Zeszyty

Zeszyty czasopisma

Tom 13 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (July 2022)

Tom 12 (2021): Zeszyt 3 (December 2021)

Tom 12 (2021): Zeszyt 2 (August 2021)

Tom 12 (2021): Zeszyt 1 (April 2021)

Tom 11 (2020): Zeszyt 3 (December 2020)

Tom 11 (2020): Zeszyt 2 (August 2020)

Tom 11 (2020): Zeszyt 1 (April 2020)

Tom 10 (2019): Zeszyt 3 (December 2019)

Tom 10 (2019): Zeszyt 2 (August 2019)

Tom 10 (2019): Zeszyt 1 (April 2019)

Tom 9 (2018): Zeszyt 3 (December 2018)

Tom 9 (2018): Zeszyt 2 (August 2018)

Tom 9 (2018): Zeszyt 1 (May 2018)

Tom 8 (2017): Zeszyt 3 (December 2017)

Tom 8 (2017): Zeszyt 2 (August 2017)

Tom 8 (2017): Zeszyt 1 (April 2017)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2067-9785
Pierwsze wydanie
06 Mar 2017
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 13 (2022): Zeszyt 1 (July 2022)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2067-9785
Pierwsze wydanie
06 Mar 2017
Częstotliwość wydawania
3 razy w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Emotional Intelligence in Islamic Perspective on Affective Commitment: The Moderating Role of “Diuwongke” in Islamic Perspective

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of emotional intelligence in Islamic persepctive on affective commitment moderated by “diuwongke” in Islamic perspective. This study uses quantitative approach with the sample of public banks employees in Central Java who has Islam religion. The sampling technique is using purposive sampling with certain criteria, and the data is collected through questionnaire distribution. The statistical technique is carried out using regression moderation. The results of this study prove that: (1) Emotional intelligence in Islamic perspective has a positive and significant influence on affective commitment; and (2) “Diuwongke” in Islamic perspective can strengthen the relationship between emotional intelligence in Islamic perspective on affective commitment

Słowa kluczowe

  • Emotional Intelligence in Islamic Perspective (EIP)
  • “Diuwongke” in Islamic Perspective (DIP0, Affective Commitment (AC)
Otwarty dostęp

Measuring the Impact of the Green Supply Chain on Sustainable Performance

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 19 - 48

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main purpose of green supply chain is to ensure that the customer’s requirements and needs are met without compromising the sustainability aspect of environment and prevent the latter from getting polluted. The purpose of current study is to measure the impact of green supply chain upon sustainability so as to reduce the environmental pollution. The author(s) used questionnaire to collect the data for current study whereas field coexistence and interviews were also conducted with stakeholders. The research questions were posed at 185 workers to find a solution for the research problem. The study results arrived at a few conclusions. The results infer that some of the dimensions of green supply chain exert an influence on sustainable performance. The study found the most important treatments to overcome the weaknesses through smoothly-applicable recommendations. Keywords: green supply chain, sustainable performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Green supply chain
  • Sustainable performance
Otwarty dostęp

Stress, Burnout, and Security Fatigue in Cybersecurity: A Human Factors Problem

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 49 - 72

Abstrakt

Abstract

Stress, burnout, and security fatigue continue as slight destroyers of strong cybersecurity and significant human factors concerns. The persistence of these human performance issues is concerning given the lack of mitigation and integration of human factors practitioners to mitigate these adverse risk circumstances. Security fatigue is not a new phenomenon but the evolving nature of cybersecurity results in various sub-categories of security fatigue; thus, making it a difficult problem to solve. Stress and burnout are major causes of short tenures in senior roles for security executives. Business decision-makers lack the expertise to explore the negative influences of stress, burnout, and security fatigue on cybersecurity. Technology-led cycles are organizations’ primary course of action to mitigate cybersecurity threats, resulting in complexity debt and making businesses more vulnerable to attacks. Human factors professionals can identify high-friction areas that degrade human performance and implement initiatives to reduce the risk. Human performance degradation in cybersecurity is a critical risk factor and requires immediate attention, given that cybercriminals continue to exploit human weaknesses to gain access to sensitive and critical infrastructure.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Complexity Debt
  • Cybersecurity
  • Behavior
  • Burnout
  • Fatigue
  • Human Factors
  • Human Performance
  • Security Fatigue
  • and Stress
Otwarty dostęp

The Analysis on the Use of Social Media in Managing the Covid-19 Pandemic Information Flow

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 73 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

There is a relationship between social media platforms and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media platforms are used to manage information flow in every EID. Individuals use the platforms to source information, while health workers, organisations, and other stakeholders use the platforms to provide and manage information flow. This study employed a narrative literature review (NLR) to understand the role of social media platforms in managing the COVID-19 pandemic information flow. The paper deployed three research questions as seen in the research methodology. The paper found a clear relationship between social media and EIDs and the COVID-19 pandemic. The article further provides the ways to use platforms to manage information during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Social media
  • Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
  • Information flow
  • Healthcare
Otwarty dostęp

How the Pandemic Affects the Social Security System Especially the Unemployment and the Immigration Data

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 81 - 92

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the light of the current pandemic, the labour market has suffered many changes: from the typical 9 to 5 job done from the office, to the accommodation to a work from home type of job. Even if we speak about the employer or the employee, the situation brought many difficulties regarding how the social security system can help each one.

In this paper the main focus will be on the impact of the pandemic regarding the labour market with a strong accent on the unemployment benefits and the statistics regarding the immigrants. We tend to see an increase of the number of unemployed people and a tendency for the immigrants to move back to their home countries. This is a natural response of the labour market regarding the pandemic. The paper aims to investigate the unemployment rate-unemployment benefits-immigration flows in the EU countries in 2020 when the pandemic erupted compared to the previous periods. Therefore, we aim to emphasize the main changes that took place because of the pandemic crisis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pandemic
  • labour market
  • unemployment
  • social security system
  • statistics
  • data
Otwarty dostęp

Smart City Readiness in South African Municipalities: A Qualitative Study

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 93 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study investigated the meaning of a smart city concept, the limitations of municipal role players to adopt the smart city, and the recommendations to facilitate the adoption of a smart city concept in the municipalities of the North West province. A qualitative research approach was adopted to collect data from the participants, which facilitated adequate interactions with the participants through open-ended interviews. Twenty participants were selected purposively to participate in this study through an online platform. Data were analysed using Atlas-ti software (version 8.2), themes and categories were generated and discussed. Findings from the study depict that a smart city concept entails a city that enables communication using advanced technology, big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Findings further revealed that the limitation of achieving a smart city in South African municipalities includes a lack of financial resources, inadequate infrastructure, delays in the decision-making process, lack of strategic leadership, corruption of role players, inability to implement research outcomes, and lack of investors. The study recommended, inter alia, that the municipal leadership should encourage techno-centric governance, a source for external funding, engage knowledgeable strategic leaders, facilitate public education, and SMME ICT inclusive strategy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Smart city
  • Information Communication Technology
  • Innovation
  • Governance
  • Municipalities
Otwarty dostęp

Human Capital and Economic Growth in Romania: A Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 110 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper aims to evaluate the human capital on economic growth impact in Romania. Variables have been selected according to an endogenous growth model basing on including the human capital in the Cobb-Douglas production function (Lucas, 1988). As all over usual, here gross domestic product (GDP) will be the endogenous of gross fixed capital formation (GFCF, as physical capital stock), employment (as labour), life expectancy and secondary enrolment rate(as proxies for human capital). We also use expenditure in research and development (R&D) sector (as its percentage in GDP), as control variable. Once our model developed, variables are found as integrated of order one (1) and co-integrated, here allowing a vector error correction model (VECM) for estimation. This will be a system of six equations covering a 25 years (1995-2019) interval for Romania. A long-term relation comes out of our empirical findings, as similarly to Wang (2016), so the GDP growth sees itself determined by: secondary school enrolment, life expectancy(i.e. for human capital), R&D expenditure and labour. Short run causalities have not been found significant for this model

Słowa kluczowe

  • human capital
  • economic growth
  • Cobb-Douglas production function
  • vector error correction model (VECM)
Otwarty dostęp

The Relationship Between Workload and Career Development on Job Satisfaction; Case Study PT XYZ

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 125 - 132

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research begins with the phenomenon of workload problems and unclear tasks that cause employees to feel the workload given by employees to get promotions in accordance with career development plans that have not been implemented properly. So that the resulting job satisfaction is not in accordance with the wishes of employees. The need of this investigation was to find out the relationship between work load (WL) and career development (CD) on job satisfaction (JS) for PT XYZ. This article use quantitative methodologies. A total of 88 samples were used, with 88 participants participating in the saturation sample study. A questionnaire was chosen as a test data capture approach in this inquiry for validity and reliability testing of the research instrument. PLS-SEM is used to analyze data using structural model analysis. According to the findings of this research, workload (X1) does not appear to have a direct impact on job satisfaction (Y). Workload (X1) influences career growth (X2), and career development (X2) influences job satisfaction (Y). The factor of workload (X1) through career development (X2) has a large enough impact on job satisfaction (Y) PT XYZ.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Workload
  • Career Development
  • Job Satisfaction
  • PLS-SEM
Otwarty dostęp

Top Management Background and Corporate Green Energy Investment

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 133 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper evaluates the association between top management academic background and the extent of corporate green energy investment. The approach is quantitative and data collection was from the sustainability reports of twenty companies from the FTSE/JSE Responsible Investing Index. Using a cross-sectional data, findings from a linear regression analysis show a significant association (at a p value of less than 0.001) between top managements’ academic background and percentage of green energy investment within the sample of companies. Therefore, within the limits of this study, the findings provide a clue to show that managers’ academic background may have an influence on the level of corporate green energy investment. This paper opens an agenda for a follow-up research to expand the length and breadth of this research area to find out the most likely group of top managements’ academic discipline that may favour more green energy investment. It contributes to the literature on corporate green energy investment by initiating the idea of relating green energy investment with top managements’ background.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Management background
  • Green energy
  • green investment
  • Green Corporate
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Principal Tendencies of Labour Market in the Republic of Moldova

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 143 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article presents the analysis of the principal tendencies in development of labour market in the Republic of Moldova in the period 2014-2020, including the period of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Negative natural growth and increased external migration over the last two decades have led to the population’ decline by about 25%, which had the negative impact on labour market contributing to the quantitative and qualitative decline in labour supply. The irreversible ageing process has led to a change in the structure of economically active and employed population by age and sex, as labour market has aged. The increase in the share of elderly population, who have a lower level of participation in labour market, has also influenced the rates of economic activity, which have decreased from 60% to 40%, while having a slight recovery in recent years. In addition to the problems mentioned above, there are also qualitative problems, including the informal employed population, whose share, after a period of decline in recent years, has begun to rise again (mainly in agriculture and construction), which indicates a slow pace of structural change in the national economy.

A negative impact on labour market has caused by the economic shock caused by the Covid-19 virus due to the reduction in economic activity and, as a result, the decrease or stopping of employment. The consequences of the shock include rising unemployment and declining employment, as well as a medium-term increase in the economically inactive population, which will aggravate the problem of labour shortages after the period of economic recovery.

The labour market tendencies outlined above require a wide range of interventions to address the risks and challenges of given market at the actual moment. In this context, some proposals have developed to improve the situation on labour market in the Republic of Moldova.

The article was elaborated within the framework the project of the State Program (2020-2023)

20.80009.0807.21 Migration, Demographic Changes and Policies of Stabilization the Situation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • demographic factors
  • the Covid-19 pandemic
  • labour market
  • the economically active and employed population
  • unemployment
  • tendencies
10 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

The Effect of Emotional Intelligence in Islamic Perspective on Affective Commitment: The Moderating Role of “Diuwongke” in Islamic Perspective

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 1 - 18

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study aims to examine and analyze the influence of emotional intelligence in Islamic persepctive on affective commitment moderated by “diuwongke” in Islamic perspective. This study uses quantitative approach with the sample of public banks employees in Central Java who has Islam religion. The sampling technique is using purposive sampling with certain criteria, and the data is collected through questionnaire distribution. The statistical technique is carried out using regression moderation. The results of this study prove that: (1) Emotional intelligence in Islamic perspective has a positive and significant influence on affective commitment; and (2) “Diuwongke” in Islamic perspective can strengthen the relationship between emotional intelligence in Islamic perspective on affective commitment

Słowa kluczowe

  • Emotional Intelligence in Islamic Perspective (EIP)
  • “Diuwongke” in Islamic Perspective (DIP0, Affective Commitment (AC)
Otwarty dostęp

Measuring the Impact of the Green Supply Chain on Sustainable Performance

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 19 - 48

Abstrakt

Abstract

The main purpose of green supply chain is to ensure that the customer’s requirements and needs are met without compromising the sustainability aspect of environment and prevent the latter from getting polluted. The purpose of current study is to measure the impact of green supply chain upon sustainability so as to reduce the environmental pollution. The author(s) used questionnaire to collect the data for current study whereas field coexistence and interviews were also conducted with stakeholders. The research questions were posed at 185 workers to find a solution for the research problem. The study results arrived at a few conclusions. The results infer that some of the dimensions of green supply chain exert an influence on sustainable performance. The study found the most important treatments to overcome the weaknesses through smoothly-applicable recommendations. Keywords: green supply chain, sustainable performance.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Green supply chain
  • Sustainable performance
Otwarty dostęp

Stress, Burnout, and Security Fatigue in Cybersecurity: A Human Factors Problem

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 49 - 72

Abstrakt

Abstract

Stress, burnout, and security fatigue continue as slight destroyers of strong cybersecurity and significant human factors concerns. The persistence of these human performance issues is concerning given the lack of mitigation and integration of human factors practitioners to mitigate these adverse risk circumstances. Security fatigue is not a new phenomenon but the evolving nature of cybersecurity results in various sub-categories of security fatigue; thus, making it a difficult problem to solve. Stress and burnout are major causes of short tenures in senior roles for security executives. Business decision-makers lack the expertise to explore the negative influences of stress, burnout, and security fatigue on cybersecurity. Technology-led cycles are organizations’ primary course of action to mitigate cybersecurity threats, resulting in complexity debt and making businesses more vulnerable to attacks. Human factors professionals can identify high-friction areas that degrade human performance and implement initiatives to reduce the risk. Human performance degradation in cybersecurity is a critical risk factor and requires immediate attention, given that cybercriminals continue to exploit human weaknesses to gain access to sensitive and critical infrastructure.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Complexity Debt
  • Cybersecurity
  • Behavior
  • Burnout
  • Fatigue
  • Human Factors
  • Human Performance
  • Security Fatigue
  • and Stress
Otwarty dostęp

The Analysis on the Use of Social Media in Managing the Covid-19 Pandemic Information Flow

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 73 - 80

Abstrakt

Abstract

There is a relationship between social media platforms and emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) such as the COVID-19 pandemic. Social media platforms are used to manage information flow in every EID. Individuals use the platforms to source information, while health workers, organisations, and other stakeholders use the platforms to provide and manage information flow. This study employed a narrative literature review (NLR) to understand the role of social media platforms in managing the COVID-19 pandemic information flow. The paper deployed three research questions as seen in the research methodology. The paper found a clear relationship between social media and EIDs and the COVID-19 pandemic. The article further provides the ways to use platforms to manage information during the COVID-19 pandemic.

Słowa kluczowe

  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Social media
  • Emerging infectious diseases (EIDs)
  • Information flow
  • Healthcare
Otwarty dostęp

How the Pandemic Affects the Social Security System Especially the Unemployment and the Immigration Data

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 81 - 92

Abstrakt

Abstract

In the light of the current pandemic, the labour market has suffered many changes: from the typical 9 to 5 job done from the office, to the accommodation to a work from home type of job. Even if we speak about the employer or the employee, the situation brought many difficulties regarding how the social security system can help each one.

In this paper the main focus will be on the impact of the pandemic regarding the labour market with a strong accent on the unemployment benefits and the statistics regarding the immigrants. We tend to see an increase of the number of unemployed people and a tendency for the immigrants to move back to their home countries. This is a natural response of the labour market regarding the pandemic. The paper aims to investigate the unemployment rate-unemployment benefits-immigration flows in the EU countries in 2020 when the pandemic erupted compared to the previous periods. Therefore, we aim to emphasize the main changes that took place because of the pandemic crisis.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Pandemic
  • labour market
  • unemployment
  • social security system
  • statistics
  • data
Otwarty dostęp

Smart City Readiness in South African Municipalities: A Qualitative Study

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 93 - 109

Abstrakt

Abstract

This study investigated the meaning of a smart city concept, the limitations of municipal role players to adopt the smart city, and the recommendations to facilitate the adoption of a smart city concept in the municipalities of the North West province. A qualitative research approach was adopted to collect data from the participants, which facilitated adequate interactions with the participants through open-ended interviews. Twenty participants were selected purposively to participate in this study through an online platform. Data were analysed using Atlas-ti software (version 8.2), themes and categories were generated and discussed. Findings from the study depict that a smart city concept entails a city that enables communication using advanced technology, big data, the Internet of Things (IoT), and the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT). Findings further revealed that the limitation of achieving a smart city in South African municipalities includes a lack of financial resources, inadequate infrastructure, delays in the decision-making process, lack of strategic leadership, corruption of role players, inability to implement research outcomes, and lack of investors. The study recommended, inter alia, that the municipal leadership should encourage techno-centric governance, a source for external funding, engage knowledgeable strategic leaders, facilitate public education, and SMME ICT inclusive strategy.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Smart city
  • Information Communication Technology
  • Innovation
  • Governance
  • Municipalities
Otwarty dostęp

Human Capital and Economic Growth in Romania: A Vector Error Correction Model (VECM)

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 110 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper aims to evaluate the human capital on economic growth impact in Romania. Variables have been selected according to an endogenous growth model basing on including the human capital in the Cobb-Douglas production function (Lucas, 1988). As all over usual, here gross domestic product (GDP) will be the endogenous of gross fixed capital formation (GFCF, as physical capital stock), employment (as labour), life expectancy and secondary enrolment rate(as proxies for human capital). We also use expenditure in research and development (R&D) sector (as its percentage in GDP), as control variable. Once our model developed, variables are found as integrated of order one (1) and co-integrated, here allowing a vector error correction model (VECM) for estimation. This will be a system of six equations covering a 25 years (1995-2019) interval for Romania. A long-term relation comes out of our empirical findings, as similarly to Wang (2016), so the GDP growth sees itself determined by: secondary school enrolment, life expectancy(i.e. for human capital), R&D expenditure and labour. Short run causalities have not been found significant for this model

Słowa kluczowe

  • human capital
  • economic growth
  • Cobb-Douglas production function
  • vector error correction model (VECM)
Otwarty dostęp

The Relationship Between Workload and Career Development on Job Satisfaction; Case Study PT XYZ

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 125 - 132

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research begins with the phenomenon of workload problems and unclear tasks that cause employees to feel the workload given by employees to get promotions in accordance with career development plans that have not been implemented properly. So that the resulting job satisfaction is not in accordance with the wishes of employees. The need of this investigation was to find out the relationship between work load (WL) and career development (CD) on job satisfaction (JS) for PT XYZ. This article use quantitative methodologies. A total of 88 samples were used, with 88 participants participating in the saturation sample study. A questionnaire was chosen as a test data capture approach in this inquiry for validity and reliability testing of the research instrument. PLS-SEM is used to analyze data using structural model analysis. According to the findings of this research, workload (X1) does not appear to have a direct impact on job satisfaction (Y). Workload (X1) influences career growth (X2), and career development (X2) influences job satisfaction (Y). The factor of workload (X1) through career development (X2) has a large enough impact on job satisfaction (Y) PT XYZ.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Workload
  • Career Development
  • Job Satisfaction
  • PLS-SEM
Otwarty dostęp

Top Management Background and Corporate Green Energy Investment

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 133 - 142

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper evaluates the association between top management academic background and the extent of corporate green energy investment. The approach is quantitative and data collection was from the sustainability reports of twenty companies from the FTSE/JSE Responsible Investing Index. Using a cross-sectional data, findings from a linear regression analysis show a significant association (at a p value of less than 0.001) between top managements’ academic background and percentage of green energy investment within the sample of companies. Therefore, within the limits of this study, the findings provide a clue to show that managers’ academic background may have an influence on the level of corporate green energy investment. This paper opens an agenda for a follow-up research to expand the length and breadth of this research area to find out the most likely group of top managements’ academic discipline that may favour more green energy investment. It contributes to the literature on corporate green energy investment by initiating the idea of relating green energy investment with top managements’ background.

Słowa kluczowe

  • Management background
  • Green energy
  • green investment
  • Green Corporate
Otwarty dostęp

Analysis of Principal Tendencies of Labour Market in the Republic of Moldova

Data publikacji: 28 Jun 2022
Zakres stron: 143 - 158

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article presents the analysis of the principal tendencies in development of labour market in the Republic of Moldova in the period 2014-2020, including the period of the COVID-19 pandemic crisis. Negative natural growth and increased external migration over the last two decades have led to the population’ decline by about 25%, which had the negative impact on labour market contributing to the quantitative and qualitative decline in labour supply. The irreversible ageing process has led to a change in the structure of economically active and employed population by age and sex, as labour market has aged. The increase in the share of elderly population, who have a lower level of participation in labour market, has also influenced the rates of economic activity, which have decreased from 60% to 40%, while having a slight recovery in recent years. In addition to the problems mentioned above, there are also qualitative problems, including the informal employed population, whose share, after a period of decline in recent years, has begun to rise again (mainly in agriculture and construction), which indicates a slow pace of structural change in the national economy.

A negative impact on labour market has caused by the economic shock caused by the Covid-19 virus due to the reduction in economic activity and, as a result, the decrease or stopping of employment. The consequences of the shock include rising unemployment and declining employment, as well as a medium-term increase in the economically inactive population, which will aggravate the problem of labour shortages after the period of economic recovery.

The labour market tendencies outlined above require a wide range of interventions to address the risks and challenges of given market at the actual moment. In this context, some proposals have developed to improve the situation on labour market in the Republic of Moldova.

The article was elaborated within the framework the project of the State Program (2020-2023)

20.80009.0807.21 Migration, Demographic Changes and Policies of Stabilization the Situation.

Słowa kluczowe

  • demographic factors
  • the Covid-19 pandemic
  • labour market
  • the economically active and employed population
  • unemployment
  • tendencies

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