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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1898-0309
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Dec 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 23 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (June 2017)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
1898-0309
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Dec 2008
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

5 Artykułów

Scientific Paper

Otwarty dostęp

Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy for synchronous bilateral breast irradiation using a mono iso-center technique

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 15 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the synchronous bilateral breast irradiation radiotherapy technique using a single isocenter. Materials and Methods: Six patients of synchronous bilateral breast were treated with single isocenter technique from February 2011 to June 2016. All the patients underwent a CT-simulation using appropriate positioning device. Target volumes and critical structures like heart, lung, esophagus, thyroid, etc., were delineated slice by slice in the CT data. An isocenter was placed above the sternum on the skin and both medial tangential and lateral tangential of the breast / chest wall were created using asymmetrical jaws to avoid the beam divergence through the lung and heart. The field weighting were adjusted manually to obtain a homogenous dose distribution. The planning objectives were to deliver uniform doses around the target and keep the doses to the organ at risk within the permissible limit. The beam energy of 6 MV or combination of 6 MV and 15 MV photons were used in the tangential fields according to the tangential separation. Boluses were used for all the mastectomy patients to increase the doses on the chest wall. In addition to that enhanced dynamic wedge and field in field technique were also used to obtain a homogenous distribution around the target volume and reduce the hot spots. The isocenter was just kept on the skin, such that the beam junctions will be overlapped only on the air just above the sternum. Acute toxicity during the treatment and late toxicity were recorded during the patient’s follow-up. Results: During the radiotherapy treatment follow-up there were no acute skin reactions in the field junctions, but one patient had grade 1 esophagitis and two patients had grade 2 skin reactions in the chest wall. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months (range: 8 - 49 months), no patients had a local recurrence, but one patients with triple negative disease had a distant metastases in brain and died after 28 months. Conclusions: We were able to successfully treat the synchronous bilateral breast using single isocenter radiotherapy while keeping the lung and heart doses within the acceptable dose limits. During the treatment follow-up there were no symptoms of acute skin reactions in the field junction.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bilateral breast
  • synchronous bilateral breast
  • mono isocenter
Otwarty dostęp

Testing of a sag of a dosimetry system rotating with a gantry using the interplay effect between detector motion and MLC motion

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 21 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Purpose: An interplay between detector motion and MLC motion is a source of measurement error, when dose for dynamic arc is measured using a dosimetry system moving relative to the beam central axis during its rotation with a gantry. The purpose of this study is to develop and to evaluate a method of quantitative testing of a sag/flex of such dosimetry systems. Methods: The method is based on evaluation of relative differences between signals measured for two single arc beams, where a narrow slit field is sliding during gantry movement in opposite directions. The component of a measurement error related to the interplay effect was first assessed based on theoretical computer simulations and then on measurements for four dosimetry systems. The sag pattern of EPID and 2D array was extracted from the measurement results. Results: The simulations showed a 4 mm difference in field width and 3.3% difference in relative signals at beam axis between test beams where the slit field swept over 19 cm in opposite directions ( sinusoidal sag pattern with amplitude of 1 mm was assumed). The signal differences exceeding 4% and 5% were measured for EPID and 2D array, respectively. Conclusions: Even relatively small detector sag (less than 1 mm) can produce significant measurement error; therefore, the detector sag test should be an obligatory component of a validation of rotating dosimetry systems used for QA of dynamic arcs.

Słowa kluczowe

  • QA
  • IMAT
  • dosimetry
  • interplay
Otwarty dostęp

Automatic segmentation of lesion from breast DCE-MR image using artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 29 - 36

Abstrakt

Abstract

Interpreting Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MR images for signs of breast cancer is time consuming and complex, since the amount of data that needs to be examined by a radiologist in breast DCE-MRI to locate suspicious lesions is huge. Misclassifications can arise from either overlooking a suspicious region or from incorrectly interpreting a suspicious region. The segmentation of breast DCE-MRI for suspicious lesions in detection is thus attractive, because it drastically decreases the amount of data that needs to be examined. The new segmentation method for detection of suspicious lesions in DCE-MRI of the breast tissues is based on artificial fishes swarm clustering algorithm is presented in this paper. Artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm is a swarm intelligence algorithm, which performs a search based on population and neighborhood search combined with random search. The major criteria for segmentation are based on the image voxel values and the parameters of an empirical parametric model of segmentation algorithms. The experimental results show considerable impact on the performance of the segmentation algorithm, which can assist the physician with the task of locating suspicious regions at minimal time.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breast DCE-MRI
  • segmentation
  • artificial fishes swarm optimization algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of electrode contact area on the information content of the recorded electrogastrograms: An analysis based on Rényi entropy and Teager-Kaiser Energy

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 37 - 42

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electrogastrograms (EGG) are electrical signals originating from the digestive system, which are closely correlated with its mechanical activity. Electrogastrography is an efficient non-invasive method for examining the physiological and pathological states of the human digestive system. There are several factors such as fat conductivity, abdominal thickness, change in electrode surface area etc, which affects the quality of the recorded EGG signals. In this work, the effect of variations in the contact area of surface electrodes on the information content of the measured electrogastrograms is analyzed using Rényi entropy and Teager-Kaiser Energy (TKE). Two different circular cutaneous electrodes with approximate contact areas of 201.14 mm2 and 283.64 mm2, have been adopted and EGG signals were acquired using the standard three electrode protocol. Further, the information content of the measured EGG signals were analyzed using the computed values of entropy and energy. Results demonstrate that the information content of the measured EGG signals increases by 6.72% for an increase in the contact area of the surface electrode by 29.09%. Further, it was observed that the average energy increases with increase in the contact surface area. This work appears to be of high clinical significance since the accurate measurement of EGG signals without loss in its information content, is highly useful for the design of diagnostic assistance tools for automated diagnosis and mass screening of digestive disorders.

Słowa kluczowe

  • electrogastrography
  • biopotentials
  • cutaneous electrodes
  • Rényi entropy
  • Teager-Kaiser energy operator
  • information content

Technical Note

Otwarty dostęp

Optimization of image quality in pulmonary CT angiography with low dose of contrast material

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 43 - 46

Abstrakt

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare objective image quality data for patient pulmonary embolism between a conventional pulmonary CTA protocol with respect to a novel acquisition protocol performed with optimize radiation dose and less amount of iodinated contrast medium injected to the patients during PE scanning. Materials and Methods: Sixty- four patients with Pulmonary Embolism (PE) possibility, were examined using angio-CT protocol. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: A (16 women and 16 men, with age ranging from 19-89 years) mean age, 62 years with standard deviation 16; range, 19-89 years) - injected contrast agent: 35-40 ml. B (16 women and 16 men, with age ranging from 28-86 years) - injected contrast agent: 70-80 ml. Other scanning parameters were kept constant. Pulmonary vessel enhancement and image noise were quantified; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective vessel contrast was assessed by two radiologists in consensus. Result: A total of 14 cases of PE (22 %) were found in the evaluated of subjects (nine in group A, and five in group B). All PE cases were detected by the two readers. There was no significant difference in the size or location of the PEs between the two groups, the average image noise was 14 HU for group A and 19 HU for group B. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). Overall, the SNR and CNR were slightly higher on group B (24.4 and 22.5 respectively) compared with group A (19.4 and 16.4 respectively), but those differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.71 and p = 0.35, respectively). Conclusion and Discussion: Both groups that had been evaluated by pulmonary CTA protocol allow similar image quality to be achieved as compared with each other’s, with optimize care dose for both protocol and contrast volume were reduced by 50 % in new protocol comparing to the conventional protocol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pulmonary embolism
  • signal to noise ratio
  • contrast to noise ratio
  • contrast volume
  • image quality
5 Artykułów

Scientific Paper

Otwarty dostęp

Three dimensional conformal radiotherapy for synchronous bilateral breast irradiation using a mono iso-center technique

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 15 - 19

Abstrakt

Abstract

Objective: The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the synchronous bilateral breast irradiation radiotherapy technique using a single isocenter. Materials and Methods: Six patients of synchronous bilateral breast were treated with single isocenter technique from February 2011 to June 2016. All the patients underwent a CT-simulation using appropriate positioning device. Target volumes and critical structures like heart, lung, esophagus, thyroid, etc., were delineated slice by slice in the CT data. An isocenter was placed above the sternum on the skin and both medial tangential and lateral tangential of the breast / chest wall were created using asymmetrical jaws to avoid the beam divergence through the lung and heart. The field weighting were adjusted manually to obtain a homogenous dose distribution. The planning objectives were to deliver uniform doses around the target and keep the doses to the organ at risk within the permissible limit. The beam energy of 6 MV or combination of 6 MV and 15 MV photons were used in the tangential fields according to the tangential separation. Boluses were used for all the mastectomy patients to increase the doses on the chest wall. In addition to that enhanced dynamic wedge and field in field technique were also used to obtain a homogenous distribution around the target volume and reduce the hot spots. The isocenter was just kept on the skin, such that the beam junctions will be overlapped only on the air just above the sternum. Acute toxicity during the treatment and late toxicity were recorded during the patient’s follow-up. Results: During the radiotherapy treatment follow-up there were no acute skin reactions in the field junctions, but one patient had grade 1 esophagitis and two patients had grade 2 skin reactions in the chest wall. With a median follow-up of 38.5 months (range: 8 - 49 months), no patients had a local recurrence, but one patients with triple negative disease had a distant metastases in brain and died after 28 months. Conclusions: We were able to successfully treat the synchronous bilateral breast using single isocenter radiotherapy while keeping the lung and heart doses within the acceptable dose limits. During the treatment follow-up there were no symptoms of acute skin reactions in the field junction.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bilateral breast
  • synchronous bilateral breast
  • mono isocenter
Otwarty dostęp

Testing of a sag of a dosimetry system rotating with a gantry using the interplay effect between detector motion and MLC motion

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 21 - 28

Abstrakt

Abstract

Purpose: An interplay between detector motion and MLC motion is a source of measurement error, when dose for dynamic arc is measured using a dosimetry system moving relative to the beam central axis during its rotation with a gantry. The purpose of this study is to develop and to evaluate a method of quantitative testing of a sag/flex of such dosimetry systems. Methods: The method is based on evaluation of relative differences between signals measured for two single arc beams, where a narrow slit field is sliding during gantry movement in opposite directions. The component of a measurement error related to the interplay effect was first assessed based on theoretical computer simulations and then on measurements for four dosimetry systems. The sag pattern of EPID and 2D array was extracted from the measurement results. Results: The simulations showed a 4 mm difference in field width and 3.3% difference in relative signals at beam axis between test beams where the slit field swept over 19 cm in opposite directions ( sinusoidal sag pattern with amplitude of 1 mm was assumed). The signal differences exceeding 4% and 5% were measured for EPID and 2D array, respectively. Conclusions: Even relatively small detector sag (less than 1 mm) can produce significant measurement error; therefore, the detector sag test should be an obligatory component of a validation of rotating dosimetry systems used for QA of dynamic arcs.

Słowa kluczowe

  • QA
  • IMAT
  • dosimetry
  • interplay
Otwarty dostęp

Automatic segmentation of lesion from breast DCE-MR image using artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 29 - 36

Abstrakt

Abstract

Interpreting Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced (DCE) MR images for signs of breast cancer is time consuming and complex, since the amount of data that needs to be examined by a radiologist in breast DCE-MRI to locate suspicious lesions is huge. Misclassifications can arise from either overlooking a suspicious region or from incorrectly interpreting a suspicious region. The segmentation of breast DCE-MRI for suspicious lesions in detection is thus attractive, because it drastically decreases the amount of data that needs to be examined. The new segmentation method for detection of suspicious lesions in DCE-MRI of the breast tissues is based on artificial fishes swarm clustering algorithm is presented in this paper. Artificial fish swarm optimization algorithm is a swarm intelligence algorithm, which performs a search based on population and neighborhood search combined with random search. The major criteria for segmentation are based on the image voxel values and the parameters of an empirical parametric model of segmentation algorithms. The experimental results show considerable impact on the performance of the segmentation algorithm, which can assist the physician with the task of locating suspicious regions at minimal time.

Słowa kluczowe

  • breast DCE-MRI
  • segmentation
  • artificial fishes swarm optimization algorithm
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of electrode contact area on the information content of the recorded electrogastrograms: An analysis based on Rényi entropy and Teager-Kaiser Energy

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 37 - 42

Abstrakt

Abstract

Electrogastrograms (EGG) are electrical signals originating from the digestive system, which are closely correlated with its mechanical activity. Electrogastrography is an efficient non-invasive method for examining the physiological and pathological states of the human digestive system. There are several factors such as fat conductivity, abdominal thickness, change in electrode surface area etc, which affects the quality of the recorded EGG signals. In this work, the effect of variations in the contact area of surface electrodes on the information content of the measured electrogastrograms is analyzed using Rényi entropy and Teager-Kaiser Energy (TKE). Two different circular cutaneous electrodes with approximate contact areas of 201.14 mm2 and 283.64 mm2, have been adopted and EGG signals were acquired using the standard three electrode protocol. Further, the information content of the measured EGG signals were analyzed using the computed values of entropy and energy. Results demonstrate that the information content of the measured EGG signals increases by 6.72% for an increase in the contact area of the surface electrode by 29.09%. Further, it was observed that the average energy increases with increase in the contact surface area. This work appears to be of high clinical significance since the accurate measurement of EGG signals without loss in its information content, is highly useful for the design of diagnostic assistance tools for automated diagnosis and mass screening of digestive disorders.

Słowa kluczowe

  • electrogastrography
  • biopotentials
  • cutaneous electrodes
  • Rényi entropy
  • Teager-Kaiser energy operator
  • information content

Technical Note

Otwarty dostęp

Optimization of image quality in pulmonary CT angiography with low dose of contrast material

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2017
Zakres stron: 43 - 46

Abstrakt

Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study was to compare objective image quality data for patient pulmonary embolism between a conventional pulmonary CTA protocol with respect to a novel acquisition protocol performed with optimize radiation dose and less amount of iodinated contrast medium injected to the patients during PE scanning. Materials and Methods: Sixty- four patients with Pulmonary Embolism (PE) possibility, were examined using angio-CT protocol. Patients were randomly assigned to two groups: A (16 women and 16 men, with age ranging from 19-89 years) mean age, 62 years with standard deviation 16; range, 19-89 years) - injected contrast agent: 35-40 ml. B (16 women and 16 men, with age ranging from 28-86 years) - injected contrast agent: 70-80 ml. Other scanning parameters were kept constant. Pulmonary vessel enhancement and image noise were quantified; signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) were calculated. Subjective vessel contrast was assessed by two radiologists in consensus. Result: A total of 14 cases of PE (22 %) were found in the evaluated of subjects (nine in group A, and five in group B). All PE cases were detected by the two readers. There was no significant difference in the size or location of the PEs between the two groups, the average image noise was 14 HU for group A and 19 HU for group B. The difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.09). Overall, the SNR and CNR were slightly higher on group B (24.4 and 22.5 respectively) compared with group A (19.4 and 16.4 respectively), but those differences were not statistically significant (p = 0.71 and p = 0.35, respectively). Conclusion and Discussion: Both groups that had been evaluated by pulmonary CTA protocol allow similar image quality to be achieved as compared with each other’s, with optimize care dose for both protocol and contrast volume were reduced by 50 % in new protocol comparing to the conventional protocol.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pulmonary embolism
  • signal to noise ratio
  • contrast to noise ratio
  • contrast volume
  • image quality

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