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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2544-4646
Pierwsze wydanie
04 Mar 1952
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 65 (2016): Zeszyt 1 (March 2016)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2544-4646
Pierwsze wydanie
04 Mar 1952
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

32 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Functions of Effector Proteins in Yersinia Virulence

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 5 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

Yersinia species are bacterial pathogens that can cause plague and intestinal diseases after invading into human cells through the Three Secretion System (TTSS). The effect of pathogenesis is mediated by Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) and manifested as down-regulation of the cytokine genes expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, its pathogenesis can also manipulate the disorder of host innate immune system and cell death such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Among the Yersinia effector proteins, YopB and YopD assist the injection of other virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm, while YopE, YopH, YopJ, YopO, and YopT target on disrupting host cell signaling pathways in the host cytosols. Many efforts have been applied to reveal that intracellular proteins such as Rho-GTPase, and transmembrane receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) both play critical roles in Yersinia pathogenesis, establishing a connection between the pathogenic process and the signaling response. This review will mainly focus on how the effector proteins of Yersinia modulate the intrinsic signals in host cells and disturb the innate immunity of hosts through TTSS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pathogenesis
  • Yops
  • TTSS
Otwarty dostęp

Recovery of Gram-Positive Cocci and Candida albicans from Peroxygen/Silver-Based Disinfectants

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 13 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

Neutralization method evaluation is an important first step in a disinfectant validation study program. It is also crucial in assessment of the efficiency of microbial recovery media in the presence of a residual biocidal agent. In the present study, four commercially available peroxygen/silver-based disinfectant formulae – intended to be used in a pharmaceutical facility sanitization program – were tested at two dilutions against three Gram-positive cocci and one yeast; Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Kucoria rhizophila (ATCC 9341) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) and Staphylococcus capitis as an environmental monitoring (EM) isolate sample (identified by miniaturized biochemical identification system). Disinfectants preparation, dilutions and the test procedure were carried on in laboratory under conditions simulating the working environment of 20–25°C and RH% 40–60. In-house made neutralizing broth was mixed with biocidal agents to make two dilutions of each disinfectant forming Peroxygen: neutralizing broth ratios of 1:10 and 1:100 (v/v). Three populations were established and two comparison ratio groups were examined, namely neutralizer efficacy and neutralizer toxicity. Two acceptance criteria were tested. One criterion showed higher rate of neutralization success than the other. S. aureus showed the highest rate of successful microbial recovery from neutralization process. The Disinfectant (Bixco) was exceptionally neutralized at all dilutions with all microorganisms. In conclusion, in-house made neutralizing broth effectively neutralized all disinfectants with all the tested microorganisms at 1:100 (v/v); thus, it can be used in sanitizer validation studies and EM media.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disinfectant validation
  • neutralization method
  • peroxygen/silver
  • recovery media
  • sanitization program
Otwarty dostęp

Effectiveness of Antipseudomonal Antibiotics and Mechanisms of Multidrug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 23 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading human pathogen that causes serious infections at various tissues and organs leading to life threatening health problems and possible deadly outcomes. Resistance patterns vary widely whether it is from hospitals or community acquired infections. Reporting resistance profiles to a certain antibiotics provide valuable information in a given setting, but may be extrapolated outside the sampling location. In the present study, P. aeruginosa isolates were screened to determine their susceptibilities against anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial agents and possible existing mechanisms of resistance were determined. Eighty-six isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered. Isolates representing different resistance profiles were screened for the existence of three different resistance mechanisms including drug inactivation due to metallo-β-lactamases, drug impermeability by outer membrane proteins and drug efflux. All tested isolates showed uniform susceptibility (100%, n = 86/86) to piperacillin, meropenem, amikacin, and polymyxin B. A single isolate was found to be imipenem resistant (99%, n = 85/86). The possible mechanisms of resistance of P. aeruginosa to imipenem involve active drug efflux pumps, outer membrane impermeability as well as drug inactivating enzymes. These findings demonstrate the fundamental importance of the in vitro susceptibility testing of antibiotics prior to antipseudomonal therapy and highlight the need for a continuous antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs to monitor the changing resistance patterns so that clinicians and health care officials are updated as to the most effective therapeutic agents to combat the serious outcomes of P. aeruginosa infections.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antibiotics
  • antimicrobial
  • carbapenems
  • efflux pump
  • mechanisms
  • metallo-β-lactamases
  • polymyxins
  • mutidrug
  • resistance
Otwarty dostęp

Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996–2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 33 - 41

Abstrakt

Abstract

Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus form a group of related streptococcal species, namely the Streptococcus Anginosus Group (SAG). The group, previously called “milleri” had been rarely described until 1980/1990 as source of infections. Nowadays SAG bacteria are often described as pathogens causing predominantly purulent infections. The number of infections is highly underestimated, as SAG strains are often classified in the microbiology laboratory as less virulent “viridans streptococci”. Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by PFGE and MLVF analyses. All analyzed strains are sensitive to penicillin, a substantial group of strains is resistant to macrolides and the majority of strains are resistant to tetracycline.

Słowa kluczowe

  • group
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • MLVA
  • MLVF
  • PFGE
Otwarty dostęp

Characterization and Optimization of Biosynthesis of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Produced by Streptomyces sp. 8812

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 51 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

The nutritional requirements and environmental conditions for a submerged culture of Streptomyces sp. 8812 were determined. Batch and fed-batch Streptomyces sp. 8812 fermentations were conducted to obtain high activity of secondary metabolites. In the study several factors were examined for their influence on the biosynthesis of the active metabolites-7-hydroxy-6-oxo-2,3,4,6-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxyl acid (C10H9NO4) and N-acetyl-3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (C11H13NO5): changes in medium composition, pH of production medium, various growth phases of seed culture, amino acid supplementation and addition of anion exchange resin to the submerged culture. Biological activities of secondary metabolites were examined with the use of dd-carboxypeptidase 64–575 and horseradish peroxidase. Streptomyces sp. 8812 mycelium was evaluated under fluorescent microscopy and respiratory activity of the strain was analyzed. Moreover, the enzymatic profiles of the strain with the use of Api®ZYM test were analyzed and genetic analysis made. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces sp. 8812 revealed that its closest relative is Streptomyces capoamus JCM 4734 (98%), whereas sequence analysis for 16S rRNA gene using NCBI BLAST algorithm showed 100% homology between these two strains. Biosynthetic processes, mycelium growth and enzyme inhibitory activities of these two strains were also compared.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sp. 8812
  • biologically active compounds
  • media optimization
  • submerged cultures
Otwarty dostęp

Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 63 - 68

Abstrakt

Abstract

Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5%, 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • α-endosulfan
  • biodegradation
  • cockroaches
  • isolation
Otwarty dostęp

Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 69 - 75

Abstrakt

Abstract

The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bacterial diversity
  • Oylat Cave
  • Sanger/pyrosequencing
  • subsurface biosphere
Otwarty dostęp

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Carotenogenic Flavobacterial Isolates from Marine Waters

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 77 - 88

Abstrakt

Abstract

Carotenoids are known to possess immense nutraceutical properties and microorganisms are continuously being explored as natural source for production of carotenoids. In this study, pigmented bacteria belonging to Flavobacteriaceae family were isolated using kanamycin-containing marine agar and identified using the molecular techniques and their phenotypic characteristics were studied along with their potential to produce carotenoids. Analysis of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) banding patterns and the fragment size of the bands indicated that the 10 isolates fall under two major groups. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis the isolates were identified as Vitellibacter sp. (3 isolates), Formosa sp. (2 isolates) and Arenibacter sp. (5 isolates). Phenotypically, the isolates showed slight variation from the reported species of these three genera of Flavobacteriaceae. Only the isolates belonging to Vitellibacter and Formosa produced flexirubin, a typical yellow orange pigment produced by most of the organisms of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Vitellibacter sp. and Formosa sp. were found to produce higher amount of carotenoids compared to Arenibacter sp. and zeaxanthin was found to be the major carotenoid produced by these two species. The study indicated that Vitellibacter sp. and Formosa sp. can be exploited for production of carotenoids, particularly zeaxanthin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sp.
  • sp.
  • sp.
  • carotenoid
  • zeaxanthin
Otwarty dostęp

Serotype-Specific Pneumococcal Status prior to PCV 13 Administration in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 89 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype-specific pneumococcal status of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination before administering the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 13). This was an open, prospective study on children and adolescents aged 5–18 years who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. A single dose of PCV 13 was administered to each patient. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were measured for all 13 serotypes. A total of 122 subjects completed the study. Prevaccination GMCs ranged from 0.55 μg/ml (serotype 4) to 4.26 μg/ml (serotype 19A). Prior to the administration of PCV 13, high GMCs were detected in older children and adolescents who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autoimmune disease
  • Crohn’s disease
  • PCV
  • ulcerative colitis
  • vaccine
Otwarty dostęp

Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas Among Men with NGU in Upper Silesia, Poland. Preliminary Study

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 93 - 95

Abstrakt

Abstract

The prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in men with NGU in Upper Silesia (Poland) was studied. Mycoplasmas were detected in 36.7% men (Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium were found in 30% and 16.7% respectively). Urealyticum urealyticum was not detected. We suggest including M. genitalium in the diagnostic scheme for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU).

Słowa kluczowe

  • nongonococcal urethritis
  • urogenital mycoplasmas
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of the Microbiological Status of Probiotic Products

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 97 - 104

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform the microbiological analysis of quality of 25 probiotic products, available on the Polish market. Analysis of bacterial viability in probiotic products showed that not all of these preparations possess a suitable number of bacteria. Moreover, some of the tested probiotic products contained bacterial strains other than those declared by the manufacturer. All tested strains recovered from probiotic products were found to be resistant to metronidazole and susceptible to nitrofurantoin. The susceptibility to other antibiotics was strain specific. Probiotic products should be subject to regular and thorough inspection by appropriate institutions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • dietary supplement
  • FSMP
  • medicinal product
  • probiotics
Otwarty dostęp

Antimicrobial Activity of Penicillin G and N-acetylcystein on Planktonic and Sessile Cells of Streptococcus suis

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 105 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Streptococcus suis strains to form biofilms and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Penicillin G and N-acetylcystein (NAC) on both S. suis sessile and planktonic forms. Only non-typeable isolates of S. suis were correlated with a greater biofilm formation capacity. The MCI of Penicillin G and NAC required for inhibiting biofilm growth were higher than the required concentration for inhibiting planktonic growth. The combinations of NAC and Penicillin G showed a strong synergistic activity that inhibited biofilm formation and disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of S. suis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biofilm
  • N-acetylcystein
  • Penicillin G
Otwarty dostęp

Usefulness of CHROMagar Candida Medium, Biochemical Methods – API ID32C and VITEK 2 Compact and Two MALDI-TOF MS Systems for Candida spp. Identification

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 111 - 114

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to compare of the yeasts identification results obtained with two new systems using the MALDI-TOF MS technique with the ones obtained using the routine identification methods of Candida spp. in clinical microbiology laboratories. All 124 Candida spp. isolates were recovered from the routine examination of clinical specimens in microbiological laboratories and collected in the Centre of Quality Control in Microbiology in Warsaw (Poland). Our findings confirm the high agreement (98%) of fungal identification using the standard, biochemistry laboratory methods and mass spectrometry technique.

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp. –
  • identification
  • chromogenic medium and biochemical methods
  • MALDI-TOF MS
Otwarty dostęp

Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 115 - 118

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37°C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sp.
  • bioremediation
  • nickel
Otwarty dostęp

IgG Avidity: an Important Serologic Marker for the Diagnosis of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 119 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

A total of 52 serum samples from patients with symptoms suggestive of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection and positive IgM and/or IgG antibodies were tested for IgG avidity. Acute/recent TBEV infection was confirmed by low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 94.8% IgM positive/IgG positive samples, while in 5.2% high AI was found indicating persisting IgM antibodies. Majority of IgM negative/ IgG positive samples (78.6%) showed high AI consistent with past TBEV infection. However, in 21.3% patients without measurable IgM antibodies current/recent infection was confirmed by AI. IgG avidity represents an additional serologic marker that improves diagnosis of TBEV, especially in cases of atypical antibody response.

Słowa kluczowe

  • IgG avidity
  • serology
  • tick-borne encephalitis virus
Otwarty dostęp

Etiologic Agents and Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candidosis from Romanian patients with HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 123 - 129

Abstrakt

Abstract

This is the first Romanian investigation of oral candidosis in patients suffering of HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Candida albicans was the dominant species in both types of isolates: n = 14 (46.7%) in T1DM, n = 60 (69.8%) in HIV. The most frequent nonalbicans Candida spp. were Candida kefyr (n = 6; 20%) in T1DM and Candida dubliniensis (n = 8; 9.3%) in HIV. Resistance to fluconazole was detected only in the HIV non-albicans Candida group (n = 8; 9.3%). All isolates were susceptible to VOR. The experimental drug MXP had MIC values equal or close to the ones of VOR. Echinocandin resistance was more frequent than azole resistance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antifungal susceptibility
  • MXP-4509
  • oral candidosis
  • Romanian HIV and diabetes patients
32 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Functions of Effector Proteins in Yersinia Virulence

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 5 - 12

Abstrakt

Abstract

Yersinia species are bacterial pathogens that can cause plague and intestinal diseases after invading into human cells through the Three Secretion System (TTSS). The effect of pathogenesis is mediated by Yersinia outer proteins (Yop) and manifested as down-regulation of the cytokine genes expression by inhibiting nuclear factor-κ-gene binding (NF-κB) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways. In addition, its pathogenesis can also manipulate the disorder of host innate immune system and cell death such as apoptosis, pyroptosis, and autophagy. Among the Yersinia effector proteins, YopB and YopD assist the injection of other virulence effectors into the host cytoplasm, while YopE, YopH, YopJ, YopO, and YopT target on disrupting host cell signaling pathways in the host cytosols. Many efforts have been applied to reveal that intracellular proteins such as Rho-GTPase, and transmembrane receptors such as Toll-like receptors (TLRs) both play critical roles in Yersinia pathogenesis, establishing a connection between the pathogenic process and the signaling response. This review will mainly focus on how the effector proteins of Yersinia modulate the intrinsic signals in host cells and disturb the innate immunity of hosts through TTSS.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pathogenesis
  • Yops
  • TTSS
Otwarty dostęp

Recovery of Gram-Positive Cocci and Candida albicans from Peroxygen/Silver-Based Disinfectants

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 13 - 22

Abstrakt

Abstract

Neutralization method evaluation is an important first step in a disinfectant validation study program. It is also crucial in assessment of the efficiency of microbial recovery media in the presence of a residual biocidal agent. In the present study, four commercially available peroxygen/silver-based disinfectant formulae – intended to be used in a pharmaceutical facility sanitization program – were tested at two dilutions against three Gram-positive cocci and one yeast; Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), Kucoria rhizophila (ATCC 9341) and Candida albicans (ATCC 10231) and Staphylococcus capitis as an environmental monitoring (EM) isolate sample (identified by miniaturized biochemical identification system). Disinfectants preparation, dilutions and the test procedure were carried on in laboratory under conditions simulating the working environment of 20–25°C and RH% 40–60. In-house made neutralizing broth was mixed with biocidal agents to make two dilutions of each disinfectant forming Peroxygen: neutralizing broth ratios of 1:10 and 1:100 (v/v). Three populations were established and two comparison ratio groups were examined, namely neutralizer efficacy and neutralizer toxicity. Two acceptance criteria were tested. One criterion showed higher rate of neutralization success than the other. S. aureus showed the highest rate of successful microbial recovery from neutralization process. The Disinfectant (Bixco) was exceptionally neutralized at all dilutions with all microorganisms. In conclusion, in-house made neutralizing broth effectively neutralized all disinfectants with all the tested microorganisms at 1:100 (v/v); thus, it can be used in sanitizer validation studies and EM media.

Słowa kluczowe

  • disinfectant validation
  • neutralization method
  • peroxygen/silver
  • recovery media
  • sanitization program
Otwarty dostęp

Effectiveness of Antipseudomonal Antibiotics and Mechanisms of Multidrug Resistance in Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 23 - 32

Abstrakt

Abstract

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a leading human pathogen that causes serious infections at various tissues and organs leading to life threatening health problems and possible deadly outcomes. Resistance patterns vary widely whether it is from hospitals or community acquired infections. Reporting resistance profiles to a certain antibiotics provide valuable information in a given setting, but may be extrapolated outside the sampling location. In the present study, P. aeruginosa isolates were screened to determine their susceptibilities against anti-pseudomonal antimicrobial agents and possible existing mechanisms of resistance were determined. Eighty-six isolates of P. aeruginosa were recovered. Isolates representing different resistance profiles were screened for the existence of three different resistance mechanisms including drug inactivation due to metallo-β-lactamases, drug impermeability by outer membrane proteins and drug efflux. All tested isolates showed uniform susceptibility (100%, n = 86/86) to piperacillin, meropenem, amikacin, and polymyxin B. A single isolate was found to be imipenem resistant (99%, n = 85/86). The possible mechanisms of resistance of P. aeruginosa to imipenem involve active drug efflux pumps, outer membrane impermeability as well as drug inactivating enzymes. These findings demonstrate the fundamental importance of the in vitro susceptibility testing of antibiotics prior to antipseudomonal therapy and highlight the need for a continuous antimicrobial resistance surveillance programs to monitor the changing resistance patterns so that clinicians and health care officials are updated as to the most effective therapeutic agents to combat the serious outcomes of P. aeruginosa infections.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antibiotics
  • antimicrobial
  • carbapenems
  • efflux pump
  • mechanisms
  • metallo-β-lactamases
  • polymyxins
  • mutidrug
  • resistance
Otwarty dostęp

Streptococcus anginosus (milleri) Group Strains Isolated in Poland (1996–2012) and their Antibiotic Resistance Patterns

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 33 - 41

Abstrakt

Abstract

Streptococcus anginosus, Streptococcus intermedius and Streptococcus constellatus form a group of related streptococcal species, namely the Streptococcus Anginosus Group (SAG). The group, previously called “milleri” had been rarely described until 1980/1990 as source of infections. Nowadays SAG bacteria are often described as pathogens causing predominantly purulent infections. The number of infections is highly underestimated, as SAG strains are often classified in the microbiology laboratory as less virulent “viridans streptococci”. Epidemiological situation regarding SAG infections in Poland has been unrecognized, therefore we performed a retrospective analysis of strains isolated between 1996 and 2012. Strains suspected of belonging to SAG were re-identified using an automated biochemical approach (Vitek2) and MALDI-TOF MS. We performed first analysis of antibiotic resistance among SAG strains isolated in Poland using automated methods (Vitek2), disk diffusion tests and E-Tests. We also performed PCR detection of resistance determinants in antibiotic resistant strains. Clonal structure of analyzed strains was evaluated with PFGE and MLVF methods. All three species are difficult to distinguish using automated diagnostic methods and the same is true for automated MIC evaluation. Our analysis revealed SAG strains are rarely isolated in Poland, predominantly from purulent infections. All isolates are very diverse on the genomic level as estimated by PFGE and MLVF analyses. All analyzed strains are sensitive to penicillin, a substantial group of strains is resistant to macrolides and the majority of strains are resistant to tetracycline.

Słowa kluczowe

  • group
  • antimicrobial resistance
  • MLVA
  • MLVF
  • PFGE
Otwarty dostęp

Characterization and Optimization of Biosynthesis of Bioactive Secondary Metabolites Produced by Streptomyces sp. 8812

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 51 - 61

Abstrakt

Abstract

The nutritional requirements and environmental conditions for a submerged culture of Streptomyces sp. 8812 were determined. Batch and fed-batch Streptomyces sp. 8812 fermentations were conducted to obtain high activity of secondary metabolites. In the study several factors were examined for their influence on the biosynthesis of the active metabolites-7-hydroxy-6-oxo-2,3,4,6-tetrahydroisoquinoline-3-carboxyl acid (C10H9NO4) and N-acetyl-3,4-dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (C11H13NO5): changes in medium composition, pH of production medium, various growth phases of seed culture, amino acid supplementation and addition of anion exchange resin to the submerged culture. Biological activities of secondary metabolites were examined with the use of dd-carboxypeptidase 64–575 and horseradish peroxidase. Streptomyces sp. 8812 mycelium was evaluated under fluorescent microscopy and respiratory activity of the strain was analyzed. Moreover, the enzymatic profiles of the strain with the use of Api®ZYM test were analyzed and genetic analysis made. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces sp. 8812 revealed that its closest relative is Streptomyces capoamus JCM 4734 (98%), whereas sequence analysis for 16S rRNA gene using NCBI BLAST algorithm showed 100% homology between these two strains. Biosynthetic processes, mycelium growth and enzyme inhibitory activities of these two strains were also compared.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sp. 8812
  • biologically active compounds
  • media optimization
  • submerged cultures
Otwarty dostęp

Isolation and Characterization of α-Endosulfan Degrading Bacteria from the Microflora of Cockroaches

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 63 - 68

Abstrakt

Abstract

Extensive applications of organochlorine pesticides like endosulfan have led to the contamination of soil and environments. Five different bacteria were isolated from cockroaches living in pesticide contaminated environments. According to morphological, physiological, biochemical properties, and total cellular fatty acid profile by Fatty Acid Methyl Esters (FAMEs), the isolates were identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa G1, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia G2, Bacillus atrophaeus G3, Citrobacter amolonaticus G4 and Acinetobacter lwoffii G5. This is the first study on the bacterial flora of Blatta orientalis evaluated for the biodegradation of α-endosulfan. After 10 days of incubation, the biodegradation yields obtained from P. aeruginosa G1, S. maltophilia G2, B. atrophaeus G3, C. amolonaticus G4 and A. lwoffii G5 were 88.5%, 85.5%, 64.4%, 56.7% and 80.2%, respectively. As a result, these bacterial strains may be utilized for biodegradation of endosulfan polluted soil and environments.

Słowa kluczowe

  • α-endosulfan
  • biodegradation
  • cockroaches
  • isolation
Otwarty dostęp

Bacterial Diversity and Composition in Oylat Cave (Turkey) with Combined Sanger/Pyrosequencing Approach

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 69 - 75

Abstrakt

Abstract

The microbiology of caves is an important topic for better understanding subsurface biosphere diversity. The diversity and taxonomic composition of bacterial communities associated with cave walls of the Oylat Cave was studied first time by molecular cloning based on Sanger/pyrosequencing approach. Results showed an average of 1,822 operational taxonomic units per sample. Clones analyzed from Oylat Cave were found to belong to 10 common phyla within the domain Bacteria. Proteobacteria dominated the phyla, followed by Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria and Nitrospirae. Shannon diversity index was between to 3.76 and 5.35. The robust analysis conducted for this study demonstrated high bacterial diversity on cave rock wall surfaces.

Słowa kluczowe

  • bacterial diversity
  • Oylat Cave
  • Sanger/pyrosequencing
  • subsurface biosphere
Otwarty dostęp

Biochemical and Molecular Characterization of Carotenogenic Flavobacterial Isolates from Marine Waters

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 77 - 88

Abstrakt

Abstract

Carotenoids are known to possess immense nutraceutical properties and microorganisms are continuously being explored as natural source for production of carotenoids. In this study, pigmented bacteria belonging to Flavobacteriaceae family were isolated using kanamycin-containing marine agar and identified using the molecular techniques and their phenotypic characteristics were studied along with their potential to produce carotenoids. Analysis of random amplification of polymorphic DNA (RAPD) banding patterns and the fragment size of the bands indicated that the 10 isolates fall under two major groups. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis the isolates were identified as Vitellibacter sp. (3 isolates), Formosa sp. (2 isolates) and Arenibacter sp. (5 isolates). Phenotypically, the isolates showed slight variation from the reported species of these three genera of Flavobacteriaceae. Only the isolates belonging to Vitellibacter and Formosa produced flexirubin, a typical yellow orange pigment produced by most of the organisms of the family Flavobacteriaceae. Vitellibacter sp. and Formosa sp. were found to produce higher amount of carotenoids compared to Arenibacter sp. and zeaxanthin was found to be the major carotenoid produced by these two species. The study indicated that Vitellibacter sp. and Formosa sp. can be exploited for production of carotenoids, particularly zeaxanthin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sp.
  • sp.
  • sp.
  • carotenoid
  • zeaxanthin
Otwarty dostęp

Serotype-Specific Pneumococcal Status prior to PCV 13 Administration in Children and Adolescents with Inflammatory Bowel Disease

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 89 - 91

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the serotype-specific pneumococcal status of children and adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) who were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination before administering the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV 13). This was an open, prospective study on children and adolescents aged 5–18 years who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination. A single dose of PCV 13 was administered to each patient. The geometric mean concentrations (GMCs) were measured for all 13 serotypes. A total of 122 subjects completed the study. Prevaccination GMCs ranged from 0.55 μg/ml (serotype 4) to 4.26 μg/ml (serotype 19A). Prior to the administration of PCV 13, high GMCs were detected in older children and adolescents who had IBD and were naïve to pneumococcal vaccination.

Słowa kluczowe

  • autoimmune disease
  • Crohn’s disease
  • PCV
  • ulcerative colitis
  • vaccine
Otwarty dostęp

Prevalence of Urogenital Mycoplasmas Among Men with NGU in Upper Silesia, Poland. Preliminary Study

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 93 - 95

Abstrakt

Abstract

The prevalence of urogenital mycoplasmas in men with NGU in Upper Silesia (Poland) was studied. Mycoplasmas were detected in 36.7% men (Ureaplasma parvum and Mycoplasma genitalium were found in 30% and 16.7% respectively). Urealyticum urealyticum was not detected. We suggest including M. genitalium in the diagnostic scheme for nongonococcal urethritis (NGU).

Słowa kluczowe

  • nongonococcal urethritis
  • urogenital mycoplasmas
Otwarty dostęp

Assessment of the Microbiological Status of Probiotic Products

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 97 - 104

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to perform the microbiological analysis of quality of 25 probiotic products, available on the Polish market. Analysis of bacterial viability in probiotic products showed that not all of these preparations possess a suitable number of bacteria. Moreover, some of the tested probiotic products contained bacterial strains other than those declared by the manufacturer. All tested strains recovered from probiotic products were found to be resistant to metronidazole and susceptible to nitrofurantoin. The susceptibility to other antibiotics was strain specific. Probiotic products should be subject to regular and thorough inspection by appropriate institutions.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antimicrobial resistance
  • dietary supplement
  • FSMP
  • medicinal product
  • probiotics
Otwarty dostęp

Antimicrobial Activity of Penicillin G and N-acetylcystein on Planktonic and Sessile Cells of Streptococcus suis

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 105 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to investigate the capacity of Streptococcus suis strains to form biofilms and to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of Penicillin G and N-acetylcystein (NAC) on both S. suis sessile and planktonic forms. Only non-typeable isolates of S. suis were correlated with a greater biofilm formation capacity. The MCI of Penicillin G and NAC required for inhibiting biofilm growth were higher than the required concentration for inhibiting planktonic growth. The combinations of NAC and Penicillin G showed a strong synergistic activity that inhibited biofilm formation and disrupted the pre-formed biofilm of S. suis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • biofilm
  • N-acetylcystein
  • Penicillin G
Otwarty dostęp

Usefulness of CHROMagar Candida Medium, Biochemical Methods – API ID32C and VITEK 2 Compact and Two MALDI-TOF MS Systems for Candida spp. Identification

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 111 - 114

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study was conducted to compare of the yeasts identification results obtained with two new systems using the MALDI-TOF MS technique with the ones obtained using the routine identification methods of Candida spp. in clinical microbiology laboratories. All 124 Candida spp. isolates were recovered from the routine examination of clinical specimens in microbiological laboratories and collected in the Centre of Quality Control in Microbiology in Warsaw (Poland). Our findings confirm the high agreement (98%) of fungal identification using the standard, biochemistry laboratory methods and mass spectrometry technique.

Słowa kluczowe

  • spp. –
  • identification
  • chromogenic medium and biochemical methods
  • MALDI-TOF MS
Otwarty dostęp

Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5, a Nickel Resistant Bacterium for Possible Bioremediation of Nickel Contaminated Sites

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 115 - 118

Abstrakt

Abstract

Nickel resistant bacterial strain Enterobacter asburiae KUNi5 was isolated and showed resistance up to 15 mM and could remove Ni optimally better at 37°C and pH 7. Maximum removal was found at initial concentration of 0.5 to 2 mM, however, growth and Ni removal were affected by other heavy metals. Major amount of the metal was accumulated in the membrane fractions and certain negatively charged groups were found responsible for Ni binding. KUNi5 could also produce 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase, indole-acetic acid and siderophore. It seems that KUNi5 could be a possible candidate for Ni detoxification and plant growth promotion in Ni-contaminated field.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sp.
  • bioremediation
  • nickel
Otwarty dostęp

IgG Avidity: an Important Serologic Marker for the Diagnosis of Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus Infection

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 119 - 121

Abstrakt

Abstract

A total of 52 serum samples from patients with symptoms suggestive of tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) infection and positive IgM and/or IgG antibodies were tested for IgG avidity. Acute/recent TBEV infection was confirmed by low/borderline avidity index (AI) in 94.8% IgM positive/IgG positive samples, while in 5.2% high AI was found indicating persisting IgM antibodies. Majority of IgM negative/ IgG positive samples (78.6%) showed high AI consistent with past TBEV infection. However, in 21.3% patients without measurable IgM antibodies current/recent infection was confirmed by AI. IgG avidity represents an additional serologic marker that improves diagnosis of TBEV, especially in cases of atypical antibody response.

Słowa kluczowe

  • IgG avidity
  • serology
  • tick-borne encephalitis virus
Otwarty dostęp

Etiologic Agents and Antifungal Susceptibility of Oral Candidosis from Romanian patients with HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus

Data publikacji: 15 Mar 2016
Zakres stron: 123 - 129

Abstrakt

Abstract

This is the first Romanian investigation of oral candidosis in patients suffering of HIV-infection or type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Candida albicans was the dominant species in both types of isolates: n = 14 (46.7%) in T1DM, n = 60 (69.8%) in HIV. The most frequent nonalbicans Candida spp. were Candida kefyr (n = 6; 20%) in T1DM and Candida dubliniensis (n = 8; 9.3%) in HIV. Resistance to fluconazole was detected only in the HIV non-albicans Candida group (n = 8; 9.3%). All isolates were susceptible to VOR. The experimental drug MXP had MIC values equal or close to the ones of VOR. Echinocandin resistance was more frequent than azole resistance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • antifungal susceptibility
  • MXP-4509
  • oral candidosis
  • Romanian HIV and diabetes patients

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