1. bookVolume 60 (2016): Issue 2 (June 2016)
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7837
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Open Access

Excretion of Calcium, Phosphorus, Magnesium and Sodium in Lactating Sows

Published Online: 06 Jul 2016
Volume & Issue: Volume 60 (2016) - Issue 2 (June 2016)
Page range: 61 - 65
Received: 19 May 2016
Journal Details
License
Format
Journal
eISSN
2453-7837
First Published
30 Mar 2016
Publication timeframe
4 times per year
Languages
English
Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the excretion of calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), magnesium (Mg) and sodium (Na) via milk, urine and faeces during the lactation period of sows. Six clinically healthy lactating sows (crossbreed Large White × Landrace) were selected for these experiments and were housed in standard conditions and fed with commercially prepared dry mixture for this category of sows. The blood serum, milk, urine and faecal samples were collected on the 7th, 14th, 21st, and 28th day of lactation. During four weeks of lactation, we recorded the relatively stable and physiological concentrations of Ca, P, Mg and Na in blood serum. The analysis of the sow’s milk showed the highest concentration of Ca and P at the end of lactation, while the highest concentration of Mg and Na was observed on the 7th lactation day. The following macro-mineral excretion was recorded in urine: 98.83-194.00 mg.l-1 for Ca; 11.88- 53.09 mg.l-1 for P; 171.67-344.05 mg.l-1 for Mg; and 56.50-74.83 mg.l-1 for Na; and in the faeces, 1824.5- 3045.5 mg.kg-1 for Ca; 1566.93-2483.2 mg.kg-1 for P; 1916.2-2505.2 mg.kg-1 for Mg; and 516.8-748.2 mg. kg-1 for Na.

Keywords

1. Abrams, S. A., Wong, W. W., 2003: Clinical protocols for absorption studies. In Stable Isotopes in Human Nutrition: Laboratory Methods and Research Applications, CABI Pub., 42-44.10.1079/9780851996769.0000Search in Google Scholar

2. Apple, J. K., Kegley, E. B., Maxwell, C. V., Rakes, L. K., Galloway, D., Wistuba, T. J., 2005: Effects of dietary magnesium and short-duration transportation on stress response, postmortem muscle metabolism, and meat quality of finishing swine. J. Anim. Sci., 83, 1633-1645.10.2527/2005.8371633x15956472Search in Google Scholar

3. Blaine, J., Chonchol, M., Levi, M., 2015: Renal control of calcium, phosphate, and magnesium homeostasis. Clin. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol., 10, 1257-1272.10.2215/CJN.09750913449129425287933Search in Google Scholar

4. Broekaert, J. A. C., 1998: Analytical Atomic Spectrometry with Flames and Plasmas, 3rd edn., Wiley-VCH, Weinheim, Germany, 158-159.Search in Google Scholar

5. Close, W. H., Cole, D. J. A., 2000: Mineral requirements. In Nutrition of Sows and Boars. Nottingham University Press, 103-107.Search in Google Scholar

6. Crenshaw, T. D., 2001: Calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D, and vitamin K in swine nutrition. In Lewis, A. J., Southern, L. L., (Eds.): Swine Nutrition. 2nd edn., CRC Press, Boca Raton, Florida, 187-212.10.1201/9781420041842.ch10Search in Google Scholar

7. Crocker, A. W., Robison, O. W., 2002: Genetic and nutritional effects on swine excreta. J. Anim. Sci., 80, 2809-2816.10.2527/2002.80112809x12462247Search in Google Scholar

8. Cromwell, G. L., 2015: Nutritional requirements of pigs. http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/management_and_nutrition/nutrition_pigs/nutritional_requirements_of_pigs.html.Search in Google Scholar

9. Daza, A., Bezerra Evangelista, J. N., Gutierrez Barquin, M. G., 1999: Milk production in crossbred sows (Large White × Landrace). Evolution and analysis of variation factors. Annales de Zootechnie, 48, 67-74.10.1051/animres:19990107Search in Google Scholar

10. D’souza, D. N., Warner, R. D., Leury, B. J., Dunshea, F. R., 1998: The effect of dietary magnesium aspartate supplementation on pork quality. J. Anim. Sci., 76, 104-109.10.2527/1998.761104x9464890Search in Google Scholar

11. Ewing, W., Charlton, S. J., 2007: The Minerals Directory. 2nd edn., Context Products Ltd, Leicestershire, United Kingdom, Calcium 5a-19a.Search in Google Scholar

12. Farrel, E. C., 1984: Phosphorus. Clin Chem., 1072-1074.Search in Google Scholar

13. Fairweather-Tait, S., Hurrell, R. F., 1996: Bioavailability of minerals and trace elements. Nutr. Res. Reviews, 9, 295-324.10.1079/NRR1996001619094275Search in Google Scholar

14. Giesemann, M. A., Lewis, A. J., Miller, P. S., Akhter, M. P., 1998: Effects of the reproductive cycle and age on calcium and phosphorus metabolism and bone integrity of sows. J. Anim. Sci., 76, 796-807.10.2527/1998.763796x9535340Search in Google Scholar

15. Huaynate, R. A. R., Thomaz, M. C., Kronka, R. N., Fraga, A. L., Scandolera, A. J., Budino, F. E. L., 2006: Effect of adding macro and micro minerals in pig feces fed diets with different levels of probiotic. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 49, 385-392.10.1590/S1516-89132006000400005Search in Google Scholar

16. Hurley, W. L., 2015: Composition of sow mammary secretions. In Farmer C. (Ed.): The Gestating and Lactation Sow, Chapter 9, Wageningen Press, 193-229.10.3920/978-90-8686-803-2_9Search in Google Scholar

17. Jolliff, J. S., 2011: Evaluating dietary macro- and micromineral sources, levels, and their environmental impact in the porcine species. In Mineral Metabolism. Dissertation thesis. The Ohio State University, 18-48.Search in Google Scholar

18. Kornegay, E. T., Harper, A. F., 1997: Environmental nutrition: Nutrient management strategies to reduce nutrient excretion of swine. Proff. Anim. Sci., 13, 99-111.10.15232/S1080-7446(15)31861-1Search in Google Scholar

19. Lantzsch, H. J., Wjst, S., Drochner, W., 1995: The effect of dietary calcium on the efficacy of microbial phytase in rations for growing pigs. J. Anim. Physiol. Anim. Nutr., 73, 19-26.10.1111/j.1439-0396.1995.tb00399.xSearch in Google Scholar

20. Lewis, A. J., Southern, L. L., 2001: Swine Nutrition. Sodium Metabolism, 2nd edn., CRC Press; Boca Raton, Florida, 222.Search in Google Scholar

21. Mahan, D. C., Fetter, A. W., 1982: Dietary calcium and phosphorus levels for reproducing sows. J. Anim. Sci., 54, 285-291.10.2527/jas1982.542285x7076591Search in Google Scholar

22. Mahan, D. C., 1990: Mineral nutrition of the sow. A review. J. Anim. Sci., 68, 573-582.10.2527/1990.682573x2179195Search in Google Scholar

23. Mahan, D. C., 2006: The changing mineral status of high producing sows. In Proc. Swine Nutrition Conf., Indianapolis, 7th Sept., 17-27.Search in Google Scholar

24. Maxson, P. F., Mahan, D. C., 1986: Dietary calcium and phosphorus for lactating swine at high and average production levels. J. Anim. Sci., 63, 1163-1172.10.2527/jas1986.6341163x3771399Search in Google Scholar

25. Pohl, H. R., Wheeler, J. S., Murray, H. E., 2013: Sodium and Potassium in Health and Disease. In Sigel, A., Sigel, H., Sigel, Roland K. O.: Interrelations Between Essential Metal Ions and Human Diseases. Chapter 2: Metal ions in life sciences 13. Springer, 29-47.10.1007/978-94-007-7500-8_224470088Search in Google Scholar

26. Rebollar, P. G., Mateos, G. G., 2003: El fósforo en nutrición animal, necesidades, valoración de materias primas y mejora de la disponibilidad. In Curso de Especialización Avances en Nutrición y Alimentación Animal, 15., Madrid. Anales. Available in: www.etsia.upm.es/fedna/capitulos/99CAP2.pdf. Access on Jan. 15, 2003.Search in Google Scholar

27. Richards, M. P., Close, W. H., 2001: Mineral nutrition of the sow. In Lyons, T. P., Cole, D. J. A. (Eds.): Concepts in Pig Science. Nottingham University Press, Nottingham, UK, 131-145.Search in Google Scholar

28. Šimeček, K., Zeman, L., Heger, J., 1994: Requirement of nutrients and nutritious value of feed for pigs. In Brestenský et al.: Guide of Breeder. Research institute for animal production Nitra, SR, 112-113.Search in Google Scholar

29. Tang, D. H., 2000: Effect of feeding magnesium sulfate to fattening pigs on constipation. Lives. Poult. Ind., 6, 24-25.Search in Google Scholar

30. Underwood, E. J., Suttle, N. F., 1999. The Mineral Nutrition of Livestock. CABI Publishing, New York. 149-185.10.1079/9780851991283.0149Search in Google Scholar

31. Vrzgula, L., Sokol, J., 1990: Metabolic Profile Tests Values in Domestic Animals and their Interpretation. Macro and Micromineral Profile (In Slovak). Institute of Postgraduate Education of Veterinary Surgeons in Košice, SR, 10-19.Search in Google Scholar

32. Žvorc, Z., Mrljak, M., Sušić, V., Gotal, J. P., 2006: Haematological and biochemical parameters during pregnancy and lactation in sows. Vet. Arh., 76, 245-253. Search in Google Scholar

Recommended articles from Trend MD

Plan your remote conference with Sciendo