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Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8717
ISSN
1232-8855
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Jan 2010
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

Tom 18 (2012): Zeszyt 2012 (January 2012)

Informacje o czasopiśmie
Format
Czasopismo
eISSN
2300-8717
ISSN
1232-8855
Pierwsze wydanie
25 Jan 2010
Częstotliwość wydawania
1 raz w roku
Języki
Angielski

Wyszukiwanie

7 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Women on… Combine Harvesters? Women as Farm Operators in Contemporary Poland

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 5 - 26

Abstrakt

Abstract

The authors discuss the main characteristics of women as farm operators using national sample studies conducted in 1994, 1999 and 2007. After an analysis of literature and various research results some hypotheses were formulated, i.e.: the better education of rural women than rural men, women as “unnatural” or “forced” farm operators due to various household circumstances, the “weaker” economic status of farms operated by women. Basic results of the studies carried out in 1994, 1999 and 2007 confirm the hypothesis about the weaker economic position of female operated farms. Moreover, women farm operators were slightly older and far better educated than their male counterparts. On the contrary, the males were more active off the farms in the public sphere. In addition, the circumstances of becoming farm operators did not differ significantly between males and females. Finally, there were no significant differences between “male” and “female” styles of farming.

Keywords

  • women
  • farm operators
  • education
  • market position
  • entrepreneur
  • style of farming
Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Farm Size on Gendered Involvement in Crop Cultivation and Decision-making Responsibility of Moldovan Farmers

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 27 - 48

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research describes the influence that farm size has on gendered involvement in crop cultivation and decision making about what crops to grow where, irrigation and marketing among small and medium-sized farmers in Moldova. Findings reveal that overall crop cultivation is characterized by gendered patterns that vary according to farm size. Overall men have much more input into decision making than do women but women on small farms have more input in decisions than do the women on medium-sized farms. However, women on medium-sized farms are more involved in the diverse range of cultivation activities in terms of labour.

Keywords

  • Moldova
  • gendered division of labour
  • post-socialist economies
Otwarty dostęp

On the Ethnographic Categorization of Biodiversity in the Danube Delta “Biosphere Reserve”

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 49 - 60

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper is an interpretative approach of a conflicting state of affairs in the Danube Delta, Romania, where local communities of Russian and Ukrainian fishermen claim their “rights” of wetland management in the context of (and sometimes against) the government policies of “conserving biodiversity”. My general assumption is that divergences acting between fishermen and the authorities in the Danube Delta are essentially rooted in a kind of “generalized (but not insurmountable) incongruity” of two such occupational and institutional “worlds” and, moreover “worldviews”.

Keywords

  • Danube Delta
  • fishing
  • the emic - etic distinction
Otwarty dostęp

The Mystery of Vlach Magic in the Rural Areas of 21st century Serbia

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 61 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article offers an ethnographic exploration of the Vlachs in the Branicevo region of Serbia. The Vlachs rarely exist anywhere as a distinct ethnic group due to their permanent assimilation with other ethnic groups. The thing that has always been linked to the folklore of the Vlachs and still attracts a large number of people to come and visit some remote parts of Eastern Serbia is definitely a certain mystery which represents the essential part of the culture of this nation. Instances of Vlach magic can be seen in the Timok area, all over Eastern Serbia and across its borders. Vlach magic is a miracle or is miraculous, when looking at how long it has been present, its unique rituals, beliefs, shamans and spells.

Vlach culture intertwined with pagan customs and interesting rituals, makes the municipalities in Eastern Serbia mysterious places in modern 21st century Europe, because the Vlachs are a mostly closed (endogamous) population which do not blend with people of other nationalities.

Keywords

  • beliefs
  • magic
  • culture
  • Vlachs
  • Serbia
Otwarty dostęp

A Far-reaching Shift in Argumentation: Parliamentary Debates on (post-)socialist Agricultural Cooperatives in the 1990s

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 85 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

The debate as to whether Slovak post-socialist agricultural cooperatives are cooperatives or not represents one of the focal points of their post-1989 development. The answer to this question determined and/or legitimized the rationale for the legislative framework concerning their post-socialist transformation. This analysis draws mainly on data from the parliamentary debates that preceded the enactment of three pivotal laws. In comparing the debates in 1991/1992 and 1995, the examination focuses on the shift in the argumentation put forward by representatives speaking on behalf of cooperative farms. A dramatic shift in reasoning about the character of cooperative enterprises and appropriate voting rights is interpreted as a pragmatic, effect-oriented action. It is argued that both delicate work with the hybrid nature of post-socialist cooperative farms as well as the initial withholding of cooperative principles contributed to the preservation of the specific kinds of agricultural cooperative, and consequently also large corporate farm, which now exist in Slovakia.

Keywords

  • post-socialism
  • transformation
  • agriculture
  • cooperatives
  • voting rights
  • Slovakia
Otwarty dostęp

The Business Media for the Rural World – an Analysis on the Romanian Audiovisual

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 111 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

Starting from the findings a Romanian research group gathered during the project “Models of mass-media consumption in the Romanian rural world: traditional identities, European identities” of the Faculty of Journalism and Communication Studies, University of Bucharest, this article identifies some risk factors in the conceptual design of an audiovisual programme for the rural world. These factors are: (1) differences in the definitions of the public - in our case, the Romanian peasant - as they are held by the journalist, the programme editor, the sources and by the public itself; (2) a quasi-general lack of vision about the future of the rural world, based on a lack of information; and (3) deficiency in applying journalistic information gathering techniques and text writing rules. The conclusions are based on media product analysis of business journalism programmes broadcast by the Romanian public broadcasting services for rural audiences and on questionnaire-based and in-depth interviewing with potential members of the public.

Keywords

  • Rural media consumption
  • business journalism
  • programming
  • audiovisual
  • Romania
Otwarty dostęp

The Non-profit Sector and Employment Expansion in the Rural Areas of Hungary

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 125 - 147

Abstrakt

Abstract

The non-profit sector in Hungary has been studied in connection with its number, spread and regional distribution in the last two decades, but now it is necessary to explore the organizational, functional, employment, financial, co-operation possibilities and limitations of employment-related non-profit organizations. Another new contribution of this paper is that it gives so-called regional need-maps, which can explore unsatisfied demands in services for which employment can be organized. The selection process of the organizations in the study was supported by the list of winners of labour market tenders. These selected organizations are exclusively employment-related ones, and are able to implement labour market programmes. From the point of view of the regional spread of the social economy it is of paramount importance to disclose - even at sub-regional level - the most important unsatisfied needs that would be provided by non-profit organizations. With the non-profit supply of these services in certain small regions up to hundreds of continuous employment problems could be resolved.

7 Artykułów
Otwarty dostęp

Women on… Combine Harvesters? Women as Farm Operators in Contemporary Poland

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 5 - 26

Abstrakt

Abstract

The authors discuss the main characteristics of women as farm operators using national sample studies conducted in 1994, 1999 and 2007. After an analysis of literature and various research results some hypotheses were formulated, i.e.: the better education of rural women than rural men, women as “unnatural” or “forced” farm operators due to various household circumstances, the “weaker” economic status of farms operated by women. Basic results of the studies carried out in 1994, 1999 and 2007 confirm the hypothesis about the weaker economic position of female operated farms. Moreover, women farm operators were slightly older and far better educated than their male counterparts. On the contrary, the males were more active off the farms in the public sphere. In addition, the circumstances of becoming farm operators did not differ significantly between males and females. Finally, there were no significant differences between “male” and “female” styles of farming.

Keywords

  • women
  • farm operators
  • education
  • market position
  • entrepreneur
  • style of farming
Otwarty dostęp

The Influence of Farm Size on Gendered Involvement in Crop Cultivation and Decision-making Responsibility of Moldovan Farmers

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 27 - 48

Abstrakt

Abstract

This research describes the influence that farm size has on gendered involvement in crop cultivation and decision making about what crops to grow where, irrigation and marketing among small and medium-sized farmers in Moldova. Findings reveal that overall crop cultivation is characterized by gendered patterns that vary according to farm size. Overall men have much more input into decision making than do women but women on small farms have more input in decisions than do the women on medium-sized farms. However, women on medium-sized farms are more involved in the diverse range of cultivation activities in terms of labour.

Keywords

  • Moldova
  • gendered division of labour
  • post-socialist economies
Otwarty dostęp

On the Ethnographic Categorization of Biodiversity in the Danube Delta “Biosphere Reserve”

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 49 - 60

Abstrakt

Abstract

This paper is an interpretative approach of a conflicting state of affairs in the Danube Delta, Romania, where local communities of Russian and Ukrainian fishermen claim their “rights” of wetland management in the context of (and sometimes against) the government policies of “conserving biodiversity”. My general assumption is that divergences acting between fishermen and the authorities in the Danube Delta are essentially rooted in a kind of “generalized (but not insurmountable) incongruity” of two such occupational and institutional “worlds” and, moreover “worldviews”.

Keywords

  • Danube Delta
  • fishing
  • the emic - etic distinction
Otwarty dostęp

The Mystery of Vlach Magic in the Rural Areas of 21st century Serbia

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 61 - 83

Abstrakt

Abstract

This article offers an ethnographic exploration of the Vlachs in the Branicevo region of Serbia. The Vlachs rarely exist anywhere as a distinct ethnic group due to their permanent assimilation with other ethnic groups. The thing that has always been linked to the folklore of the Vlachs and still attracts a large number of people to come and visit some remote parts of Eastern Serbia is definitely a certain mystery which represents the essential part of the culture of this nation. Instances of Vlach magic can be seen in the Timok area, all over Eastern Serbia and across its borders. Vlach magic is a miracle or is miraculous, when looking at how long it has been present, its unique rituals, beliefs, shamans and spells.

Vlach culture intertwined with pagan customs and interesting rituals, makes the municipalities in Eastern Serbia mysterious places in modern 21st century Europe, because the Vlachs are a mostly closed (endogamous) population which do not blend with people of other nationalities.

Keywords

  • beliefs
  • magic
  • culture
  • Vlachs
  • Serbia
Otwarty dostęp

A Far-reaching Shift in Argumentation: Parliamentary Debates on (post-)socialist Agricultural Cooperatives in the 1990s

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 85 - 110

Abstrakt

Abstract

The debate as to whether Slovak post-socialist agricultural cooperatives are cooperatives or not represents one of the focal points of their post-1989 development. The answer to this question determined and/or legitimized the rationale for the legislative framework concerning their post-socialist transformation. This analysis draws mainly on data from the parliamentary debates that preceded the enactment of three pivotal laws. In comparing the debates in 1991/1992 and 1995, the examination focuses on the shift in the argumentation put forward by representatives speaking on behalf of cooperative farms. A dramatic shift in reasoning about the character of cooperative enterprises and appropriate voting rights is interpreted as a pragmatic, effect-oriented action. It is argued that both delicate work with the hybrid nature of post-socialist cooperative farms as well as the initial withholding of cooperative principles contributed to the preservation of the specific kinds of agricultural cooperative, and consequently also large corporate farm, which now exist in Slovakia.

Keywords

  • post-socialism
  • transformation
  • agriculture
  • cooperatives
  • voting rights
  • Slovakia
Otwarty dostęp

The Business Media for the Rural World – an Analysis on the Romanian Audiovisual

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 111 - 124

Abstrakt

Abstract

Starting from the findings a Romanian research group gathered during the project “Models of mass-media consumption in the Romanian rural world: traditional identities, European identities” of the Faculty of Journalism and Communication Studies, University of Bucharest, this article identifies some risk factors in the conceptual design of an audiovisual programme for the rural world. These factors are: (1) differences in the definitions of the public - in our case, the Romanian peasant - as they are held by the journalist, the programme editor, the sources and by the public itself; (2) a quasi-general lack of vision about the future of the rural world, based on a lack of information; and (3) deficiency in applying journalistic information gathering techniques and text writing rules. The conclusions are based on media product analysis of business journalism programmes broadcast by the Romanian public broadcasting services for rural audiences and on questionnaire-based and in-depth interviewing with potential members of the public.

Keywords

  • Rural media consumption
  • business journalism
  • programming
  • audiovisual
  • Romania
Otwarty dostęp

The Non-profit Sector and Employment Expansion in the Rural Areas of Hungary

Data publikacji: 09 Mar 2013
Zakres stron: 125 - 147

Abstrakt

Abstract

The non-profit sector in Hungary has been studied in connection with its number, spread and regional distribution in the last two decades, but now it is necessary to explore the organizational, functional, employment, financial, co-operation possibilities and limitations of employment-related non-profit organizations. Another new contribution of this paper is that it gives so-called regional need-maps, which can explore unsatisfied demands in services for which employment can be organized. The selection process of the organizations in the study was supported by the list of winners of labour market tenders. These selected organizations are exclusively employment-related ones, and are able to implement labour market programmes. From the point of view of the regional spread of the social economy it is of paramount importance to disclose - even at sub-regional level - the most important unsatisfied needs that would be provided by non-profit organizations. With the non-profit supply of these services in certain small regions up to hundreds of continuous employment problems could be resolved.

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