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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2450-8608
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 58 (2014): Zeszyt 2 (June 2014)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2450-8608
Pierwsze wydanie
30 Mar 2016
Częstotliwość wydawania
4 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

25 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Spread of Schmallenberg virus infections in the ruminants in Poland between 2012 and 2013

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 169 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) specific antibodies in ruminants from 13 Polish provinces, sampled between January 2010 and August 2013. A total number of 1813 serum samples from cattle, sheep, goats, mouflon, wild and farmed cervids, and European bison were tested by ELISA for viral nucleoprotein antibodies. First SBV seropositive animals were identified in August 2012 (1.6%), and the percentage increased gradually, reaching 57.1% in December of this year. The proportion of seropositive animals in 2013 at the level of 34.2% increased tenfold in comparison to 2012 (3.4%), which was particularly significant at the level of individual provinces. In 2013, the highest percentages of SBV seropositive animals were found in Dolnoslaskie (92.3%), Podlaskie (82.3%), and Zachodniopomorskie (80.9%) provinces. Significant associations between the seroprevalence and province of origin, month, ruminant species, and insect vector activity were found, while no dependence of animal age on seropositivity was observed. The differences between SBV seropositive large and small ruminants suggested the involvement of some vector exposure factors, which needs to be further investigated.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ruminants
  • Schmallenberg virus
  • serology
  • ELISA
  • Poland.
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of the usefulness of laboratory diagnostic methods in RHD outbreak

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 177 - 186

Abstrakt

Abstract

The field outbreak of RHD that occurred late summer 2012 on a small-scale rabbit-rearing operation in Poland and the usefulness of techniques for RHD virus diagnosis are described. During the epizootic, the overall mortality rate of rabbits older than two months was 77%. Eight liver specimens collected from dead unvaccinated rabbits (aged 3-5 months) underwent virological examinations. RHDV specific antigen was detected in two out of eight liver homogenates by haemagglutination (HA) test and ELISA, one of the two being negative in HA assay. However the presence of genetic material of RHD virus was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR in all liver samples tested. Based on antigen reactivity in ELISA and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the VP60 gene, the RHDVa subtype strain was identified as the cause of infection. The partial genome sequence of a field isolate (STR 2012), comprising the C-terminus of the polymerase gene and the full capsid protein gene, revealed 91% nucleotide homology to reference FRG89 RHDV isolate and 97% to strain Triptis representing the RHDVa variant. Serological evidence of an RHD outbreak in the STR rabbit-rearing operation was confirmed in a serum sample collected from an unvaccinated surviving rabbit. A cross-reactivity examination of RHDV positive serum revealed a decrease in HI titre against the STR 2012 field antigen, and a decrease in the RHDVa control antigen as compared to classic RHDV.

Słowa kluczowe

  • RHD
  • diagnostic methods
  • RHDVa
  • nucleotide sequence
  • HI reactivity.
Otwarty dostęp

NS1 gene based molecular characteristics of Aleutian mink disease virus circulating in Poland

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 187 - 191

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic variability of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) circulating among mink farmed in Poland and to compare Polish isolates with AMDV variants available in the GenBank database. For this purpose PCR amplification and analysis of the 429 bp DNA fragment of the AMDV NS1 gene from 13 randomly selected AMDV infected mink was performed. A comparison showed that all tested amplicons were closely related to the sequence of the NS1 gene of AMDV and showed high (94%-97%) homology to virus variants from American mink (Neovison vison) isolated in Canada in 2007-2008. Eleven samples showing a high percentage (95%-97%) of sequence similarity together with three similar isolates originating from Canada formed one clade (monophyletic group). Two variants showing a lower percentage (about 94%- 95%) of sequence similarity to isolates from Canada formed a separate clade. Polish viruses can be subdivided into two main groups with a putative ancestor common to both Polish and three Canadian isolates. This result confirms the literature data indicating the occurrence of American mink in Eastern Europe (including Poland) from the 1950s when the animals were imported for breeding purposes. In conclusion, we provide for the first time a report on the genetic characteristics of the AMDV variants circulating in the Polish population of farmed mink and their relationship with previously known AMDV variants isolated and described abroad.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mink
  • Aleutian mink disease virus
  • genetic variability
  • molecular characteristics
  • Poland.
Otwarty dostęp

Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter lwoffii - the emerging fish pathogens

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 193 - 199

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterise Acinetobacter sp. isolated from fish. Eight isolates obtained from diseased rainbow trout and common carp cultured in Poland were analysed. The isolates were identified using API 20 NE system as Acinetobacter sp. Afterwards, they were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA gene fragment. The bacteria were identified as A. johnsonii (two isolates), A. lwoffii (two isolates), A. junii/johnsonii (one isolate), A. calcoaceticus (one isolate), and Acinetobacter sp. (two isolates). The drug resistance of isolates was examined. The majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicilin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin and all demonstrated sensitivity to fluoroquinolones, except of one isolate. Two isolates were selected for the experimental infection of trout and carp to confirm their pathogenicity. Experimentally infected fish showed disease symptoms similar to those observed in fish naturally infected with these bacteria. This is the first report concerning pathogenicity of A. johnsonii for rainbow trout and A. lwoffii for common carp. These bacteria were regarded as emerging opportunistic pathogens of fish farmed in Poland. Acinetobacter strains are commonly known as microorganisms transmitting the antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore, they might have a great impact on the resistance transfer in aquaculture.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rainbow trout
  • common carp
  • Acinetobacter
  • emerging pathogens.
Otwarty dostęp

Histopathological and cytopathological findings in minipigs infected with Streptococcus suis serotype 2

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 201 - 209

Abstrakt

Abstract

Five pathogen-free miniature pigs (minipigs) were infected with the virulent strain SH08 of Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) by intramuscular injection. The pigs died consecutively within 72 h after the challenge. An additional five non-infected pigs were euthanised and used as controls. Microstructural observations showed that degeneration, bleeding, congestion, cellular necrosis, and an increase in inflammatory cells were present in all organs and tissues except the brain. Ultrastructural observations revealed mitochondrial vacuolation and malformed or missing cristae, indicating that infection of minipigs with strain SH08 of SS2 can lead to extensive lesions in major internal organs and tissues. The findings also demonstrated that the minipig is a useful model for the study of SS2 infection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • miniature pig
  • Streptococcus suis 2
  • experimental infection
  • histopathology
  • cytopathology.
Otwarty dostęp

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pigs

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 211 - 218

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to examine the characteristics of the resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs from three farms in Western Poland. The sensitivity to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by a disk diffusion method, and the presence of 13 resistance genes was determined by PCR. The majority of the isolates were multi-resistant. The most common multi-resistance patterns were streptomycin, trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline. Although some resistance genes, such as strA/strB, blaTEM, sul1, sul2, and tetA, were equally represented in isolates from each farm, differences in the distribution of tetB and tetC, hfrV, dhfrXII, and sul1 resistance genes were observed among the isolates from different farms. Approximately one-third (35.9%) of the isolates possessed a class 1 integron. The four major different variable regions of the class 1 integron contained streptomycin (aadA1, aadA2, and aadA5) and/or trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV and dhfrXVII), and/or sulphonamides (sul1) resistance genes. The results of this study emphasise that uncontrolled use of antibiotics causes the development of resistance and provides the evidence of frequent occurrence of more than one gene encoding the resistance to the same antimicrobial agent in the multi-resistant strains.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • commensal E. coli
  • antibiotic resistance
  • resistance genes.
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative identification of Candida species isolated from animals using phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 219 - 222

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify 58 Candida sp. strains isolated from animals using the Chromatic Candida test, the API 20 C AUX system, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Chromatic Candida test was able to identify only C. albicans and C. krusei. The API 20 C AUX system and PCR-RFLP had similar specificity for the identification of Candida strains. In case of both methods, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species - 22 (37.93%) strains, followed by Candida krusei - 17 (29.31%) strains, Candida famata - 10 (17.24%) strains, Candida parapsilosis - five (8.62%) strains, and Candida kefyr - four (6.89%) strains. PCR-RFLP represents a reliable, quick and relatively inexpensive genotyping method, recommended for rapid identification of Candida spp.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Candida
  • identification
  • PCR-RFLP
  • Chromatic Candida
  • test API 20 C AUX system
  • Romania.
Otwarty dostęp

Endoparasites of the European beaver (Castor fiber L. 1758) in north-eastern Poland

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 223 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

Parasitological examination after necropsies of 48 European beavers from Podlaskie and Warmisko-Mazurskie provinces were performed between April 2011 and November 2012. All helminthes were isolated from the contents of the gastro-intestinal tract and their species were determined. In addition, blood samples and faeces were examined. All beavers were infected with six species of parasites. Stichorchis subtriqetrus trematodes were found in 93.7% of animals. They were localized mainly in the caecum, less in the colon, and single juvenile parasites were found in the small intestine. The intensity of infection ranged from two to 893 parasites. Travassosius rufus nematodes (10-4336 specimens) were present in the stomach of 68.7% of the beavers. In the small intestine of four (8.3%) beavers, two-six specimens of Psilotrema castoris were found. This is the first record of this species in Poland and the third of its discovery in the world. Furthermore, in the small intestine of one beaver, two Trichostrongylus capricola nematodes were detected. In the liver of one beaver, pathological changes caused by hydatid cestode Echinococus granulosus occurred. Inflammatory changes of the gastric mucosa caused by Travassosius rufus and of caecum caused by Stichorchis subtriquertus, were observed. Coproscopy was performed with the use of Baermann, flotation, and decantation methods. All results of Baermann method were negative. Examinations with flotation and decantation methods confirmed necropsy findings. Using the flotation method, single oocysts of Eimeria sprehni in one beaver were detected. A blood test conducted by Kingston and Morton method did not reveal the presence of protozoa or microfilariae.

Słowa kluczowe

  • European beaver
  • endoparasites
  • Poland.
Otwarty dostęp

Clinical and laboratory findings associated with naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 229 - 233

Abstrakt

Abstract

Clinical, haematological, and biochemical changes induced by naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels were described. Of 258 dromedary camels studied, 34 camels suffered from fever, appetite loss, weakness, depression, and reluctant movement; abortion and/or infertility were also observed. Parasitological blood examinations were performed using Giemsastained blood smears. The clinically affected animals were diagnosed with babesiosis, with 13.17% overall morbidity. Camels that suffered from babesiosis were subjected to haematological and biochemical analyses and the affected group was compared with a control group containing 34 healthy camels. The affected animals showed a highly significant (P<0.001) reduction of the total red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (HGB) concentration, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) as well as a highly significant reduction (P<0.01) of haematocrit (HCT) and a significant reduction of (P<0.05) mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Additional, highly significant increases (P<0.01) in white blood cell (WBC) count and plateletcrit (PCT) percentage were detected. However, other haematological parameters were not significantly altered. There was a very significant reduction (P<0.001) of the blood iron level and a very significant increase (P<0.001) in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the affected camels. Additionally, significant increases in total protein, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin were observed in the affected camels. It was concluded that babesiosis highly affects the haematobiochemical parameters of dromedary camels, including the liver, kidney, and muscle functions. These results represent novel findings concerning natural babesiosis in camels.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dromedary camel
  • babesiosis
  • haematology
  • biochemistry.
Otwarty dostęp

Cytological evaluation of inflammation of the uterus and influence of endometritis on selected reproductive parameters in dairy cows

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 235 - 242

Abstrakt

Abstract

There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control). The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum), the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001), both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001). The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cows
  • metritis
  • endometritis
  • endometrial cytology
  • reproductive parameters.
Otwarty dostęp

Hygiene assessment of sheep slaughter cycle

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 243 - 246

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I) and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III). No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log) and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log) cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M) set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6%) samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5%) samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively) were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively). There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sheep
  • carcasses
  • bacterial contamination.
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of illegal dyes in eggs by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 247 - 253

Abstrakt

Abstract

A multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of 10 dyes unauthorised for the use in laying hens was developed (Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Para-Red, Toluidine Red, Citrus Red). The dyes were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate, and cleaned using zirconium coated silica cartridges. After dilution with acetonitrile saturated with hexane:DMSO (8:2), samples were analysed using LC-MS/MS system with acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% formic acid (B) as a mobile phase in a gradient mode and C18 analytical column. The method was validated according to the requirements described in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC: linearity (r ≥ 0.998), precision: repeatability (1.94%-10.02%), and within-laboratory reproducibility (4.66%-8.89%), recovery (97%-105%), decision limit CCα (5.33-6.50 μg/kg), and detection capability CCβ (6.18-7.50 μg/kg) were calculated. The developed method fulfilled all performance criteria and can be used in the official survey of dyes residues in food of animal origin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • eggs
  • Sudan dyes
  • illegal dyes
  • food adulteration
  • LC-MS/MS.
Otwarty dostęp

Vascular endothelial growth factor in prognosis of splenic malignant tumours in dogs

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 255 - 260

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours, prior to splenectomy, as well as three and six months after the surgery. Tumours and blood samples were collected from 10 dogs of various breeds, aged between 7 and 13 years, and from 10 control animals. Tumour sections were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 h. The type of tumour was determined according to the WHO classification. Blood samples were centrifuged and the obtained sera were subjected to immunoenzymatic assays to determine the VEGF levels. The median of VEGF levels in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours was 37.85 pg/mL (15.40-107.18 pg/mL). The highest values were observed in dogs with confirmed metastases (107.18 pg/mL and 65.43 pg/mL). The VEGF values in control group were between 0.1 pg/mL and 13.04 pg/mL. A comparative analysis of the VEGF levels against the animals' survival time indicated that VEGF overexpression may serve as a prognostic factor in cases of malignant tumours of the spleen.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dog
  • vascular endothelial growth factor
  • splenic malignant tumour.
Otwarty dostęp

Usefulness of measuring the concentration of thyroglobulin antibodies in serum of dogs for the assessment of thyroid functioning

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 261 - 266

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of measuring the thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) concentration in dogs’ serum in order to assess thyroid functioning. The study was performed on 383 dogs. The animals were divided into two groups: group A (n = 308) consisted of dogs with hypothyroidism and group B (n = 75) consisted of dogs with euthyreosis. TgAbs was determined in both groups. The reaction to the TgAbs in group A was strongly positive in 32% of dogs, weakly positive in 33% of dogs, and negative in 35% of dogs. The TgAbs were observed in 32% of the dogs from group B, in which 8% of the animals had strongly positive reaction (++) and 24% - slightly positive (+). The correlation between the concentration of total and free fraction of the thyroxin and the level of the TgAbs were observed in group A. The tendency to positive reaction to the antibodies (++) in dogs with lower concentrations of total thyroxine and free thyroxine was observed. It was noted that the presence of the TgAbs was common in dogs with hypothyroidism. However, it could be also found in the animals with euthyreosis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dogs
  • hypothyroidism
  • thyroglobulin antibodies.
Otwarty dostęp

Prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in mature cats in urban population in Warsaw

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 267 - 271

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in a cat population in Warsaw, considering risk factors. The study was conducted between June 2007 and July 2011. Seven-year-old and older cats were examined. Diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism was based on the results of clinical examination, data from clinical history, and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in 20.14% of 417 cats (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.28%-24.01%). Statistically significant risk factors were age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.27), feeding with a commercial wet feed (OR = 6.74, 95% CI: 2.03-22.37), and an indoor lifestyle (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.04-4.84). There were no effects of breed, gender, castration, or the frequency of deworming on the occurrence of hyperthyroidism. Feline hyperthyroidism in Warsaw is a prevalent disease. This probably results from chronic exposure to dietary and environmental factors.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cat
  • feline hyperthyroidism
  • prevalence
  • risk factors.
Otwarty dostęp

Hepatic stellate cells in the liver of dogs with steroid-induced hepatopathy

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 273 - 276

Abstrakt

Abstract

Morphological lesions in hepatic stellate cells caused by the immunosuppressive doses of dexamethasone were investigated in dogs. The archival samples of liver collected during a surgical biopsy were examined. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin or Carnoy’s solution and then stained with routine histochemical methods. The lesions were also investigated under electron microscope. It was demonstrated that the number of stellate cells significantly increased (P = 0.0277), yet the size of cytoplasmic lipid droplets significantly decreased (P = 0.0001). Even though steroid-induced hepatopathy is considered to be a reversible pathology, and the lesions in hepatocytes under the influence of dexamethasone occur in a short period, it was found that hepatic stellate cells proliferated and underwent activation. This resulted in collagen accumulation in the hepatic sinuses. The functional and morphological disturbances in the canine liver in the course of steroid-induced hepatopathy are initially subclinical, but the changes in the structure and function of hepatic stellate cells may become a cause of lesions in the wall of hepatic sinusoidal vessels, which may induce additional functional pathologies unrelated to the damage to hepatocytes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dog
  • hepatic stellate cells
  • hepatopathy
  • dexamethasone.
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of duration of clinical signs on surgical treatment results of 16 dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD)

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 277 - 281

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment in 16 dogs, depending on the animal’s age, body weight, deep pain perception, and time from the onset of neurological symptoms to the consultation with a veterinary neurologist and successive surgery. Sixteen dogs diagnosed with cervical (n = 11) or thoracolumbar (n = 5) disc extrusions underwent spinal surgeries (eleven ventral slots and five hemilaminectomies). The success rate of surgical treatment was 64.3% in dogs with preserved nociception. No association between the animal’s age or body weight and the result of surgical treatment was found. A successful surgical outcome was more likely when the symptom-to-surgery time was shorter.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dogs
  • intervertebral disc disease
  • ventral slot
  • hemilaminectomy.
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of thermal stress on physiological and blood parameters in merino sheep

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 283 - 288

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fifteen sheep where placed in climatic chamber and exposed to a high temperature (30°C). Then, the air movement was induced in order to examine its soothing effect on heat stress. The physiological reactions like respiratory and heart rates, as well as the morphologic, biochemical parameters and cortisol levels in blood were examined. It was found that under heat stress conditions, the respiratory rate increased up to 96.43 breaths/min, heart rate up to 107.79 beats/min, and white blood cells count decreased to 9.12 k/μL. The increased level of potassium, chlorine, and calcium was also observed. The increased air movement resulted in thermal stress soothing. A decrease in respiratory rate, heart rate, and cortisol concentration was observed. The study demonstrated that heat stress leads to serious changes in physiological and blood parameters in sheep but this effect can be minimised by air movement.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sheep
  • heat stress
  • air movement
  • physiological parameters
  • cortisol.
Otwarty dostęp

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 289 - 294

Abstrakt

Abstract

The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR) enterochromaffin cells (EC) were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM) or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF) were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • small intestine
  • serotonin
  • enterochromaffin cells
  • red kidney bean lectin.
Otwarty dostęp

The presence of pamidronate in bone cement affects serum biochemical markers in the rat

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 295 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main aim of the study was to assess whether the presence of biphosphate pamidronate (PA) in the cement implanted into the tibial bones had any effect on the chosen biochemical markers in rat’s serum characterising homeostasis. Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into two control groups and two experimental groups. Tibial bone of rats in the experimental groups was implanted with PA-enriched cement, whereas the bone in control-group’s rats was implanted with cement without PA. Serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK) were determined three and six weeks after the surgery. Statistically significant differences in the activities of AST and CK of the rats after implantation with non-enriched cement when compared to rats given PA-enriched cement implantation, were found. Six weeks after treatment, AST levels decreased significantly in rats with PA-enriched cement, whereas rats in the control group (implanted with non-enriched cement) demonstrated a significant increase in AST activity in comparison to the same values determined after three weeks and values of PA-enriched cement rats determined after six weeks. The activities of CK were higher in rats with PA-enriched implants than in the control group three weeks after surgery, but six weeks after the treatment, rats implanted with enriched cement reached lower values than animals implanted with non-enriched cement. The use of PA in the cement had also some positive effect on the homeostasis of the rats after the surgery and a positive influence on the post operative muscle regeneration process.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rats
  • pamidronate
  • bone cement
  • alanine aminotransferase
  • aspartate aminotransferase
  • creatinine kinase.
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of histamine in fresh and smoked fish commercially available in Poland

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 301 - 304

Abstrakt

Abstract

The high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was used for the study. The histamine was detected in 14.6% and 17.8% of the samples of fresh and smoked fish respectively. The highest concentrations of the compound were found in smoked herring and smoked sprat (17.7 mg/kg and 24.1 mg/kg respectively). Histamine concentration in fresh and smoked fish did not exceed the allowable limit, indicating that they are safe for consumers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fresh fish
  • smoked fish
  • histamine
  • HPLC-DAD.
Otwarty dostęp

Development of pulmonary oxygen toxicity in rats after hyperoxic exposure

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 305 - 310

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on lung aeration on an animal experimental model and compare the obtained results with the anticipated scope of damage to pulmonary parenchyma in humans under the same exposure conditions. The research was carried out on Black Hood rats that were kept in a hyperbaric chamber designed for animals in an atmosphere of pure oxygen and at overpressures of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 MPa for 1, 2 or 4 h. After sacrificing the animals, histopathological specimens were obtained encompassing cross-sections of entire lungs, which were subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination with the use of the 121-point Haug grid. A statistically significant decrease in pulmonary parenchyma was observed as a result of an increasing oxygen partial pressure as well as with prolonged exposure time. The intensification of changes observed was much higher than expected on the basis of calculations performed with the use of tables.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rats
  • pulmonary oxygen toxicity
  • morphology.
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of caffeine used at various temperature ranges on the concentrations of glucose and total serum protein as well as body weight gain in pregnant rats

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 311 - 314

Abstrakt

Abstract

Caffeine (120 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rats
  • pregnancy
  • caffeine
  • metabolism.
Otwarty dostęp

Biophysical parameters of rats’ skin after the administration of methimazole

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 315 - 319

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper describes the influence of oral administration of methimazole on biophysical skin parameters. Wistar rats of different sex (220-260 g) were used in the experiment. Biophysical skin parameters, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), corneometry, and pH were examined at seven-day intervals. Significant changes in the parameters were observed on the 7th d of methimazole administration. The changes were observed in both sex but males appeared to be less sensitive in that respect. Changes in the parameters in the females showed rapid mechanisms, which normalised transepidermal water loss and skin hydration, as well as restored skin barrier functions. TEWL, skin hydration, and skin pH measurements allow an early assessment of skin barrier dysfunction after administration of this drug.

Słowa kluczowe

  • skin
  • methimazole
  • transepidermal water loss
  • corneometry
  • pH.
Otwarty dostęp

Polioencephalomalacia in ruminants caused by excessive amount of sulphur - a review

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 321 - 326

Abstrakt

Abstract

Polioencephalomalacia as a result of sulphur excess is a growing problem in cattle and sheep, mainly in young, growing animals. It is common in different regions of the world. The disease develops favoured by certain conditions such as sustained provision of feed and water with high sulphur content, use of dietary supplements containing sulphur, and a habitat with high hydrogen sulphide concentration. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex, but very important are oxidative-antioxidative imbalance, dysfunction of vessels, and secondary cerebral cortex ischaemia as a result of direct and/or indirect action of sulphur metabolites, namely hydrogen sulphide, sulphides, and sulphites. Clinical signs and changes in the cerebral cortex in the form of degenerative necrotic lesions are similar to those observed in polioencephalomalacia caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, and lead and salt intoxication. Highly increased sulphur content (more than 0.3-0.4 of dry matter) in the diet is the basis for differential diagnosis, as well the high concentration of hydrogen sulphide in gas and sulphides in rumen fluid. In prophylaxis and treatment the most important measure is to limit sulphur intake and in acute cases to neutralise low pH in rumen and administer vitamin B1 injections.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cattle
  • sheep
  • polioencephalomalacia
  • sulphur.
25 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Spread of Schmallenberg virus infections in the ruminants in Poland between 2012 and 2013

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 169 - 176

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to evaluate the prevalence of Schmallenberg virus (SBV) specific antibodies in ruminants from 13 Polish provinces, sampled between January 2010 and August 2013. A total number of 1813 serum samples from cattle, sheep, goats, mouflon, wild and farmed cervids, and European bison were tested by ELISA for viral nucleoprotein antibodies. First SBV seropositive animals were identified in August 2012 (1.6%), and the percentage increased gradually, reaching 57.1% in December of this year. The proportion of seropositive animals in 2013 at the level of 34.2% increased tenfold in comparison to 2012 (3.4%), which was particularly significant at the level of individual provinces. In 2013, the highest percentages of SBV seropositive animals were found in Dolnoslaskie (92.3%), Podlaskie (82.3%), and Zachodniopomorskie (80.9%) provinces. Significant associations between the seroprevalence and province of origin, month, ruminant species, and insect vector activity were found, while no dependence of animal age on seropositivity was observed. The differences between SBV seropositive large and small ruminants suggested the involvement of some vector exposure factors, which needs to be further investigated.

Słowa kluczowe

  • ruminants
  • Schmallenberg virus
  • serology
  • ELISA
  • Poland.
Otwarty dostęp

Evaluation of the usefulness of laboratory diagnostic methods in RHD outbreak

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 177 - 186

Abstrakt

Abstract

The field outbreak of RHD that occurred late summer 2012 on a small-scale rabbit-rearing operation in Poland and the usefulness of techniques for RHD virus diagnosis are described. During the epizootic, the overall mortality rate of rabbits older than two months was 77%. Eight liver specimens collected from dead unvaccinated rabbits (aged 3-5 months) underwent virological examinations. RHDV specific antigen was detected in two out of eight liver homogenates by haemagglutination (HA) test and ELISA, one of the two being negative in HA assay. However the presence of genetic material of RHD virus was confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time RT-PCR in all liver samples tested. Based on antigen reactivity in ELISA and sequencing of PCR amplicons of the VP60 gene, the RHDVa subtype strain was identified as the cause of infection. The partial genome sequence of a field isolate (STR 2012), comprising the C-terminus of the polymerase gene and the full capsid protein gene, revealed 91% nucleotide homology to reference FRG89 RHDV isolate and 97% to strain Triptis representing the RHDVa variant. Serological evidence of an RHD outbreak in the STR rabbit-rearing operation was confirmed in a serum sample collected from an unvaccinated surviving rabbit. A cross-reactivity examination of RHDV positive serum revealed a decrease in HI titre against the STR 2012 field antigen, and a decrease in the RHDVa control antigen as compared to classic RHDV.

Słowa kluczowe

  • RHD
  • diagnostic methods
  • RHDVa
  • nucleotide sequence
  • HI reactivity.
Otwarty dostęp

NS1 gene based molecular characteristics of Aleutian mink disease virus circulating in Poland

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 187 - 191

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterise the genetic variability of the Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) circulating among mink farmed in Poland and to compare Polish isolates with AMDV variants available in the GenBank database. For this purpose PCR amplification and analysis of the 429 bp DNA fragment of the AMDV NS1 gene from 13 randomly selected AMDV infected mink was performed. A comparison showed that all tested amplicons were closely related to the sequence of the NS1 gene of AMDV and showed high (94%-97%) homology to virus variants from American mink (Neovison vison) isolated in Canada in 2007-2008. Eleven samples showing a high percentage (95%-97%) of sequence similarity together with three similar isolates originating from Canada formed one clade (monophyletic group). Two variants showing a lower percentage (about 94%- 95%) of sequence similarity to isolates from Canada formed a separate clade. Polish viruses can be subdivided into two main groups with a putative ancestor common to both Polish and three Canadian isolates. This result confirms the literature data indicating the occurrence of American mink in Eastern Europe (including Poland) from the 1950s when the animals were imported for breeding purposes. In conclusion, we provide for the first time a report on the genetic characteristics of the AMDV variants circulating in the Polish population of farmed mink and their relationship with previously known AMDV variants isolated and described abroad.

Słowa kluczowe

  • mink
  • Aleutian mink disease virus
  • genetic variability
  • molecular characteristics
  • Poland.
Otwarty dostęp

Acinetobacter johnsonii and Acinetobacter lwoffii - the emerging fish pathogens

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 193 - 199

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to characterise Acinetobacter sp. isolated from fish. Eight isolates obtained from diseased rainbow trout and common carp cultured in Poland were analysed. The isolates were identified using API 20 NE system as Acinetobacter sp. Afterwards, they were identified by sequencing 16S rDNA gene fragment. The bacteria were identified as A. johnsonii (two isolates), A. lwoffii (two isolates), A. junii/johnsonii (one isolate), A. calcoaceticus (one isolate), and Acinetobacter sp. (two isolates). The drug resistance of isolates was examined. The majority of the isolates were resistant to ampicilin, amoxicillin, and cephalothin and all demonstrated sensitivity to fluoroquinolones, except of one isolate. Two isolates were selected for the experimental infection of trout and carp to confirm their pathogenicity. Experimentally infected fish showed disease symptoms similar to those observed in fish naturally infected with these bacteria. This is the first report concerning pathogenicity of A. johnsonii for rainbow trout and A. lwoffii for common carp. These bacteria were regarded as emerging opportunistic pathogens of fish farmed in Poland. Acinetobacter strains are commonly known as microorganisms transmitting the antibiotic resistance genes. Therefore, they might have a great impact on the resistance transfer in aquaculture.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rainbow trout
  • common carp
  • Acinetobacter
  • emerging pathogens.
Otwarty dostęp

Histopathological and cytopathological findings in minipigs infected with Streptococcus suis serotype 2

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 201 - 209

Abstrakt

Abstract

Five pathogen-free miniature pigs (minipigs) were infected with the virulent strain SH08 of Streptococcus suis 2 (SS2) by intramuscular injection. The pigs died consecutively within 72 h after the challenge. An additional five non-infected pigs were euthanised and used as controls. Microstructural observations showed that degeneration, bleeding, congestion, cellular necrosis, and an increase in inflammatory cells were present in all organs and tissues except the brain. Ultrastructural observations revealed mitochondrial vacuolation and malformed or missing cristae, indicating that infection of minipigs with strain SH08 of SS2 can lead to extensive lesions in major internal organs and tissues. The findings also demonstrated that the minipig is a useful model for the study of SS2 infection.

Słowa kluczowe

  • miniature pig
  • Streptococcus suis 2
  • experimental infection
  • histopathology
  • cytopathology.
Otwarty dostęp

Phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of antibiotic resistance of commensal Escherichia coli isolates from healthy pigs

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 211 - 218

Abstrakt

Abstract

The objective of the study was to examine the characteristics of the resistance profiles of Escherichia coli isolated from healthy pigs from three farms in Western Poland. The sensitivity to 13 antimicrobial agents was tested by a disk diffusion method, and the presence of 13 resistance genes was determined by PCR. The majority of the isolates were multi-resistant. The most common multi-resistance patterns were streptomycin, trimethoprim, sulfisoxazole, ampicillin, tetracycline. Although some resistance genes, such as strA/strB, blaTEM, sul1, sul2, and tetA, were equally represented in isolates from each farm, differences in the distribution of tetB and tetC, hfrV, dhfrXII, and sul1 resistance genes were observed among the isolates from different farms. Approximately one-third (35.9%) of the isolates possessed a class 1 integron. The four major different variable regions of the class 1 integron contained streptomycin (aadA1, aadA2, and aadA5) and/or trimethoprim (dhfrI, dhfrV and dhfrXVII), and/or sulphonamides (sul1) resistance genes. The results of this study emphasise that uncontrolled use of antibiotics causes the development of resistance and provides the evidence of frequent occurrence of more than one gene encoding the resistance to the same antimicrobial agent in the multi-resistant strains.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pigs
  • commensal E. coli
  • antibiotic resistance
  • resistance genes.
Otwarty dostęp

Comparative identification of Candida species isolated from animals using phenotypic and PCR-RFLP methods

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 219 - 222

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of this study was to identify 58 Candida sp. strains isolated from animals using the Chromatic Candida test, the API 20 C AUX system, and polymerase chain reaction - restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The Chromatic Candida test was able to identify only C. albicans and C. krusei. The API 20 C AUX system and PCR-RFLP had similar specificity for the identification of Candida strains. In case of both methods, Candida albicans was the most frequently isolated species - 22 (37.93%) strains, followed by Candida krusei - 17 (29.31%) strains, Candida famata - 10 (17.24%) strains, Candida parapsilosis - five (8.62%) strains, and Candida kefyr - four (6.89%) strains. PCR-RFLP represents a reliable, quick and relatively inexpensive genotyping method, recommended for rapid identification of Candida spp.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Candida
  • identification
  • PCR-RFLP
  • Chromatic Candida
  • test API 20 C AUX system
  • Romania.
Otwarty dostęp

Endoparasites of the European beaver (Castor fiber L. 1758) in north-eastern Poland

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 223 - 227

Abstrakt

Abstract

Parasitological examination after necropsies of 48 European beavers from Podlaskie and Warmisko-Mazurskie provinces were performed between April 2011 and November 2012. All helminthes were isolated from the contents of the gastro-intestinal tract and their species were determined. In addition, blood samples and faeces were examined. All beavers were infected with six species of parasites. Stichorchis subtriqetrus trematodes were found in 93.7% of animals. They were localized mainly in the caecum, less in the colon, and single juvenile parasites were found in the small intestine. The intensity of infection ranged from two to 893 parasites. Travassosius rufus nematodes (10-4336 specimens) were present in the stomach of 68.7% of the beavers. In the small intestine of four (8.3%) beavers, two-six specimens of Psilotrema castoris were found. This is the first record of this species in Poland and the third of its discovery in the world. Furthermore, in the small intestine of one beaver, two Trichostrongylus capricola nematodes were detected. In the liver of one beaver, pathological changes caused by hydatid cestode Echinococus granulosus occurred. Inflammatory changes of the gastric mucosa caused by Travassosius rufus and of caecum caused by Stichorchis subtriquertus, were observed. Coproscopy was performed with the use of Baermann, flotation, and decantation methods. All results of Baermann method were negative. Examinations with flotation and decantation methods confirmed necropsy findings. Using the flotation method, single oocysts of Eimeria sprehni in one beaver were detected. A blood test conducted by Kingston and Morton method did not reveal the presence of protozoa or microfilariae.

Słowa kluczowe

  • European beaver
  • endoparasites
  • Poland.
Otwarty dostęp

Clinical and laboratory findings associated with naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 229 - 233

Abstrakt

Abstract

Clinical, haematological, and biochemical changes induced by naturally occurring babesiosis in dromedary camels were described. Of 258 dromedary camels studied, 34 camels suffered from fever, appetite loss, weakness, depression, and reluctant movement; abortion and/or infertility were also observed. Parasitological blood examinations were performed using Giemsastained blood smears. The clinically affected animals were diagnosed with babesiosis, with 13.17% overall morbidity. Camels that suffered from babesiosis were subjected to haematological and biochemical analyses and the affected group was compared with a control group containing 34 healthy camels. The affected animals showed a highly significant (P<0.001) reduction of the total red blood cell (RBC) count, haemoglobin (HGB) concentration, and mean corpuscular volume (MCV) as well as a highly significant reduction (P<0.01) of haematocrit (HCT) and a significant reduction of (P<0.05) mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH). Additional, highly significant increases (P<0.01) in white blood cell (WBC) count and plateletcrit (PCT) percentage were detected. However, other haematological parameters were not significantly altered. There was a very significant reduction (P<0.001) of the blood iron level and a very significant increase (P<0.001) in blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the affected camels. Additionally, significant increases in total protein, albumin, γ-glutamyltransferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and total bilirubin were observed in the affected camels. It was concluded that babesiosis highly affects the haematobiochemical parameters of dromedary camels, including the liver, kidney, and muscle functions. These results represent novel findings concerning natural babesiosis in camels.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dromedary camel
  • babesiosis
  • haematology
  • biochemistry.
Otwarty dostęp

Cytological evaluation of inflammation of the uterus and influence of endometritis on selected reproductive parameters in dairy cows

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 235 - 242

Abstrakt

Abstract

There were two aims of this study. One was to evaluate the postpartum state of the reproductive system in cows based on ultrasonography, bacterial culture, and cytological examination of the uterus. The other was to determine whether postpartum endometritis affects the subsequent state of the endometrium, and, in consequence, selected reproductive parameters in cows. The study was conducted on 60 cows: the experimental group of 30 cows with endometritis, and 30 cows free of uterine inflammation (control). The percentage of leukocytes in both groups was similar only on day 5 of postpartum. In all subsequent tests (26, 40, 61 d postpartum), the percentage of leukocytes in the experimental group was statistically significantly higher than in the control (P < 0.001), both in samples collected with a brush and in lavage samples. Involution of the uterus in the experimental group was also slower (P < 0.001). The analysed reproductive parameters were markedly less favourable in the experimental group than in the control. The study showed that postpartum inflammation of the uterus can persist for a long time in the form of endometritis, causing substantial deterioration of reproductive parameters in cows. The authors suggest that cytological evaluation of the uterus, preferably using a brush, should be performed as soon as possible after parturition, even before day 21, up to which time puerperal metritis may still persist. Evaluation of the inflammatory process based on the number of leukocytes and the quality of endometrial cells is important.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cows
  • metritis
  • endometritis
  • endometrial cytology
  • reproductive parameters.
Otwarty dostęp

Hygiene assessment of sheep slaughter cycle

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 243 - 246

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of the study was to determine microbial contamination of mutton carcass surface with regard to the number of the slaughtered animals. The total bacterial load and Enterobacteriaceae and enterococci counts were determined. Sampling for microbiological analysis as well as detection and enumeration of each microorganism group were performed according to the Polish Standards. No significant effect of the order of the slaughtering animals during the slaughter day on total bacterial count on mutton carcass surfaces was found. The overall bacterial contamination of mutton carcasses were between 1.0 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.0 log - stage I) and 2.5 × 103 cfu/cm2 (3.4 log - stage III). No significant difference among the slaughter cycles, as indicated by total microbial numbers was observed. The obtained daily mean log values ranged from 4.7 × 102 (2.67 log) and 7.6 × 103 (3.88 log) cfu/cm2. The daily log mean values were lower than the maximal bacteria count (M) set out for hygiene standard of sheep slaughter process by the Commission Regulation 2073/2005. Bacteria belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family were recovered from 21 (65.6%) samples while enterococci were identified in 28 (87.5%) samples. In most cases, significant differences in the level of contamination with bacteria isolated from the carcasses at each stage of a daily slaughter cycle, were not observed. At stage III, significantly higher levels of bacterial contamination (0.86 and 1.31 log cfu/cm2 respectively) were established as compared to stage I (0.37 and 0.58 log cfu/cm2 respectively). There were no Salmonella-positive samples determined. Importantly, the number of slaughtered animals during a slaughter day did not influence bacterial contamination on carcass surface if the successful application of HACCP control system was combined with the implementation of optimal sanitary supervision.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sheep
  • carcasses
  • bacterial contamination.
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of illegal dyes in eggs by liquid chromatography - tandem mass spectrometry

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 247 - 253

Abstrakt

Abstract

A multiresidue method for simultaneous determination of 10 dyes unauthorised for the use in laying hens was developed (Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III, Sudan IV, Sudan Red G, Sudan Orange G, Sudan Red 7B, Para-Red, Toluidine Red, Citrus Red). The dyes were extracted using liquid-liquid extraction with acetonitrile in the presence of anhydrous sodium sulphate, and cleaned using zirconium coated silica cartridges. After dilution with acetonitrile saturated with hexane:DMSO (8:2), samples were analysed using LC-MS/MS system with acetonitrile (A) and 0.1% formic acid (B) as a mobile phase in a gradient mode and C18 analytical column. The method was validated according to the requirements described in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC: linearity (r ≥ 0.998), precision: repeatability (1.94%-10.02%), and within-laboratory reproducibility (4.66%-8.89%), recovery (97%-105%), decision limit CCα (5.33-6.50 μg/kg), and detection capability CCβ (6.18-7.50 μg/kg) were calculated. The developed method fulfilled all performance criteria and can be used in the official survey of dyes residues in food of animal origin.

Słowa kluczowe

  • eggs
  • Sudan dyes
  • illegal dyes
  • food adulteration
  • LC-MS/MS.
Otwarty dostęp

Vascular endothelial growth factor in prognosis of splenic malignant tumours in dogs

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 255 - 260

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to determine the levels of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours, prior to splenectomy, as well as three and six months after the surgery. Tumours and blood samples were collected from 10 dogs of various breeds, aged between 7 and 13 years, and from 10 control animals. Tumour sections were fixed in 10% buffered formalin for 24 h. The type of tumour was determined according to the WHO classification. Blood samples were centrifuged and the obtained sera were subjected to immunoenzymatic assays to determine the VEGF levels. The median of VEGF levels in the serum of dogs suffering from splenic malignant tumours was 37.85 pg/mL (15.40-107.18 pg/mL). The highest values were observed in dogs with confirmed metastases (107.18 pg/mL and 65.43 pg/mL). The VEGF values in control group were between 0.1 pg/mL and 13.04 pg/mL. A comparative analysis of the VEGF levels against the animals' survival time indicated that VEGF overexpression may serve as a prognostic factor in cases of malignant tumours of the spleen.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dog
  • vascular endothelial growth factor
  • splenic malignant tumour.
Otwarty dostęp

Usefulness of measuring the concentration of thyroglobulin antibodies in serum of dogs for the assessment of thyroid functioning

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 261 - 266

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to estimate the usefulness of measuring the thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) concentration in dogs’ serum in order to assess thyroid functioning. The study was performed on 383 dogs. The animals were divided into two groups: group A (n = 308) consisted of dogs with hypothyroidism and group B (n = 75) consisted of dogs with euthyreosis. TgAbs was determined in both groups. The reaction to the TgAbs in group A was strongly positive in 32% of dogs, weakly positive in 33% of dogs, and negative in 35% of dogs. The TgAbs were observed in 32% of the dogs from group B, in which 8% of the animals had strongly positive reaction (++) and 24% - slightly positive (+). The correlation between the concentration of total and free fraction of the thyroxin and the level of the TgAbs were observed in group A. The tendency to positive reaction to the antibodies (++) in dogs with lower concentrations of total thyroxine and free thyroxine was observed. It was noted that the presence of the TgAbs was common in dogs with hypothyroidism. However, it could be also found in the animals with euthyreosis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dogs
  • hypothyroidism
  • thyroglobulin antibodies.
Otwarty dostęp

Prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in mature cats in urban population in Warsaw

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 267 - 271

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to assess the prevalence of feline hyperthyroidism in a cat population in Warsaw, considering risk factors. The study was conducted between June 2007 and July 2011. Seven-year-old and older cats were examined. Diagnosis of feline hyperthyroidism was based on the results of clinical examination, data from clinical history, and serum concentrations of thyroid hormones. Hyperthyroidism was diagnosed in 20.14% of 417 cats (95% confidence interval (CI): 16.28%-24.01%). Statistically significant risk factors were age (odds ratio (OR) = 1.17; 95% CI: 1.08-1.27), feeding with a commercial wet feed (OR = 6.74, 95% CI: 2.03-22.37), and an indoor lifestyle (OR = 2.25, 95% CI: 1.04-4.84). There were no effects of breed, gender, castration, or the frequency of deworming on the occurrence of hyperthyroidism. Feline hyperthyroidism in Warsaw is a prevalent disease. This probably results from chronic exposure to dietary and environmental factors.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cat
  • feline hyperthyroidism
  • prevalence
  • risk factors.
Otwarty dostęp

Hepatic stellate cells in the liver of dogs with steroid-induced hepatopathy

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 273 - 276

Abstrakt

Abstract

Morphological lesions in hepatic stellate cells caused by the immunosuppressive doses of dexamethasone were investigated in dogs. The archival samples of liver collected during a surgical biopsy were examined. The samples were fixed in 10% buffered formalin or Carnoy’s solution and then stained with routine histochemical methods. The lesions were also investigated under electron microscope. It was demonstrated that the number of stellate cells significantly increased (P = 0.0277), yet the size of cytoplasmic lipid droplets significantly decreased (P = 0.0001). Even though steroid-induced hepatopathy is considered to be a reversible pathology, and the lesions in hepatocytes under the influence of dexamethasone occur in a short period, it was found that hepatic stellate cells proliferated and underwent activation. This resulted in collagen accumulation in the hepatic sinuses. The functional and morphological disturbances in the canine liver in the course of steroid-induced hepatopathy are initially subclinical, but the changes in the structure and function of hepatic stellate cells may become a cause of lesions in the wall of hepatic sinusoidal vessels, which may induce additional functional pathologies unrelated to the damage to hepatocytes.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dog
  • hepatic stellate cells
  • hepatopathy
  • dexamethasone.
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of duration of clinical signs on surgical treatment results of 16 dogs with intervertebral disc disease (IVDD)

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 277 - 281

Abstrakt

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcome of surgical treatment in 16 dogs, depending on the animal’s age, body weight, deep pain perception, and time from the onset of neurological symptoms to the consultation with a veterinary neurologist and successive surgery. Sixteen dogs diagnosed with cervical (n = 11) or thoracolumbar (n = 5) disc extrusions underwent spinal surgeries (eleven ventral slots and five hemilaminectomies). The success rate of surgical treatment was 64.3% in dogs with preserved nociception. No association between the animal’s age or body weight and the result of surgical treatment was found. A successful surgical outcome was more likely when the symptom-to-surgery time was shorter.

Słowa kluczowe

  • dogs
  • intervertebral disc disease
  • ventral slot
  • hemilaminectomy.
Otwarty dostęp

Effect of thermal stress on physiological and blood parameters in merino sheep

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 283 - 288

Abstrakt

Abstract

Fifteen sheep where placed in climatic chamber and exposed to a high temperature (30°C). Then, the air movement was induced in order to examine its soothing effect on heat stress. The physiological reactions like respiratory and heart rates, as well as the morphologic, biochemical parameters and cortisol levels in blood were examined. It was found that under heat stress conditions, the respiratory rate increased up to 96.43 breaths/min, heart rate up to 107.79 beats/min, and white blood cells count decreased to 9.12 k/μL. The increased level of potassium, chlorine, and calcium was also observed. The increased air movement resulted in thermal stress soothing. A decrease in respiratory rate, heart rate, and cortisol concentration was observed. The study demonstrated that heat stress leads to serious changes in physiological and blood parameters in sheep but this effect can be minimised by air movement.

Słowa kluczowe

  • sheep
  • heat stress
  • air movement
  • physiological parameters
  • cortisol.
Otwarty dostęp

Red kidney bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) lectin stimulation increases the number of enterochromaffin cells in the small intestine of suckling piglets

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 289 - 294

Abstrakt

Abstract

The quantities and distribution patterns of serotonin-immunoreactive (serotonin-IR) enterochromaffin cells (EC) were studied immunohistochemically in the small intestine of suckling piglets stimulated with red kidney bean lectin, and in nonstimulated, control animals. The co-expression patterns of serotonin with somatostatin (SOM) or corticotropin releasing-factor (CRF) were also studied. After the lectin treatment, the increased numbers of EC were noted in the duodenum of experimental animals. Lectin stimulation did not change the proportions of EC in the jejunum and ileum. In the duodenal epithelium of the lectin-stimulated piglets, the vast majority of serotonin-IR EC were distributed at the basis of crypts. After the lectin administration, the proportions of serotonin-IR/SOM-IR EC were statistically similar in all sections of the small intestine. No upregulation of CRF was found in duodenal, jejunal, and ileal EC of lectin-treated animals. The findings demonstrated that red kidney bean lectin increased the serotonin reservoir in the duodenum, and thus may be an effective stimulant of the gut maturation in suckling mammals.

Słowa kluczowe

  • pig
  • small intestine
  • serotonin
  • enterochromaffin cells
  • red kidney bean lectin.
Otwarty dostęp

The presence of pamidronate in bone cement affects serum biochemical markers in the rat

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 295 - 299

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main aim of the study was to assess whether the presence of biphosphate pamidronate (PA) in the cement implanted into the tibial bones had any effect on the chosen biochemical markers in rat’s serum characterising homeostasis. Forty adult male Wistar rats were divided into two control groups and two experimental groups. Tibial bone of rats in the experimental groups was implanted with PA-enriched cement, whereas the bone in control-group’s rats was implanted with cement without PA. Serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and creatine kinase (CK) were determined three and six weeks after the surgery. Statistically significant differences in the activities of AST and CK of the rats after implantation with non-enriched cement when compared to rats given PA-enriched cement implantation, were found. Six weeks after treatment, AST levels decreased significantly in rats with PA-enriched cement, whereas rats in the control group (implanted with non-enriched cement) demonstrated a significant increase in AST activity in comparison to the same values determined after three weeks and values of PA-enriched cement rats determined after six weeks. The activities of CK were higher in rats with PA-enriched implants than in the control group three weeks after surgery, but six weeks after the treatment, rats implanted with enriched cement reached lower values than animals implanted with non-enriched cement. The use of PA in the cement had also some positive effect on the homeostasis of the rats after the surgery and a positive influence on the post operative muscle regeneration process.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rats
  • pamidronate
  • bone cement
  • alanine aminotransferase
  • aspartate aminotransferase
  • creatinine kinase.
Otwarty dostęp

Determination of histamine in fresh and smoked fish commercially available in Poland

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 301 - 304

Abstrakt

Abstract

The high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection was used for the study. The histamine was detected in 14.6% and 17.8% of the samples of fresh and smoked fish respectively. The highest concentrations of the compound were found in smoked herring and smoked sprat (17.7 mg/kg and 24.1 mg/kg respectively). Histamine concentration in fresh and smoked fish did not exceed the allowable limit, indicating that they are safe for consumers.

Słowa kluczowe

  • fresh fish
  • smoked fish
  • histamine
  • HPLC-DAD.
Otwarty dostęp

Development of pulmonary oxygen toxicity in rats after hyperoxic exposure

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 305 - 310

Abstrakt

Abstract

The aim of the study was to examine the effects of hyperbaric oxygen on lung aeration on an animal experimental model and compare the obtained results with the anticipated scope of damage to pulmonary parenchyma in humans under the same exposure conditions. The research was carried out on Black Hood rats that were kept in a hyperbaric chamber designed for animals in an atmosphere of pure oxygen and at overpressures of 0.15, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, and 0.5 MPa for 1, 2 or 4 h. After sacrificing the animals, histopathological specimens were obtained encompassing cross-sections of entire lungs, which were subjected to qualitative and quantitative examination with the use of the 121-point Haug grid. A statistically significant decrease in pulmonary parenchyma was observed as a result of an increasing oxygen partial pressure as well as with prolonged exposure time. The intensification of changes observed was much higher than expected on the basis of calculations performed with the use of tables.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rats
  • pulmonary oxygen toxicity
  • morphology.
Otwarty dostęp

Influence of caffeine used at various temperature ranges on the concentrations of glucose and total serum protein as well as body weight gain in pregnant rats

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 311 - 314

Abstrakt

Abstract

Caffeine (120 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically to pregnant rats daily on gestational days 8-21. An increase in serum concentration of glucose and total protein was found in animals, which were given caffeine. The protein content proved to be highly significant in the experimental group of animals. The control group showed a negative interdependence between body weight gain and glucose concentration. No correlation was found between body weight gain and total protein concentration, yet the glucose concentration significantly influenced the total protein concentration in this group of animals. Among animals which received caffeine, correlations between total protein and glucose concentrations were observed. The analysis did not show that the glucose or total protein concentration significantly influenced the body weight gain of pregnant female rats in the experimental group. The research conducted suggests the possibility of modulating effects of caffeine on adaptive processes during pregnancy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • rats
  • pregnancy
  • caffeine
  • metabolism.
Otwarty dostęp

Biophysical parameters of rats’ skin after the administration of methimazole

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 315 - 319

Abstrakt

Abstract

The paper describes the influence of oral administration of methimazole on biophysical skin parameters. Wistar rats of different sex (220-260 g) were used in the experiment. Biophysical skin parameters, such as transepidermal water loss (TEWL), corneometry, and pH were examined at seven-day intervals. Significant changes in the parameters were observed on the 7th d of methimazole administration. The changes were observed in both sex but males appeared to be less sensitive in that respect. Changes in the parameters in the females showed rapid mechanisms, which normalised transepidermal water loss and skin hydration, as well as restored skin barrier functions. TEWL, skin hydration, and skin pH measurements allow an early assessment of skin barrier dysfunction after administration of this drug.

Słowa kluczowe

  • skin
  • methimazole
  • transepidermal water loss
  • corneometry
  • pH.
Otwarty dostęp

Polioencephalomalacia in ruminants caused by excessive amount of sulphur - a review

Data publikacji: 17 Jun 2014
Zakres stron: 321 - 326

Abstrakt

Abstract

Polioencephalomalacia as a result of sulphur excess is a growing problem in cattle and sheep, mainly in young, growing animals. It is common in different regions of the world. The disease develops favoured by certain conditions such as sustained provision of feed and water with high sulphur content, use of dietary supplements containing sulphur, and a habitat with high hydrogen sulphide concentration. Pathogenesis of the disease is complex, but very important are oxidative-antioxidative imbalance, dysfunction of vessels, and secondary cerebral cortex ischaemia as a result of direct and/or indirect action of sulphur metabolites, namely hydrogen sulphide, sulphides, and sulphites. Clinical signs and changes in the cerebral cortex in the form of degenerative necrotic lesions are similar to those observed in polioencephalomalacia caused by vitamin B1 deficiency, and lead and salt intoxication. Highly increased sulphur content (more than 0.3-0.4 of dry matter) in the diet is the basis for differential diagnosis, as well the high concentration of hydrogen sulphide in gas and sulphides in rumen fluid. In prophylaxis and treatment the most important measure is to limit sulphur intake and in acute cases to neutralise low pH in rumen and administer vitamin B1 injections.

Słowa kluczowe

  • cattle
  • sheep
  • polioencephalomalacia
  • sulphur.

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