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MEDITERRANEAN LANDSCAPES, Guest Editors: Stefan Schindler and Linda Olsvig-Whittaker

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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1805-4196
Pierwsze wydanie
20 Jun 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 6 (2013): Zeszyt 3 (December 2013)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1805-4196
Pierwsze wydanie
20 Jun 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Field Survey of Dracaena Cinnabari Populations in Firmihin, Socotra Island: Methodology and Preliminary Results

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 7 - 34

Abstrakt

Abstract

Between 2010 and 2011 a field survey dedicated to Dracaena cinnabari (DC) population was conducted in Firmihin, Socotra Island (Yemen). It’s main goal was to collect data that would make it possible to unbiasedly estimate main characteristics of the local DC population. Our motivation was to provide reliable information to support decision-making processes as well as other research activities. At the same time we were not aware of a survey which could provide this kind of statistical-sound estimates for the whole population covering an area of almost 700 ha.

This article describes how the survey has been planned and carried out in practice. In addition, we also provide a set of preliminary estimates of the main DC population figures - totals and per hectare densities of stems, overall and partitioned according to predicted crown age. Among estimated parameters there are also mean crown age and proportions of predefined age classes on the total number of living DC stems. These estimates provide an explicit information on age structure of the whole DC population in Firmihin.

Although we collected data on more than one hundred randomly located plots, the reported accuracy of our estimates is still rather limiting. We discuss several possibilities to obtain more accurate results or at least to approach the supposedly lower true variance that can’t be calculated by approximate techniques applied here.

The design and concept of our survey makes it possible to evaluate changes over time on stem by stem bases and to generalize these stem-level details to the whole population. Mortality, regeneration and even change of population’s mean crown age can be estimated from a future repeated survey, which would be extremely useful to draw firm conclusions about the dynamic of the whole DC population in Firmihin.

Otwarty dostęp

First Proposal Of Seed Regions For Frankincense Trees (Boswellia Spp.) On Socotra Island

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 35 - 45

Abstrakt

Abstract

The landscape differentiation on seed regions is used in the Czech forestry industry for purposes of seed transfers. The seed regions are created for main commercial tree species and the rules for transfer among these regions are described. The geobiocoenological landscape differentiation and differences among tree species populations were used as main approaches. The same principle is used for Boswellia seed regions differentiation on Socotra island. Eight species of Boswellia genus were determined on the island, all species being endemic. The differentiation is based on Boswellia populations field survey. All populations were described in morphological signs. The vegetation zones and geomorphological differentiation were also taken into account. The result is a map of seed regions for every Boswellia species on Socotra island presented in the article.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Boswellia
  • Socotra
  • Seed regions
  • Biodiversity
Otwarty dostęp

Vegetation Succession Along New Roads at Soqotra Island (Yemen): Effects of Invasive Plant Species and Utilization of Selected Native Plant Resistence Against Disturbance

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 46 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paved (tarmac) roads had been constructed on Soqotra island over the last 15 years. The vegetation along the roads was disturbed and the erosion started immediately after the disturbance caused by the road construction. Our assumption is that biotechnical measurements should prevent the problems caused by erosion and improve stabilization of road edges. The knowledge of plant species which are able to grow in unfavourable conditions along the roads is important for correct selection of plants used for outplanting. The vegetation succession was observed using phytosociological relevés as a tool of recording and mapping assambblages of plants species along the roads as new linear structures in the landscape. Data from phytosociological relevés were analysed and the succession was characterised in different altitudes. The results can help us to select group of plants (especially shrubs and trees), which are suitable to be used as stabilizing green mantle in various site conditions and for different purposes (anti-erosional, ornamental, protection against noise or dust, etc.).

Słowa kluczowe

  • Road construction
  • altitudinal gradient
  • mountain areas
  • plant invasion
  • environmental impact
  • vegetation management
  • tropics
  • islands
  • Soqotra
Otwarty dostęp

Overview of Biotope Types of Socotra Island

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 60 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study describes main biotopes of Socotra Island. The biotopes were distinguished and described during complex field observations on more than 250 localities of Socotra between years 1999-2004. Classification of biotopes is based on differences in physiognomy, structure and species composition of the vegetation component of present biocoenoses. Groups of biotope types differ, above all, in the physiognomy and structure of vegetation. Biotope types are divided according to composition of dominant species. In this manner, 13 groups of biotopes and 39 biotope types were distinguished and described

Słowa kluczowe

  • Socotra Island
  • biotope type classification
  • geobiocoenological approach
Otwarty dostęp

Geological And Morphological Evolution of The Socotra Archipelago (Yemen) from the Biogeographical View

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 84 - 108

Abstrakt

Abstract

Some misunderstandings persist in the biological literature, concerning the geological evolution of the Socotra Archipelago. The aim of this paper is to interpret new information about the Gulf of Aden geology, from the view of possible methods of terrestrial biota species migration to the Socotra Islands. An overview of the Socotra Platform with the Socotra Archipelago topography is given. Present-day geological publications are mostly oriented towards tectonic structure of the Gulf and its tectonic evolution, and thus information concerning the elevation of the land surface and the sea level was necessary to deduce. The first biogeographically relevant emergence of a land mass in the area of present-day Socotra Archipelago commenced during the late Eocene Epoch (38-34 Ma BP). Some islands persisted after later transgressions of the sea, before the time of the opening of the Gulf of Aden rift (ca 20-17 Ma), accompanied by substantial uplift and large-scale uplift of the land. This was the last time when terrestrial biota could, relatively easily, reach the area of the Socotra Archipelago on land from the African mainland, and also with medium probability from present-day Arabia. The total evaporation of the Red Sea from 11-5 Ma BP enabled the migration of terrestrial species from and to Arabia via Somalia. Nevertheless, channels in Guardafui and Brothers basins made important, but perhaps nonfatal, barriers. The last and most important uplift of Haggier Mts. on Socotra occurred at the end of the Miocene Epoch (9-6 Ma BP). That was probably the time of the last Tertiary emergence of the Socotra Platform, potentially enabling some species to migrate across narrowed abovementioned channels. Great changes in sea level occurred during the Quaternary Period, periodically exposing the surface of the Socotra platform. Two channels persisted, preventing the invasion of modern species onto the Socotra Archipelago. Channels within the Brothers basin between Abd al-Kuri Isl. and other islands of the Archipelago formed some barriers to dispersal, and probably led to important biota differences in the scope of the Archipelago. Finally, a scenario of the “facilitation” provided by tsunami and sea currents for the immigration of biota onto the Archipelago is presented.

Otwarty dostęp

Mubarak’S Garden. Land Improvement on a Dry Tropical Island in the Arabian Sea

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 109 - 123

Abstrakt

Abstract

Inhabited dry tropical regions are principally seen as vulnerable areas, especially if people have limited access to suitable land, fresh water and crop seeds. From the traditional, but also from the scientific point of view in some cases, it might be considered to be exceptional, indeed pointless, for people to try to improve land in such an arid environment. But for people living directly on a hypersaline coastline, experiments in crop cultivation are necessary to produce additional fruits and vegetables, using either traditional or adapted techniques of land cultivation. Soil investigations in a kitchen-garden situated on the northern coast of Soqotra Island, Yemen, show that one year of cultivation increased Corg contents from 0 up to 0.7%, and Pav contents from 100 mg kg-1 up to 230 mg kg-1 in the garden beds. A general decrease in slightly soluble salts - explained by irrigation with fresh water - is already obvious after only one year: decreasing from 6.7% slightly soluble salt in marine sand, to 0.3% slightly soluble salt in cultivated beds. A vertical increase of clay content in sediments and soils, and also an inland increase of clay content, was observed. It is hoped that this example will encourage future research on kitchen-gardens, since they have a beneficial effect on society as well as having positive environmental consequences, as seen in the present case of land improvement on Soqotra Island in the Arabian Sea

Słowa kluczowe

  • Soqotra Island
  • hypersaline environment
  • soil melioration
  • crop cultivation
6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Field Survey of Dracaena Cinnabari Populations in Firmihin, Socotra Island: Methodology and Preliminary Results

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 7 - 34

Abstrakt

Abstract

Between 2010 and 2011 a field survey dedicated to Dracaena cinnabari (DC) population was conducted in Firmihin, Socotra Island (Yemen). It’s main goal was to collect data that would make it possible to unbiasedly estimate main characteristics of the local DC population. Our motivation was to provide reliable information to support decision-making processes as well as other research activities. At the same time we were not aware of a survey which could provide this kind of statistical-sound estimates for the whole population covering an area of almost 700 ha.

This article describes how the survey has been planned and carried out in practice. In addition, we also provide a set of preliminary estimates of the main DC population figures - totals and per hectare densities of stems, overall and partitioned according to predicted crown age. Among estimated parameters there are also mean crown age and proportions of predefined age classes on the total number of living DC stems. These estimates provide an explicit information on age structure of the whole DC population in Firmihin.

Although we collected data on more than one hundred randomly located plots, the reported accuracy of our estimates is still rather limiting. We discuss several possibilities to obtain more accurate results or at least to approach the supposedly lower true variance that can’t be calculated by approximate techniques applied here.

The design and concept of our survey makes it possible to evaluate changes over time on stem by stem bases and to generalize these stem-level details to the whole population. Mortality, regeneration and even change of population’s mean crown age can be estimated from a future repeated survey, which would be extremely useful to draw firm conclusions about the dynamic of the whole DC population in Firmihin.

Otwarty dostęp

First Proposal Of Seed Regions For Frankincense Trees (Boswellia Spp.) On Socotra Island

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 35 - 45

Abstrakt

Abstract

The landscape differentiation on seed regions is used in the Czech forestry industry for purposes of seed transfers. The seed regions are created for main commercial tree species and the rules for transfer among these regions are described. The geobiocoenological landscape differentiation and differences among tree species populations were used as main approaches. The same principle is used for Boswellia seed regions differentiation on Socotra island. Eight species of Boswellia genus were determined on the island, all species being endemic. The differentiation is based on Boswellia populations field survey. All populations were described in morphological signs. The vegetation zones and geomorphological differentiation were also taken into account. The result is a map of seed regions for every Boswellia species on Socotra island presented in the article.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Boswellia
  • Socotra
  • Seed regions
  • Biodiversity
Otwarty dostęp

Vegetation Succession Along New Roads at Soqotra Island (Yemen): Effects of Invasive Plant Species and Utilization of Selected Native Plant Resistence Against Disturbance

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 46 - 59

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paved (tarmac) roads had been constructed on Soqotra island over the last 15 years. The vegetation along the roads was disturbed and the erosion started immediately after the disturbance caused by the road construction. Our assumption is that biotechnical measurements should prevent the problems caused by erosion and improve stabilization of road edges. The knowledge of plant species which are able to grow in unfavourable conditions along the roads is important for correct selection of plants used for outplanting. The vegetation succession was observed using phytosociological relevés as a tool of recording and mapping assambblages of plants species along the roads as new linear structures in the landscape. Data from phytosociological relevés were analysed and the succession was characterised in different altitudes. The results can help us to select group of plants (especially shrubs and trees), which are suitable to be used as stabilizing green mantle in various site conditions and for different purposes (anti-erosional, ornamental, protection against noise or dust, etc.).

Słowa kluczowe

  • Road construction
  • altitudinal gradient
  • mountain areas
  • plant invasion
  • environmental impact
  • vegetation management
  • tropics
  • islands
  • Soqotra
Otwarty dostęp

Overview of Biotope Types of Socotra Island

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 60 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

The study describes main biotopes of Socotra Island. The biotopes were distinguished and described during complex field observations on more than 250 localities of Socotra between years 1999-2004. Classification of biotopes is based on differences in physiognomy, structure and species composition of the vegetation component of present biocoenoses. Groups of biotope types differ, above all, in the physiognomy and structure of vegetation. Biotope types are divided according to composition of dominant species. In this manner, 13 groups of biotopes and 39 biotope types were distinguished and described

Słowa kluczowe

  • Socotra Island
  • biotope type classification
  • geobiocoenological approach
Otwarty dostęp

Geological And Morphological Evolution of The Socotra Archipelago (Yemen) from the Biogeographical View

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 84 - 108

Abstrakt

Abstract

Some misunderstandings persist in the biological literature, concerning the geological evolution of the Socotra Archipelago. The aim of this paper is to interpret new information about the Gulf of Aden geology, from the view of possible methods of terrestrial biota species migration to the Socotra Islands. An overview of the Socotra Platform with the Socotra Archipelago topography is given. Present-day geological publications are mostly oriented towards tectonic structure of the Gulf and its tectonic evolution, and thus information concerning the elevation of the land surface and the sea level was necessary to deduce. The first biogeographically relevant emergence of a land mass in the area of present-day Socotra Archipelago commenced during the late Eocene Epoch (38-34 Ma BP). Some islands persisted after later transgressions of the sea, before the time of the opening of the Gulf of Aden rift (ca 20-17 Ma), accompanied by substantial uplift and large-scale uplift of the land. This was the last time when terrestrial biota could, relatively easily, reach the area of the Socotra Archipelago on land from the African mainland, and also with medium probability from present-day Arabia. The total evaporation of the Red Sea from 11-5 Ma BP enabled the migration of terrestrial species from and to Arabia via Somalia. Nevertheless, channels in Guardafui and Brothers basins made important, but perhaps nonfatal, barriers. The last and most important uplift of Haggier Mts. on Socotra occurred at the end of the Miocene Epoch (9-6 Ma BP). That was probably the time of the last Tertiary emergence of the Socotra Platform, potentially enabling some species to migrate across narrowed abovementioned channels. Great changes in sea level occurred during the Quaternary Period, periodically exposing the surface of the Socotra platform. Two channels persisted, preventing the invasion of modern species onto the Socotra Archipelago. Channels within the Brothers basin between Abd al-Kuri Isl. and other islands of the Archipelago formed some barriers to dispersal, and probably led to important biota differences in the scope of the Archipelago. Finally, a scenario of the “facilitation” provided by tsunami and sea currents for the immigration of biota onto the Archipelago is presented.

Otwarty dostęp

Mubarak’S Garden. Land Improvement on a Dry Tropical Island in the Arabian Sea

Data publikacji: 15 Aug 2014
Zakres stron: 109 - 123

Abstrakt

Abstract

Inhabited dry tropical regions are principally seen as vulnerable areas, especially if people have limited access to suitable land, fresh water and crop seeds. From the traditional, but also from the scientific point of view in some cases, it might be considered to be exceptional, indeed pointless, for people to try to improve land in such an arid environment. But for people living directly on a hypersaline coastline, experiments in crop cultivation are necessary to produce additional fruits and vegetables, using either traditional or adapted techniques of land cultivation. Soil investigations in a kitchen-garden situated on the northern coast of Soqotra Island, Yemen, show that one year of cultivation increased Corg contents from 0 up to 0.7%, and Pav contents from 100 mg kg-1 up to 230 mg kg-1 in the garden beds. A general decrease in slightly soluble salts - explained by irrigation with fresh water - is already obvious after only one year: decreasing from 6.7% slightly soluble salt in marine sand, to 0.3% slightly soluble salt in cultivated beds. A vertical increase of clay content in sediments and soils, and also an inland increase of clay content, was observed. It is hoped that this example will encourage future research on kitchen-gardens, since they have a beneficial effect on society as well as having positive environmental consequences, as seen in the present case of land improvement on Soqotra Island in the Arabian Sea

Słowa kluczowe

  • Soqotra Island
  • hypersaline environment
  • soil melioration
  • crop cultivation

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