radiation environment II. Oak Ridge: United States Atomic Energy Commission.Search in Google Scholar

21. Clouvas, A., Xanthos, S., Antonopoulos-Domis, M., & Silva, J. (2000). Monte Carlo calculation of dose conversion factors for external exposure to photon emitters in soil. Health Phys., 78, 295-302.10.1097/00004032-200003000-0000710688452Search in Google Scholar

22. Krstic, D., & Nikezic, D. (2010). Calculation of the effective dose from natural radioactivity in soil using MCNP code. Appl. Radiat. Isot., 68, 946-947.10.1016/j.apradiso.2009.12.01820045343Search in Google Scholar

23. The Agency for Protection against Ionizing Radiation and Nuclear Safety of Serbia. (2011). Report on the level of exposure of the population to ionizing radiation from the environment in the Republic of Serbia in 2010. Belgrade (in Serbian). Available from www. srbatom.gov.rs.Search in Google Scholar

24. Radiological Laboratory, Institute of Occupational Health “Niš”. (2012). Final report on monitoring the activities of radionuclides in the soil and the environment of the city of Nis for the period 2011/2012 year. For the Directorate for Economy, Sustainable Development and Environmental Protection of the city of Niš, Niš. (in Serbian).Search in Google Scholar

25. Hubbell, J. H. (1969). Photon cross sections, attenuation coeffi cients, and energy absorption coeffi cients from 10 keV to 100 GeV. National Bureau of Standards, Washington DC. (NSRDS-NBS 29).Search in Google Scholar

26. Harima, Y., Tanaka, S., Sakamoto, Y., & Hirayama, H. (1991). Development of new gamma-ray buildup factor and application to shielding calculations. J. Nucl. Sci. Technol., 28, 74-84.10.1080/18811248.1991.9731324Search in Google Scholar

27. American National Standards Institute. American Nuclear Society. (1991). Gamma-ray attenuation coefficients and buildup factors for engineering materials. La Grange Park, Illinois, USA. (ANSI/ ANS-6.4.3-1991).Search in Google Scholar

28. Goldstein, H. (1959). Fundamental aspects of reactor shielding. Addison-Wesley Publishing Co; reprinted by Johnson Reprint Corp. (1971).Search in Google Scholar

29. Al-Jundi, J., Ulanovsky, A., & Prohl, G. (2009). Doses of external exposure in Jordan house due to gamma-emitting natural radionuclides in building materials. J. Environ. Radioact., 100, 841-846.10.1016/j.jenvrad.2009.06.01019628312Search in Google Scholar

30. International Commission on Radiological Protection. (2007). The 2007 recommendations of the Commission on Radiological Protection. (ICRP Publication 103), Ann. ICRP.Search in Google Scholar

31. International Commission on Radiological Protection. (1996). Conversion coeffi cients for use in radiological protection against external radiation. (ICRP Publication 74). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press.Search in Google Scholar

32. Zankl, M., Petoussi-Henß, N., Drexler, G., & Saito, K. (1997). The calculation of dose from external photon exposures using reference human phantoms and Monte Carlo methods Part VII: Organ doses due to parallel and environmental exposure geometries. Institut für Strahlenschutz. (GSF-Bericht 8/97).Search in Google Scholar

33. Lee, C., Lee, L., Han, E. Y., & Bolch, W. E. (2007). Consideration of the ICRP revised tissue weighting factors on age-dependent values of the effective dose for external photons. Phys. Med. Biol., 52, 41-58.10.1088/0031-9155/52/1/00417183127Search in Google Scholar

34. Manić, V., Nikezic, D., Krstic, D., & Manić, G. (2014). Assessment of indoor absorbed gamma dose rate from natural radionuclides in concrete by the method of build-up factors. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 162(4), 609-617. DOI: 10.1093/rpd/nct358.10.1093/rpd/nct35824421381Search in Google Scholar

35. Mustonen, R. (1984). Methods for evaluation of radiation from building materials. Radiat. Prot. Dosim., 7, 235-238.10.1093/oxfordjournals.rpd.a082999Search in Google Scholar

36. Unger, L. M., & Trubey, D. K. (1981). Specific gamma- ray dose constants for nuclides important to dosimetry and radiological assessment. Oak Ridge, Tennessee: Oak Ridge Laboratory. (ORNL/RSIC-45).10.2172/6246345Search in Google Scholar

37. Nuccetelli, C., Risica, S., D’Alessandro, M., & Trevisi, R. (2012). Natural radioactivity in building material in the European Union: robustness of the activity concentration index I and comparison with a room model. J. Radiol. Prot., 32, 349-358.10.1088/0952-4746/32/3/34922854272Search in Google Scholar

38. Markkanen, M. (1995). Radiation dose assessments for materials with elevated natural radioactivity. Helsinki: Finnish Centre for Radiation and Nuclear Safety. (STUK-B-STO 32). Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo