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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2255-890X
Pierwsze wydanie
14 Sep 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
6 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 74 (2020): Zeszyt 5 (October 2020)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2255-890X
Pierwsze wydanie
14 Sep 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
6 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Thirty Years of Epidemiological Studies of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Latvia: Why are they Needed?

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 299 - 307

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present review is designed to provide insight into population-based investigations of cardiovascular risk factors in Latvia. Most of them represent urban, rural and mixed populations. The results are age-standardised using the European Standard Population. All of the studies confirm a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors with wide differences across the studies. The differences are not consistent or regular and some of the underlying reasons are discussed. Analysis of the previous studies justifies the need for a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological study, which in a small country can be carried out in compliance with all the requirements for a population-based epidemiological study.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cardiovascular risk factors
  • primary prevention
  • population based epidemiological surveys
Otwarty dostęp

Sensory Feedback in Upper Limb Prostheses

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 308 - 317

Abstrakt

Abstract

Loss of an arm is a devastating condition that can cross all socioeconomic groups. A major step forward in rehabilitation of amputees has been the development of myoelectric prostheses. Current robotic arms allow voluntary movements by using residual muscle contraction. However, a significant issue is lack of movement control and sensory feedback. These factors play an important role in integration and embodiment of a robotic arm. Without feedback, users rely on visual cues and experience overwhelming cognitive demand that results in poorer use of a prosthesis. The complexity of the afferent system presents a great challenge of creating a closed-loop hand prosthesis. Several groups have shown progress providing sensory feedback for upper limb amputees using robotic arms. Feedback, although still limited, is achieved through direct implantation of intraneural electrodes as well as through non-invasive methods. Moreover, evidence shows that over time some amputees develop a phantom sensation of the missing limb on their stump. This phenomenon can occur spontaneously as well as after non-invasive nerve stimulation, suggesting the possibility of recreating a sensory homunculus of the hand on the stump. Furthermore, virtual reality simulation in combination with mechanical stimulation of skin could augment the sensation phenomenon, leading to better interface between human and robotic arms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sensory feedback
  • robotic arm
  • myoelectrical prosthesis
  • closed-loop prosthesis
  • virtual reality simulation
Otwarty dostęp

Expression of CD44 and IDH1 R132H in Gliomas and their Prognostic Relevance

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 318 - 324

Abstrakt

Abstract

Gliomas are among the most common and aggressive primary brain tumours with dismal prognosis. A lot of research has been directed towards elucidating the molecular basis of these tumours, but few reliable prognostic markers are known. It is necessary to continue to study possible molecular factors that may be involved in development of gliomas or have a prognostic role. CD44 is a marker of neural stem cells and is involved in invasiveness of different tumours. In addition, IDH1 R132H mutant protein is expressed in secondary glioblastomas (GBMs) with much better prognosis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression and prognostic role of CD44 and IDH1 R132H in gliomas by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we found that CD44 expression was more prominent in glioblastomas than diffuse astrocytomas and it was not correlated with IDH1 mutational status. CD44 was not found to have a prognostic role in gliomas, in contrast with IDH1 R132H positive status, which was associated with better prognosis. Interestingly, higher CD44 expression values were associated with smaller size of GBMs and female gender indicating that the glioma stem cell population may be altered by gender specific factors and the growth rate of the tumour.

Słowa kluczowe

  • astrocytoma
  • glioblastoma
  • immunohistochemistry
  • survival
  • molecular subtypes
Otwarty dostęp

Cross-Genera Transferability of Microsatellite Markers and Phylogenetic Assessment of Three Salsola Species from Western Kazakhstan

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 325 - 334

Abstrakt

Abstract

Salsola arbuscula Pall., Salsola arbusculiformis Drob. and Salsola chiwensis M. Pop. have great environmental importance as they can stabilise sand dunes and therefore are useful for desert zone landscaping. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of populations of these species collected in Western Kazakhstan were analysed using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The ITS sequences of species were aligned with sequences of 37 Salsola species from the NCBI. ITS analysis clustered the samples into two major groups and eight sections. The phylogenetic tree and haplotype network relationships confirmed the polyphyletic origin of Salsola and allowed taxonomic reassessment for the studied species. A set of SSR markers originally developed from genera Agriophyllum, Haloxylon, and Beta was tested for their variability in Salsola species. Twenty-six tested SSR markers were selected for their transferability scores, and 13 of them were suitable for study of genetic diversity in populations of three Salsola species. It was concluded that polymorphic SSR markers were efficient in the separation of the studied Salsola species and could be effectively used in studies related to the genetic variation in the genus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Salsola
  • genetic diversity
  • phylogeny
  • ITS marker
  • SSR polymorphism
Otwarty dostęp

Light Conditions Affect NaCl-Induced Physiological Responses in a Clonal Plant Species Hydrocotyle vulgaris

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 335 - 343

Abstrakt

Abstract

In order to understand if differences in light conditions can affect responses of a clonal plant species to increased soil salinity, the long-term effect of two substrate concentrations of NaCl on leaf growth, clonal plasticity and oxidative enzyme (peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) activity in Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. plants grown at low, moderate and high light conditions was studied. H. vulgaris appeared to be a shade-tolerant species, since both leaf blade and petiole growth was inhibited at low light intensity. At low light intensity, H. vulgaris plants represented characteristics of halophytes with significant stimulation of leaf blade and petiole growth by NaCl, especially at low concentration. Secondary clonal growth was stimulated by increased salinity in low light and, for 25 mM NaCl treatment, even in moderate light. There was more than a five-fold increase of peroxidase activity by 100 mM NaCl treatment in high light conditions, in comparison to two-fold and four-fold increase in low and moderate light, respectively. The existence of different endogenous control mechanisms during H. vulgaris response to light and NaCl at the level of leaf growth, clonal growth and oxidative metabolism could be proposed. The possible ecological meaning of the presented results is discussed in detail.

Słowa kluczowe

  • clonal growth
  • coastal habitats
  • oxidative enzymes
  • peroxidase
  • polyphenol oxidase
  • salinity
Otwarty dostęp

Use of Flow Cytometry for Producing Tetraploids in Red Clover

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 344 - 346

Abstrakt

Abstract

Sprouts of diploid red clover ‘Stendes Agrais’ were treated with 0.2% colchicine solution. The ploidy level of plants was detected by flow cytometry. Most of the treated plants were mixoploids and sterile. From progenies of fertile plants, mixoploids were selected that had a proportion of tetraploid cells higher than 60%. In the next generation, stable tetraploid plants were selected, and 49 lines were included in the breeding process.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Trifolium pratense
6 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Thirty Years of Epidemiological Studies of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Latvia: Why are they Needed?

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 299 - 307

Abstrakt

Abstract

The present review is designed to provide insight into population-based investigations of cardiovascular risk factors in Latvia. Most of them represent urban, rural and mixed populations. The results are age-standardised using the European Standard Population. All of the studies confirm a high prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors with wide differences across the studies. The differences are not consistent or regular and some of the underlying reasons are discussed. Analysis of the previous studies justifies the need for a nationwide cross-sectional epidemiological study, which in a small country can be carried out in compliance with all the requirements for a population-based epidemiological study.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cardiovascular risk factors
  • primary prevention
  • population based epidemiological surveys
Otwarty dostęp

Sensory Feedback in Upper Limb Prostheses

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 308 - 317

Abstrakt

Abstract

Loss of an arm is a devastating condition that can cross all socioeconomic groups. A major step forward in rehabilitation of amputees has been the development of myoelectric prostheses. Current robotic arms allow voluntary movements by using residual muscle contraction. However, a significant issue is lack of movement control and sensory feedback. These factors play an important role in integration and embodiment of a robotic arm. Without feedback, users rely on visual cues and experience overwhelming cognitive demand that results in poorer use of a prosthesis. The complexity of the afferent system presents a great challenge of creating a closed-loop hand prosthesis. Several groups have shown progress providing sensory feedback for upper limb amputees using robotic arms. Feedback, although still limited, is achieved through direct implantation of intraneural electrodes as well as through non-invasive methods. Moreover, evidence shows that over time some amputees develop a phantom sensation of the missing limb on their stump. This phenomenon can occur spontaneously as well as after non-invasive nerve stimulation, suggesting the possibility of recreating a sensory homunculus of the hand on the stump. Furthermore, virtual reality simulation in combination with mechanical stimulation of skin could augment the sensation phenomenon, leading to better interface between human and robotic arms.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sensory feedback
  • robotic arm
  • myoelectrical prosthesis
  • closed-loop prosthesis
  • virtual reality simulation
Otwarty dostęp

Expression of CD44 and IDH1 R132H in Gliomas and their Prognostic Relevance

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 318 - 324

Abstrakt

Abstract

Gliomas are among the most common and aggressive primary brain tumours with dismal prognosis. A lot of research has been directed towards elucidating the molecular basis of these tumours, but few reliable prognostic markers are known. It is necessary to continue to study possible molecular factors that may be involved in development of gliomas or have a prognostic role. CD44 is a marker of neural stem cells and is involved in invasiveness of different tumours. In addition, IDH1 R132H mutant protein is expressed in secondary glioblastomas (GBMs) with much better prognosis. The goal of this study was to evaluate the expression and prognostic role of CD44 and IDH1 R132H in gliomas by immunohistochemistry. In this study, we found that CD44 expression was more prominent in glioblastomas than diffuse astrocytomas and it was not correlated with IDH1 mutational status. CD44 was not found to have a prognostic role in gliomas, in contrast with IDH1 R132H positive status, which was associated with better prognosis. Interestingly, higher CD44 expression values were associated with smaller size of GBMs and female gender indicating that the glioma stem cell population may be altered by gender specific factors and the growth rate of the tumour.

Słowa kluczowe

  • astrocytoma
  • glioblastoma
  • immunohistochemistry
  • survival
  • molecular subtypes
Otwarty dostęp

Cross-Genera Transferability of Microsatellite Markers and Phylogenetic Assessment of Three Salsola Species from Western Kazakhstan

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 325 - 334

Abstrakt

Abstract

Salsola arbuscula Pall., Salsola arbusculiformis Drob. and Salsola chiwensis M. Pop. have great environmental importance as they can stabilise sand dunes and therefore are useful for desert zone landscaping. The genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of populations of these species collected in Western Kazakhstan were analysed using internal transcribed spacers (ITS) and simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. The ITS sequences of species were aligned with sequences of 37 Salsola species from the NCBI. ITS analysis clustered the samples into two major groups and eight sections. The phylogenetic tree and haplotype network relationships confirmed the polyphyletic origin of Salsola and allowed taxonomic reassessment for the studied species. A set of SSR markers originally developed from genera Agriophyllum, Haloxylon, and Beta was tested for their variability in Salsola species. Twenty-six tested SSR markers were selected for their transferability scores, and 13 of them were suitable for study of genetic diversity in populations of three Salsola species. It was concluded that polymorphic SSR markers were efficient in the separation of the studied Salsola species and could be effectively used in studies related to the genetic variation in the genus.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Salsola
  • genetic diversity
  • phylogeny
  • ITS marker
  • SSR polymorphism
Otwarty dostęp

Light Conditions Affect NaCl-Induced Physiological Responses in a Clonal Plant Species Hydrocotyle vulgaris

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 335 - 343

Abstrakt

Abstract

In order to understand if differences in light conditions can affect responses of a clonal plant species to increased soil salinity, the long-term effect of two substrate concentrations of NaCl on leaf growth, clonal plasticity and oxidative enzyme (peroxidase and polyphenol oxidase) activity in Hydrocotyle vulgaris L. plants grown at low, moderate and high light conditions was studied. H. vulgaris appeared to be a shade-tolerant species, since both leaf blade and petiole growth was inhibited at low light intensity. At low light intensity, H. vulgaris plants represented characteristics of halophytes with significant stimulation of leaf blade and petiole growth by NaCl, especially at low concentration. Secondary clonal growth was stimulated by increased salinity in low light and, for 25 mM NaCl treatment, even in moderate light. There was more than a five-fold increase of peroxidase activity by 100 mM NaCl treatment in high light conditions, in comparison to two-fold and four-fold increase in low and moderate light, respectively. The existence of different endogenous control mechanisms during H. vulgaris response to light and NaCl at the level of leaf growth, clonal growth and oxidative metabolism could be proposed. The possible ecological meaning of the presented results is discussed in detail.

Słowa kluczowe

  • clonal growth
  • coastal habitats
  • oxidative enzymes
  • peroxidase
  • polyphenol oxidase
  • salinity
Otwarty dostęp

Use of Flow Cytometry for Producing Tetraploids in Red Clover

Data publikacji: 08 Dec 2020
Zakres stron: 344 - 346

Abstrakt

Abstract

Sprouts of diploid red clover ‘Stendes Agrais’ were treated with 0.2% colchicine solution. The ploidy level of plants was detected by flow cytometry. Most of the treated plants were mixoploids and sterile. From progenies of fertile plants, mixoploids were selected that had a proportion of tetraploid cells higher than 60%. In the next generation, stable tetraploid plants were selected, and 49 lines were included in the breeding process.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Trifolium pratense

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